The Queenslander was the weekly summary and literary edition of the Brisbane Courier, since the 1850s the leading journal in the colony and federal state of Queensland, Australia. The Queenslander was launched by the Brisbane Newspaper Company in 1866 and it was discontinued in 1939. In a country the size of Australia a daily newspaper of some prominence could only reach the bush and outlying districts if it published a weekly edition, yet the Queenslander, under the managing editorship of Gresley Lukin came to find additional use as a literary magazine. The Queenslander was first published on 3 February 1866 by Thomas Blacket Stephens in Brisbane and ceased publication after the last edition on 22 February 1939; the paper has been digitised as part of the Australian Newspapers Digitisation Program of the National Library of Australia. List of newspapers in Australia The Queenslander at Trove Cover gallery, Second cover gallery
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary; the largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public; the goal of serving researchers is shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, children's museums. Amongst the world's largest and most visited museums are the Louvre in Paris, the National Museum of China in Beijing, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. the British Museum and National Gallery in London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Vatican Museums in Vatican City.
According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, is pluralized as "museums", it is from the Ancient Greek Μουσεῖον, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, hence a building set apart for study and the arts the Musaeum for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter about 280 BC. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. From a visitor or community perspective, the purpose can depend on one's point of view. A trip to a local history museum or large city art museum can be an entertaining and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the economic health of a city, a way to increase the sophistication of its inhabitants. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism.
Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of each classification of a field of knowledge for research and for display was the purpose; as American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students. By the last quarter of the 19th century, the scientific research in the universities was shifting toward biological research on a cellular level, cutting edge research moved from museums to university laboratories. While many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums. While there is an ongoing debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museum's collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect and preserve artifacts for future generations.
Much care and expense is invested in preservation efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artifacts and buildings. All museums display objects; as historian Steven Conn writes, "To see the thing itself, with one's own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting."Museum purposes vary from institution to institution. Some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects, they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a historic printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia; some seek to reach a wide audience, such as a national or state museum, while some museums have specific audiences, like the LDS Church History Museum or local history organizations. Speaking, museums collect objects of significance that comply with their mission statement for conservation and display.
Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. In 2009, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Henry VIII, opened the council room to the general public to create an interactive environment for visitors. Rather than allowing visitors to handle 500-year-old objects, the museum created replicas, as well as replica costumes; the daily activities, historic clothing, temperature changes immerse the visitor in a slice of what Tudor life may have been. This section lists the 20 most visited museums in 2015 as compiled by AECOM and the Themed Entertainment Association's annual report on the world's most visited attractions. For 2016 figures see List of most visited museums; the cities of London and Washington, D. C. contain more of the 20 most visited museums in the world than any others, with six museums and four museums, respectively. Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts.
These were displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. One of the oldest museums known is Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, built by Princess Ennigaldi at the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire; the site dates from c. 530 BCE, contained artifacts from earlier M
Government House, Brisbane
Government House is a heritage-listed mansion at 170 Fernberg Road, City of Brisbane, Australia. It is the official residence of the Governor of Queensland, the representative of the Australian monarch in Queensland, it was designed by Benjamin Backhouse and built 1865, but has been subsequently extended and refurbished. It is known as Fernberg, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992. The Premier of Queensland must visit the Governor at Government House to request the dissolution of the Queensland Legislative Assembly and the calling of a general election. Following the outcome of such elections, the Governor appoints the Premier and Ministry and the swearing-in of Members of the Legislative Assembly which takes place at Government House. Government House is open to the general public on certain open days on Australia Day, 26 January and Queensland Day, 6 June; the land on which the Government House stands was granted as two separate portions. Portion 223 was bought in May 1860 by Johann Christian Heussler, who purchased the adjoining portion 291 two years in partnership with George Reinhard Francksen.
In 1864 Francksen died and the land passed to Heussler. At that time the landscape in this outlying suburb of Brisbane may have been close to undeveloped natural bushland; the Hon Johann Christian Heussler, 1820-1907, was a native of Germany who emigrated to Victoria, Australia in 1852. Due to poor health he established the mercantile firm Heussler and Co.. Over two decades Heussler became a respected business man and citizen of Queensland, he was recognised as a founding member of the Queensland Club, Consul for the Netherlands, German Consul, Emigration Agent for German shipping companies. In 1866 he was appointed to the Queensland Legislative Council. Heussler commissioned Brisbane architect Benjamin Backhouse to design a residence for Heussler, constructed in 1865. Heussler named his home Fernberg, giving it a name of German origin that meant "distant mountain". Benjamin Backhouse was an architect responsible for several substantial commissions in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. Local examples of his work include other villa residences such as Baroona, Cintra House and Old Bishopsbourne.
Due to financial difficulties, Heussler was forced to leave the property by 1871 after which it was leased to Arthur Palmer the Premier of Queensland. In November 1877, the estate was advertised for sale; the roof is covered with slates, the verandahs and balconies being spacious, presenting a delightful retreat for the enjoyment of pure air and widespread and charming view. The whole of the internal and external workmanship and materials are of the best description, the out-offices are replete with every necessary; the stable contains a great many stalls. There is carriage-house, groom's room, harness-room, &c, &c.""The grounds are all enclosed, the timber having been thinned so as to give the place a park-like appearance, there is a shrubbery and garden round the house. The Enoggera water pipes run through the property so that there is an abundant supply of water in all seasons; the view from Fernberg is something out of the common, both for extent and beauty. John Stevenson, a successful pastoralist and station agent and a Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly, bought Fernberg in the mid 1880s and commissioned architect, Richard Gailey in 1888 to design extensive additions and alterations to the house.
The scheme was a major undertaking which more than doubled the size of the original house, altered the building from an 1860s villa to an Italianate Mansion. The new section had stuccoed detailing, faceted bays and the main entrance was orientated northwards and marked by a tower; these additions made the residence close to the road. The road was transformed into a winding avenue. In 1890 a fountain and gate pillars were erected in the grounds that were well established with trees and shrubs. Various other outbuildings and structures were developed on the property and included: a coach house, five stall stable, harness room, tool room, man's room, gymnasium, fowl house, bush house, glass house and asphalt tennis court; the 1890s economic depression brought an end to Stevenson's fortune and by 1895 the property was mortgaged to William Pattison and Walter Russell Hall. Two years Hall, a well-known philanthropist who had made his fortune from gold at Mount Morgan, took possession of the residence.
The decision to lease Fernberg as a temporary Vice-regal residence was made in February 1910 following the formal dedication on 10 December 1909 of the original Government House as Queensland's first university, the University of Queensland. At the same time, plans for a new Government House to be erected at Victoria Park were being prepared. In June 1911, despite rep
The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect the lives and possessions of citizens, to prevent crime and civil disorder. Their powers include the legitimized use of force; the term is most associated with the police forces of a sovereign state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. Police forces are defined as being separate from the military and other organizations involved in the defense of the state against foreign aggressors. Police forces are public sector services, funded through taxes. Law enforcement is only part of policing activity. Policing has included an array of activities in different situations, but the predominant ones are concerned with the preservation of order. In some societies, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, these developed within the context of maintaining the class system and the protection of private property. Police forces have become ubiquitous in modern societies.
Their role can be controversial, as some are involved to varying degrees in corruption, police brutality and the enforcement of authoritarian rule. A police force may be referred to as a police department, police service, gendarmerie, crime prevention, protective services, law enforcement agency, civil guard or civic guard. Members may be referred to as police officers, sheriffs, rangers, peace officers or civic/civil guards. Ireland differs from other English-speaking countries by using the Irish language terms Garda and Gardaí, for both the national police force and its members; the word police is the most universal and similar terms can be seen in many non-English speaking countries. Numerous slang terms exist for the police. Many slang terms for police officers are centuries old with lost etymology. One of the oldest, "cop", has lost its slang connotations and become a common colloquial term used both by the public and police officers to refer to their profession. First attested in English in the early 15th century in a range of senses encompassing' policy.
This is derived from πόλις, "city". Law enforcement in ancient China was carried out by "prefects" for thousands of years since it developed in both the Chu and Jin kingdoms of the Spring and Autumn period. In Jin, dozens of prefects were spread across the state, each having limited authority and employment period, they were appointed by local magistrates, who reported to higher authorities such as governors, who in turn were appointed by the emperor, they oversaw the civil administration of their "prefecture", or jurisdiction. Under each prefect were "subprefects" who helped collectively with law enforcement in the area; some prefects were responsible for handling investigations, much like modern police detectives. Prefects could be women; the concept of the "prefecture system" spread to other cultures such as Japan. In ancient Greece, publicly owned slaves were used by magistrates as police. In Athens, a group of 300 Scythian slaves was used to guard public meetings to keep order and for crowd control, assisted with dealing with criminals, handling prisoners, making arrests.
Other duties associated with modern policing, such as investigating crimes, were left to the citizens themselves. In the Roman empire, the army, rather than a dedicated police organization, provided security. Local watchmen were hired by cities to provide some extra security. Magistrates such as procurators fiscal and quaestors investigated crimes. There was no concept of public prosecution, so victims of crime or their families had to organize and manage the prosecution themselves. Under the reign of Augustus, when the capital had grown to one million inhabitants, 14 wards were created, their duties included capturing runaway slaves. The vigiles were supported by the Urban Cohorts who acted as a heavy-duty anti-riot force and the Praetorian Guard if necessary. In medieval Spain, Santa Hermandades, or "holy brotherhoods", peacekeeping associations of armed individuals, were a characteristic of municipal life in Castile; as medieval Spanish kings could not offer adequate protection, protective municipal leagues began to emerge in the twelfth century against banditry and other rural criminals, against the lawless nobility or to support one or another claimant to a crown.
These organizations became a long-standing fixture of Spain. The first recorded case of the formation of an hermandad occurred when the towns and the peasantry of the north united to police the pilgrim road to Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, protect the pilgrims against robber knights. Throughout the Middle Ages such alliances were formed by combinations of towns to protect the roads connecting them, were extended to political purposes. Among the most powerful was the league of North Castilian and Basque ports, the Hermandad de las marismas: Toledo and Villarreal; as one of their first acts after end of the War of the Castilian Succession in 1479, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile established the centrally-organized and efficient Holy
The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law. In ancient Rome, a magistratus was one of the highest ranking government officers, possessed both judicial and executive powers. In other parts of the world, such as China, a magistrate was responsible for administration over a particular geographic area. Today, in some jurisdictions, a magistrate is a judicial officer who hears cases in a lower court, deals with more minor or preliminary matters. In other jurisdictions, magistrates may be volunteers without formal legal training who perform a judicial role with regard to minor matters. In ancient Rome, the word magistratus referred to one of the highest offices of state. Analogous offices in the local authorities, such as municipium, were subordinate only to the legislature of which they were members, ex officio a combination of judicial and executive power, constituting one jurisdiction. In Rome itself, the highest magistrates were members of the so-called cursus honorum -'career of honors'.
They held both judicial and executive power within their sphere of responsibility, had the power to issue ius honorarium, or magisterial law. The Consul was the highest Roman magistrate; the Praetor was the highest judge in matters of private law between individual citizens, while the Curule Aediles, who supervised public works in the city, exercised a limited civil jurisdiction in relation to the market. Roman magistrates were advised by jurists who were experts in the law; the term was maintained in most feudal successor states to the western Roman Empire. However, it was used in Germanic kingdoms in city-states, where the term magistrate was used as an abstract generic term denoting the highest office, regardless of the formal titles when, a council; the term "chief magistrate" applied to the highest official, in sovereign entities the head of state and/or head of government. Under the "civil law" systems of European countries, such as Belgium, France and the Netherlands, magistrat and magistraat are generic terms which comprise both prosecutors and judges, distinguished as the'standing' versus'sitting' magistrature, respectively.
In Portugal, besides being used in the scope of the judiciary to designate prosecutors and judges, the term magistrado was used to designate certain government officials, like the former civil governors of district. These were referred as "administrative magistrates" to distinguish them from the judiciary magistrates; the President of Portugal is considered the Supreme Magistrate of the Nation. In Finland, maistraatti is a state-appointed local administrative office whose responsibilities include keeping population information and public registers, acting as a public notary and conducting civil marriages. In Mexico's Federal Law System, a magistrado is a superior judge, hierarchically beneath the Supreme Court Justices; the magistrado reviews the cases seen by a judge in a second term if any of the parties disputes the verdict. For special cases, there are magistrados superiores who review the verdicts of special court and tribunal magistrates. In the courts of England and Wales, magistrates—also known as justices of the peace —are volunteers who hear prosecutions for and dispose of'summary offences' and some'triable-either-way offences' by making orders with regard to and placing additional requirements on offenders.
Magistrates/JPs are limited to issuing sentences of no longer than twelve months. Magistrates/JPs have other limitations in their sentencing authority with powers extending to fines, community orders which can include curfews, electronic tagging, requirements to perform unpaid work up to 300 hours, supervision for up to three years. In more serious cases, magistrates can send'either-way' offenders to the Crown Court for sentencing when the magistrate feels a penalty should be imposed, more severe than the magistrate is capable of sentencing. A wide range of other legal matters is within the remit of magistrates. In the past, magistrates have been responsible for granting licenses to sell alcohol, for instance, but this function is now exercised by local councils. Magistrates are responsible for granting search warrants to the police and other authorities. However, commission areas were replaced with Local Justice Areas by the Courts Act 2003, meaning magistrates no longer need to live within 15 miles.
Section 7 of the Courts Act 2003 states that "There shall be a commission of the peace for England and Wales—…b) addressed and not by name, to all such persons as may from time to time hold office as justices of the peace for England and Wales". Thus, every magistrate in England and Wales may act as a magistrate anywhere in Wales. There are two types of magistrates in England and Wales: justices of the peace and district judges who hold office as members of the professional judiciary. According to requirements, arou
John Clements Wickham
John Clements Wickham was a Scottish explorer, naval officer and administrator. He was first officer on HMS Beagle during its second survey mission, 1831–1836, under captain Robert FitzRoy; the young naturalist and geologist Charles Darwin was a supernumerary on the ship, his journal was published as The Voyage of the Beagle. After that expedition, Wickham was promoted to Commander and made captain of the Beagle on its third voyage, from 1837 and conducted various maritime expeditions and hydrographic surveys along the Australian coastline. In 1843, after his retirement from the Royal Navy, Wickham was made Police Magistrate and Government Resident of the Moreton Bay District, in the Colony of New South Wales. Wickham retired in 1859, when the Moreton Bay District was separated from NSW, forming basis of the Colony of Queensland; when the Queensland and NSW governments disagreed over, responsible for his pension, Wickham moved to France, where he died. The origins of the Wickham family were in Rowley, an East Yorkshire village which became depopulated.
In 1638, two brothers and Thomas Wickham, were among the families to emigrate to America with Rev. Ezekiel Rogers after he was suspended as Rector of the parish church in 1638 for his non-conformist beliefs. Thomas married Sarah and their fifth son, Samuel Wickham, was born in 1664. Samuel Wickham married Barbara Holken in 1691 and their fifth son, Benjamin Wickham, was born 17 November 1701 at Rhode Island. Benjamin was chosen by the Rhode Island colonial Assembly in 1756 to be Lieutenant-Colonel of a Regiment raised for the second expedition against Crown Point. In 1757, a deputy for Newport he became Speaker of the House of Deputies. Benjamin married Mary, daughter of Colonel John Gardner in 1743 and Samuel Wickham, their sixth and youngest son, was born at Newport, Rhode Island in 1758; this Samuel rose to the rank of Lieutenant in the Royal Navy. He fought on the British side in the American War of Independence after which he left America and settled in Scotland. On 16 June 1795 he married Ellen Susan Naylor at Gibraltar.
John Clements Wickham was born to them on 21 November 1798 at Leith in Scotland. On 21 February 1812 John Clements Wickham joined the Royal Navy. By 1815 he was an Admiralty Midshipman and was posted to HMS Nightingale and in 1818 was posted to HMS Hyperion before being paid off, he passed his Lieutenant's examination in 1819. In 1825 he was appointed Second-Lieutenant on the British warship Adventure under the command of Phillip Parker King, son of Philip Gidley King, third Governor of New South Wales; the Adventure and the Beagle were ordered to survey the coasts of the southern part of South America, including Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. Wickham transferred to the Beagle in 1831 as First Lieutenant, under Captain Robert Fitzroy and first officer Philip Parker King, to complete the survey of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, as part of a circumnavigation of the globe. Wickham and King were lifelong friends and brothers-in-law as they married sisters, the daughters of Hannibal Hawkins Macarthur.
This would be the most famous voyage of the Beagle, with naturalist Charles Darwin, artists Augustus Earle and Conrad Martens on board. After entering the Pacific Ocean, the Beagle surveyed the coasts of Chile and Peru, the Galápagos Islands, the Society Islands, the Navigator and Fiji island groups, New Zealand, Port Jackson, Van Diemen's Land, King George's Sound, the Cocos Islands and Mauritius, it returned, via Saint Helena, Ascension Island and Pernambuco to England in 1836. On 10 January 1837, Wickham was promoted from Lieutenant to Captain and given command of the Beagle, while Lt John Lort Stokes – a shipmate from the first two journeys of the Beagle – was made first officer. From 1837 to 1841, the Beagle charting the coasts of north western Arnhem Land. In 1839, Stokes sighted a natural harbour which Wickham named Port Darwin after their former shipmate. In 1841, Wickham fell ill and resigned his command, taken over by Stokes, who continued the survey and completed the voyage in 1843.
Darwin took a Galápagos tortoise named Harriet which he gave to Wickham, who brought it to Brisbane. The tortoise gained fame for her longevity, living 175 years until 2006. Wickham became the police magistrate at the Moreton Bay District of New South Wales. From 1853 he was Government Resident of the Moreton Bay District and resided at Newstead House, Brisbane. In 1859, Wickham moved to the south of France, where he lived until his death in 1864. AustraliaCape Wickham and Cape Wickham Lighthouse, Tasmania. ChileWickham IslandFalkland IslandsWickham Heights, including Mount WickhamSolomon IslandsWickham Island, New Georgia Islands group Two defunct electorates in Australian state parliaments, namely Electoral district of Wickham Electoral district of Wickham (Queenslan
Andrew Petrie was a pioneer and builder in Brisbane, Australia. Andrew Petrie was born in Scotland, he trained as a builder in Edinburgh. He married Mary Cuthbertson in 1821. John Dunmore Lang brought him, his wife and four sons to Sydney in 1831 with other Scottish mechanics to form the nucleus of a force of free workers. Meeting much enmity from convict and emancipist workers, Petrie was glad to accept a post as clerk in the Ordnance Department. Before establishing his own business he oversaw the construction of a building in Jamison Street for Lang; the quality of his work impressed his superiors so much that, when in 1837 there was an urgent appeal from the Moreton Bay Settlement of New South Wales for a competent builder to repair crumbling structures, Petrie was sent there as Superintendent of Works. Andrew Petrie and his family, the first free-settlers to move to the area, travelled to Dunwich aboard the James Watt and were transferred in a pilot boat, manned by convicts that landed at King's Jetty, the only landing place that existed, now known as North Quay.
A year after arriving in the colony Petrie and his family moved into a stone house he built at what is now known as Petrie Bight. His first important task was to repair the mechanism of the windmill, his general duty was the supervision of prisoners engaged in making such necessities as soap and nails, in building. He made inspections of government owned sheep and cattle and placed a number of beacons on navigational hazards in the Brisbane River. Petrie's charge took him to several convict outposts and gave him a taste for travel and exploration, his private journeys soon added to knowledge of the immediate environs of the settlement. When the convict station was removed in 1839 Petrie saw the opportunity at last of a free community, with his family remained to contribute to its formation. In the new surroundings he was able to pursue two main interests: as builder and architect he was responsible for most of the important structures that arose, he was the first European to climb Mount Beerwah, one of the Glass House Mountains seen by James Cook, he was the first to bring back samples of the Bunya pine.
In 1842 with a small party in a boat he discovered the Mary River and brought back to the settlement two'wild white men', James Davis or'Duramboi' and David Bracewell or'Wandi'. He was the first to discover coal at Redbank in around 1837, he named the Maroochy River. In 1848 he lost his eyesight because of inefficient surgery after an attack of sandy blight. Despite this condition he still was able to design ferry landings, floating public baths and a bridge over Breakfast Creek; such was his courage that he still kept control over his business: when plans were explained to him he ordered the necessary quantities of material and was able to check the performance of his building workers. The Petries had a daughter. With advancing years Petrie handed over more and more control to his eldest son, who became first mayor of Brisbane, his third son, gained much knowledge of the Aboriginal tribes and their customs and languages. Their house was one of the social centres of Brisbane and offered accommodation to squatters coming from the outback in the days before Brisbane had a few inns.
Petrie was always being willing to help with food and work to the poor. Petrie's work as an architect and builder is reflected in a number of public buildings in Brisbane in particular Newstead House. Petrie, a suburb in the Moreton Bay Region, just north of Brisbane Division of Petrie, an electoral district in the Australian House of Representatives, in Queensland John Petrie Thomas Petrie Andrew Lang Petrie, grandson