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Newport Folk Festival

The Newport Folk Festival is an American annual folk-oriented music festival in Newport, Rhode Island, which began in July 1959 as a counterpart to the established Newport Jazz Festival. The festival is considered one of the first modern music festivals in America and remains a focal point in the ever-expanding genre of "folk" music; the festival was held annually from 1959 to 1969, barring two years of inactivity in 1961 and 1962. Following a 16 year hiatus, the festival returned to Newport in 1985, it has been held at Fort Adams State Park annually since then; the Newport Folk Festival was founded in 1959 by George Wein, founder of the already-well-established Newport Jazz Festival, owner of Storyville, a jazz club located in Boston, MA. In 1958, Wein became aware of the growing Folk Revival movement and began inviting folk artists such as Odetta to perform on Sunday afternoons at Storyville; the afternoon performances sold out and Wein began to consider the possibility of a "folk afternoon embedded within the 1959 Newport Jazz Festival".

Wein envisioned the program to be "similar in scope and tone to the successful blues and gospel shows" that had taken place at the Jazz Festival in previous years. Wein asked Odetta, Pete Seeger, the Weavers to perform on the afternoon in addition to the Kingston Trio. After conferring with the folk community, it grew abundantly clear to Wein that an afternoon program would not suffice and that there was demand for a full festival. Aware of his own limitations in the folk scene, Wein asked Albert Grossman Odetta's manager, to join him in planning and producing the festival. Grossman began working with Wein to book talent and organize the weekend. Pete Seeger was involved with the founding of the festival; the inaugural festival lineup included Pete Seeger, Earl Scruggs, the Kingston Trio, John Jacob Niles, Sonny Terry and Brownie McGhee, The New Lost City Ramblers, more. The most notable performance was the surprise debut of the eighteen year old Joan Baez, brought on as a guest of Bob Gibson.

The festival was expanded to include three nights. The lineup placed an emphasis on music diversity, booking performers from Africa, Spain and Ireland alongside "traditional" folk musicians such as Pete Seeger, Ewan McColl, John Lee Hooker, Cisco Houston and Tommy Makem. In 1962, two young members of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee formed a gospel vocal quartet named the Freedom Singers, and in 1962, Pete and Toshi Seeger assisted the Freedom Singers in organizing a nationwide collegiate tour. As a result, the civil rights movement became embraced by the folk music community. In 1963, the Freedom Singers performed on the first night of the Newport Folk festival, on the second night Joan Baez joined SNCC activists and 600 festival-goers on a march through Newport; the crowd walked past the Bellevue Avenue mansions and into Touro Park, where SNCC's executive secretary James Forman and Freedom Singers leader Cordell Reagon delivered speeches, rallying support for the March on Washington scheduled for the following March.

For the final performance on Friday Wein had scheduled Peter and Mary. But under the persuasion of Albert Grossman, managing Peter and Mary, Wein decided to allow Bob Dylan to close the night. After Peter and Mary finished their afternoon set, Wein announced that they would reappear at the end of the evening. Dylan performed a set consisting of topical songs: "With God on Our Side", "Talkin' John Birch Society Blues", "A Hard Rain's Gonna Fall". Peter and Mary returned and performed an encore of "Blowin' in the Wind". Amidst a "deafening roar of applause" they brought to the stage Dylan, Joan Baez, Pete Seeger, Theo Bikel and the Freedom Singers; the singers stood in a single line facing the audience with crossed arms and clasped hands and began to sing a variation on the Baptist hymn "I'll Overcome Some Day". The hymn's new incarnation - "We Shall Overcome" - had become an anthem for the Civil Rights Movement. In 1928, Mississippi John Hurt, a self-taught amateur musician and farmer, recorded 13 songs for Okeh Records which failed to achieve commercial success.

Believing his musical career to be over, Hurt continued farming thinking little of his brief recording gig. Post WWII, few records cut by southern musicians in the 1920s were commercially available. Hurt's records were rare, since few had been manufactured in the first place, but Harry Smith, a member of a tiny subculture of obsessive, cranky collectors, put two John Hurt cuts on his influential 1952 Anthology of American Folk Music, prompting many blues hobbyists to begin searching for him. In 1963, Tom Hoskins and Mike Stewart acquired a tape of Hurt's Avalon Blues through their informal network of tape traders. Hurt had recorded Avalon Blues at the end of a week-long stay in New York that spanned Christmas 1928. Homesick in the big city, Hurt included a line about his home in Avalon being always on his mind. Hoskins and Stewart were able to track Hurt down. After asking Hurt to perform, to ensure he was who he claimed to be, Hoskins convinced Hurt to move to Washington D. C. and embark on a national tour.

The tour culminated on Saturday evening of the 1963 Newport Folk Festival, when Mississippi John Hurt performed alongside Brownie McGhee, Sonny Terry and John Lee Hooker for a blues workshop at the Newport Casino. The performance is considered to be a seminal moment for the folk revival and caused Hurt to rise to fame, he performed extensively at colleges, concert halls


VPB-210 was a Patrol Bombing Squadron of the U. S. Navy; the squadron was established as Patrol Squadron Two Hundred Ten on 15 January 1943, redesignated Patrol Bombing Squadron Two Hundred Ten on 1 October 1944 and disestablished on 10 July 1945. 15 January 1943: VP-210 was established at NAS Norfolk, Virginia, as a medium seaplane squadron flying the PBM-3C Mariner under the operational control of FAW-5. Ground training for the squadron continued through April, with aircraft familiarization training given with crews alternating at NAAS Banana River, Florida. Ground and flight training was completed in August, the squadron was transferred to NAS Quonset Point, Rhode Island, on 9 August for advanced Anti-submarine warfare training. Training was completed with shakedown at NAAS Harvey Point, North Carolina, from 25 August through 10 September 1943. 11 August 1943: The first section of six VP-210 aircraft was transferred to NAS Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Duties consisted of antisubmarine sweeps and rescue missions.

The squadron’s first casualties occurred on the 18th, when Lieutenant Joseph P. Willetts and his crew crashed while training with a friendly submarine 12 miles south of Montauk Point, Long Island. All hands were lost. 12 October 1943: Lieutenant Daniel T. Felix Jr. and the crew of P-9 made a radar contact at night with a surface target during coverage of the Guantanamo-Trinidad convoy. The U-boat reappeared a second time. Lieutenant Felix and his crew were opposed by intense anti-aircraft fire from the submarine, which submerged again before a bombing attack could be made. October–December 1943: A three-aircraft detachment of USAAF 23d Antisubmarine Squadron was attached to VP-210 for ASW operations in the Caribbean; this detachment flew the B-25 Mitchell medium bomber equipped with 75-mm cannon. The PBM aircraft of VP-210 were to illuminate them with flares for the B-25s. No enemy contacts developed to test the effectiveness of this unique tactic. 1 November 1943: A five-aircraft detachment was based at Great Exuma, British West Indies, remaining until relieved by VP-32 in December.

The detachment relieved VP-32 again from 30 June through 23 August 1944. 26 May 1944: Lieutenant J. F. Slavic and his crew made a forced landing during patrol due to a loose engine cowling. After landing safely and securing the cowl, the aircraft lost one engine during the takeoff. In the subsequent crash, the crew safely exited the sinking aircraft. All hands were rescued after 11 hours. 1 July 1944: Lieutenant Francis Gerli collided with the crash boat during takeoff at Great Exuma, resulting in an explosion which destroyed the boat and the aircraft. Six personnel in the aircraft were killed in the accident, with five more injured. 4 October 1944: The squadron was reduced from 12 aircraft to 9 aircraft, with 14 combat aircrews. Personnel and aircraft detached from the squadron were sent to VPB-99. November 1944: Two VPB-210 Mariners were fitted with two L8 searchlights apiece. Four of the squadron’s crews were given training in use of the lights. 17 June–10 July 1945: Operations were discontinued at NAS Guantanamo Bay and preparations were begun for disestablishment of the squadron.

Aircraft were flown to NS San Juan, Puerto Rico, turned over to HEDRON-11. On 2 July 1945, the entire squadron boarded USS Rehoboth for transportation to NAS Norfolk. On 10 July 1945, the squadron was disestablished; the squadron was assigned the following aircraft, effective on the dates shown: PBM-3C February 1943 PBM-3S August 1943 The squadron was assigned to these home ports, effective on the dates shown: NAS Norfolk, Virginia 15 January 1943 NAS Guantanamo Bay, Cuba 11 August 1943 NAS Norfolk, 2 July 1945 Maritime patrol aircraft List of inactive United States Navy aircraft squadrons List of United States Navy aircraft squadrons List of squadrons in the Dictionary of American Naval Aviation Squadrons History of the United States Navy This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Aviation Squadrons

A Description of the Northern Peoples

Historia de Gentibus Septentrionalibus was a monumental work by Olaus Magnus on the Nordic countries, printed in Rome 1555. It was a work, its popularity increased by the numerous woodcuts of people and their customs, amazing the rest of Europe. It is still today a valuable repertory of much curious information in regard to Scandinavian customs and folklore, it was translated into Italian, German and Dutch. Abridgments of the work appeared at Antwerp, Basel, Amsterdam and Leiden. Olaus Magnus Historia de Gentibus Septentrionalibus, Ashgate Pub Co, ISBN 0-904180-43-3 / ISBN 978-0-904180-43-5 Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus at Project Runeberg


Coquito meaning "Little Coconut" in Spanish is a traditional Christmas drink that originated in Puerto Rico. The coconut-based alcoholic beverage is similar to eggnog, sometimes being called the Puerto Rican Eggnog; the mixed drink is made with Puerto Rican rum, coconut milk, cream of coconut, sweetened condensed milk. Eggs and other spices and flavoring can be added, such as ginger, lemon zest, star anise and cloves; the traditional Christmas drink, was found in Puerto Rico. However, drinks similar to Coquito can be found all throughout the Caribbean. There are two different theories about the origin of the drink; some believe the person. Others say that the Puerto Rican drink was brought to the Caribbean by the Spanish during Puerto Rico's colonial period; the Spanish combined it with the local rum creating Coquito. As they continued to travel and settle in other areas the drink followed them creating different variations around the Caribbean; the variations are similar to what they considered the original recipe: egg, milk and spirit.

Although this was seen as the original ingredients, Puerto Rico altered it by adding coconut. The recipe has 4 main ingredients: 1. Coconut Milk 2. Coconut Cream 3. Puerto Rican rum and 4. Sweetened Condensed is not limited to these; the Puerto Rican mix drink resembles eggnog and is served after dinner in a shot glass. The drink is known to be strong. Many families have their own variations of the recipe; the drink will be seen as late as Día de los Reyes. That being said the drink makes its main appearance during the Christmas season. Coquito has become much more popular; the drink can be found bottled in supermarkets and grocery stores for consumers to buy pre-made. Along with being in stores, there are competitions like Coquito Masters, an annual competition at the Museo del Barrio in New York City. There are many variations of Coquito based on family traditions. Although all these variations are unique in their own way, they all have one thing in common and, rum. Coquito can be served in shot glasses or small cups and is garnished with grated nutmeg or cinnamon.

Depending on the ingredient of choice, Coquito can be prepared in a blender. If looking for convenience, a quick way to prepare Coquito is to process the ingredients in a blender with the option of using ground spices for more flavor. After Coquito is prepared and chilled for a few hours it is ready to be served. El Museo del Barrio in New York City hosts an annual Coquito Tasting Contest called Coquito Masters on Three Kings Day in January; the competition continues each year. The Competitors bring forth their best recipes including traditional ingredients as well as fusion mixes

2000 Basildon District Council election

The 2000 Basildon District Council election took place on 4 May 2000 to elect members of Basildon District Council in Essex, England. One third of the council was up for election and the Labour party lost overall control of the council to no overall control. After the election, the composition of the council was Labour 20 Conservative 18 Liberal Democrats 4 The results saw the Conservatives make gains from both Labour and Liberal Democrats to go from 11 to 18 seats on the council; this deprived Labour of a majority on the council after 5 years and reduced Labour's lead over the Conservatives to just 2 seats. Meanwhile, the Liberal Democrats lost half their seats to fall to have just 4 councillors, but were left with the balance of power; the Conservatives gained marginal seats in Basildon from Labour including Laindon, Langdon Hills and Pitsea East. They took all the seats the Liberal Democrats had been defending in Billericay and Wickford. Following the election the Liberal Democrat leader Geoff Williams said "issues will be decided on their merit and not on party politics".

All comparisons in vote share are to the corresponding 1996 election

Conservative Party (Norway)

The Conservative Party is a liberal-conservative political party in Norway. It is the major party of the Norwegian centre-right, the leading party in the governing Solberg cabinet; the current party leader is the Prime Minister of Norway Erna Solberg. In national elections in September 2013, voters ended eight years of Labour Party rule. A coalition of the Conservative Party and the Progress Party entered office based on promises of tax cuts, better services and stricter rules on immigration, with the support of the Liberal Party and Christian Democratic Party. After winning the elections, Solberg said her win was "a historic election victory for the right-wing parties"; the party advocates economic liberalism, reduction of taxes, individual rights, defines itself as a "conservative party of progress". It has been the most outspokenly pro-European Union party in Norway, supporting Norwegian membership during both the 1972 and 1994 referendums; the party supports semi-privatization through state-funded private services and tougher law and order measures.

Founded in 1884, the Conservative Party is the second oldest political party in Norway after the Liberal Party. In the interwar era, one of the main goals for the party was to achieve a centre-right alliance against the growing labour movement, when the party went into decline. In the post-war era until 2005 the party participated in six governments; the Conservative Party of Norway was founded in 1884 after the implementation of parliamentarism in Norway. The jurist Emil Stang was elected the first chairman of the party. Stang underlined important principles for the work in Høyre; the party was to be a social party of reforms that worked within the constitutional frames set by a parliamentary democracy. Høyre's electoral support has varied. In the 1981-election, Høyre got 31.7%. It was the best election since 1924; the result in 1993 was 17%. This election was influenced by the EU membership issue; the 1997 parliamentary election resulted in the lowest support since 1945, with only 14.3% of the votes.

Høyre has since seen increased popular support, got 21.3% in the 1999 local elections and 21.2% in the 2001 parliamentary election. In the beginning of the 20th century Høyre took the initiative to construct a modern Norwegian communications network. After the devastating First World War it was important for Høyre to work for the reconstruction of sound, economic politics. An example of this is the resolution Høyre passed in 1923 introducing old-age insurance, but because of the State's finances it was not possible to continue this effort. Høyre was the leading party in opposition in the post-war years in Norway. Høyre fought against the Labour Party's regulating policy. Høyre wanted another future for Norway consisting of creative forces. Høyre has been a protagonist in the construction of the welfare system in Norway, has on several occasions taken the initiative to correct injustices in social care regulations. Additionally, Høyre has advocated that the state's activity must concentrate on its basic problems and their solutions.

During the post-war years Høyre has consolidated its position as a party with appeal to all parts of the nation. Non-socialist co-operation as an alternative to socialism has always been one of Høyre's main aims. Høyre has led several coalition governments; the Christian Democratic Party was one of Høyre's coalition partners both in 1983–86 and 1989–90. At the parliamentary election in 1993, it was impossible to present a credible non-socialist government alternative, because Høyre's former coalition parties, The Christian Democrats and the Centre Party, both campaigned against Norwegian membership of the EU. Before the parliamentary election in 1997 the Labour party proclaimed that they would not be willing to govern the country if they did not obtain more than 36.9% of the votes. As it turned out, they got 35%, other parties had to form a government. There were serious discussions between Høyre, The Christian Democrats and Venstre to take on this task, but the end result was that the two latter parties joined forces with the Centre Party to create a minority government without Høyre.

In the parliamentary election in September 2001, Høyre obtained 21.2 percent of the votes. After a series of discussions Høyre was once again able to take part in a coalition government, this time with the Christian Democratic Party, the Liberal Party; the total percentage obtained for these three parties at last general election was 37.5. Høyre, as the largest party in the coalition government, had 38 members in the present Storting, 10 of the 19 ministers in the Government were Høyre representatives. Høyre's three focal areas this period were to establish a rise in quality in Norway's educational system, lower taxes and produce a higher service level in state sectors. In the 2005 parliamentary election, Høyre obtained 14.1% of the votes. The election outcome put Høyre back in opposition, the party got 23 members in the present Storting. In the 2009 parliamentary election, Høyre obtained 17.2% of the votes, 30 members in the present Storting. During the local elections of 2011, the party gained 27.6 percent of the vote, it has since without exceptions, polled first and second.

In the 2013 parliamentary election, Høyre obtained 26.8 percent of the votes, 48 members in the present Storting. Høyre formed a minority government