The Creek War known as the Red Stick War and the Creek Civil War, was a regional war between opposing Creek factions, European empires and the United States, taking place in today's Alabama and along the Gulf Coast. The major conflicts of the war took place between state militia units and the "Red Stick" Creeks; the Creek War was part of the centuries-long American Indian Wars. It is considered part of the War of 1812 because it was influenced by Tecumseh's War in the Old Northwest, was concurrent with the American-British war and involved many of the same participants, the Red Sticks had sought British support and aided Admiral Cochrane's advance towards New Orleans; the Creek War began as a conflict within the Creek Confederation, but local white militia units became involved. British traders in Florida as well as the Spanish government provided the Red Sticks with arms and supplies because of their shared interest in preventing the expansion of the United States into their areas; the United States government formed an alliance with the Choctaw Nation and Cherokee Nation, along with the remaining Creeks to put down the rebellion.
The war ended with the Treaty of Fort Jackson, when General Andrew Jackson forced the Creek confederacy to surrender more than 21 million acres in what is now southern Georgia and central Alabama. The Red Stick militancy was a response to the increasing United States cultural and territorial encroachment into their traditional lands; the alternate designation as the Creek Civil War comes from the divisions within the tribe over cultural, political and geographic matters. At the time of the Creek War, the Upper Creeks controlled the Coosa and Alabama Rivers that led to Mobile, while the Lower Creeks controlled the Chattahoochee River, which flowed into Apalachicola Bay; the Lower Creek were trading partners with the United States and, unlike the Upper Creeks, had adopted more of their cultural practices. The provinces of East and West Florida were governed by the Spanish, British firms like Panton, Co. provided most of the trade goods into Creek country. Pensacola and Mobile, in Spanish Florida, controlled the outlets of the US Mississippi Territory's rivers.
Territorial conflicts between France, Spain and the United States along the Gulf Coast that had helped the Creeks to maintain control over most of the United States' southwestern territory had shifted due to the Napoleonic Wars, the Florida Rebellion, the War of 1812. This made long-standing Creek trade and political alliances more tenuous than ever. During and after the American Revolution, the United States wished to maintain the Indian Line, established by the Royal Proclamation of 1763; the Indian Line created a boundary for colonial settlement in order to prevent illegal encroachment into Indian lands, helped the U. S. government maintain control over the Indian trade. Traders and settlers violated the terms of the treaties establishing the Indian Line, frontier settlements by colonials in Indian lands was one of the arguments the United States used to expand its territory. In the Treaty of New York, Treaty of Colerain, Treaty of Fort Wilkinson, the Treaty of Fort Washington, the Creek ceded their Georgia territory east of the Ocmulgee River.
In 1804, the United States claimed the city of Mobile under the Mobile Act. The 1805 treaty with the Creek had allowed the creation of a Federal Road that linked Washington to the newly acquired port city of New Orleans, which stretched through Creek territories; these increasing territorial grabs westward into Creek territory, coupled with the Louisiana Purchase, compelled the British and Spanish governments to strengthen existing alliances with the Creek. In 1810, following the occupation of Baton Rouge during the West Florida Rebellion, the United States sent an expeditionary force to occupy Mobile; as a result, Mobile was jointly occupied by weak American and Spanish soldiers until Secretary of War John Armstrong ordered General James Wilkinson to force the Spanish to turn over control of the city in February 1813. The Patriot Army captured parts of East Florida from 1811–1815. After Fort Charlotte was surrendered in April, the Spanish focused on protecting Pensacola from the United States.
The Spanish decided to support the Creek in an attack on the United States and in defense of their homeland, but were hindered by their weak position in the Floridas and lack of supplies for their own army. The splintering of the Creek peoples along progressive and nativist lines had roots dating back to the eighteenth century, but came to a head after 1811. Red Stick militancy was a response to the economic and cultural crises in Creek society caused by the adoption of Western trade goods and culture. From the sixteenth century, the Creek had formed successful trade alliances with European empires, but the drastic fall in the price of deerskin from 1783 to 1793 made it more difficult for individuals to repay their debt, while at the same time the assimilation process made American goods more necessary; the Red Sticks resisted the civilization programs administered by the U. S. Indian Agent Benjamin Hawkins, who had stronger alliances among the towns of the Lower Creek; some of the "progressive" Creek began to adopt American farming practices as their game disappeared, as more Anglo settlers assimilated into Creek towns and families.
Leaders of the Lower Creek towns in present-day Georgia included Bird Tail King of Cusseta.
David Crockett was an American folk hero, frontiersman and politician. He is referred to in popular culture by the epithet "King of the Wild Frontier", he represented Tennessee in the U. S. House of Representatives and served in the Texas Revolution. Crockett grew up in East Tennessee, where he gained a reputation for storytelling, he was made a colonel in the militia of Lawrence County and was elected to the Tennessee state legislature in 1821. In 1827, he was elected to the U. S. Congress where he vehemently opposed many of the policies of President Andrew Jackson the Indian Removal Act. Crockett's opposition to Jackson's policies led to his defeat in the 1831 elections, he was re-elected in 1833 narrowly lost in 1835, prompting his angry departure to Texas shortly thereafter. In early 1836, he took part in the Texas Revolution and was killed at the Battle of the Alamo in March. Crockett became famous during his lifetime for larger-than-life exploits popularized by stage plays and almanacs. After his death, he continued to be credited with acts of mythical proportion.
These led in the 20th century to television and movie portrayals, he became one of the best-known American folk heroes. The Crocketts were of French-Huguenot ancestry, although the family had settled in Ireland before migrating to the Americas; the earliest known paternal ancestor was Gabriel Gustave de Crocketagne, whose son Antoine de Saussure Peronette de Crocketagne was given a commission in the Household Troops under French King Louis XIV. Antoine married Louise de Saix and immigrated to Ireland with her, changing the family name to Crockett, their son Joseph Louis was married Sarah Stewart. Joseph and Sarah emigrated to New York, where their son William David was born in 1709, he married Elizabeth Boulay. William and Elizabeth's son David was married Elizabeth Hedge, they were the parents of William, David Jr. Robert, James and John, the father of David Crockett who died at the Alamo. John was born c. 1753 in Virginia. The family moved to North Carolina c. 1768. In 1776, the family moved in the area now known as Hawkins County.
John was one of the Overmountain Men who fought in the Battle of Kings Mountain during the American Revolutionary War. He was away as a militia volunteer in 1777 when David and Elizabeth were killed at their home near today's Rogersville by Creeks and Chickamauga Cherokees led by war chief Dragging Canoe. John's brother Joseph was wounded in the skirmish, his brother James was held for seventeen years. John married Rebecca Hawkins in 1780, their son David was born August 17, 1786, they named him after John's father. David was born in what is now Greene County, close to the Nolichucky River and near the community of Limestone. John continually struggled to make ends meet, the Crocketts moved to a tract of land on Lick Creek in 1792. John sold that tract of land in 1794 and moved the family to Cove Creek, where he built a gristmill with partner Thomas Galbraith. A flood destroyed the Crockett homestead; the Crocketts moved to Mossy Creek in Jefferson County, but John forfeited his property in bankruptcy in 1795.
The family next moved on to property owned by a Quaker named John Canady. At Morristown in the Southwest Territory, John built a tavern on a stage coach route; when David was 12 years old, his father indentured him to Jacob Siler to help with the Crockett family indebtedness. He helped tend Siler's cattle as a buckaroo on a 400-mile trip to near Natural Bridge in Virginia, he was well treated and paid for his services but, after several weeks in Virginia, he decided to return home to Tennessee. The next year, John enrolled his sons in school, but David played hookey after an altercation with a fellow student. Upon learning of this, John was outrun by his son. David joined a cattle drive to Front Royal, Virginia for Jesse Cheek. Upon completion of that trip, he joined teamster Adam Myers on a trip to Gerrardstown, West Virginia. In between trips with Myers, he worked for farmer John Gray. After leaving Myers, he journeyed to Christiansburg, where he apprenticed for the next four years with hatter Elijah Griffith.
In 1802, David journeyed by foot back to his father's tavern in Tennessee. His father was in debt to Abraham Wilson for $36, so David was hired out to Wilson to pay off the debt, he worked off a $40 debt to John Canady. Once the debts were paid, John Crockett told his son. David returned to Canady's employment. Crockett fell in love with John Canady's niece Amy Summer, engaged to Canady's son Robert. While serving as part of the wedding party, Crockett met Margaret Elder, he persuaded her to marry him, a marriage contract was drawn up on October 21, 1805. Margaret had become engaged to another young man at the same time and married him instead, he met her mother Jean at a harvest festival. Although friendly towards him in the beginning, Jean Finley felt Crockett was not the man for her daughter. Crockett declared his intentions to marry Polly, regardless of whether the ceremony was allowed to take place in her parents' home or had to be performed elsewhere, he arranged for a justice of the peace and took out a marriage license on August 12, 1806.
On August 16, he rode to Polly's house with family and friends, determined to ride off with Polly to be married elsewhere. Polly's father pleaded with Crockett to have the wedding in the Finl
The Chickasaw are an indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands. Their traditional territory was in the Southeastern United States of Mississippi and Tennessee, they are federally recognized as the Chickasaw Nation. Sometime prior to the first European contact, the Chickasaw migrated from western regions and moved east of the Mississippi River, where they settled in present-day northeast Mississippi and into Lawrence County, Tennessee; that is where they encountered European explorers and traders, having relationships with French and Spanish during the colonial years. The United States considered the Chickasaw one of the Five Civilized Tribes, as they adopted numerous practices of European Americans. Resisting European-American settlers encroaching on their territory, they were forced by the US to sell their country in the 1832 Treaty of Pontotoc Creek and move to Indian Territory during the era of Indian Removal in the 1830s. Most Chickasaw now live in Oklahoma; the Chickasaw Nation in Oklahoma is the 13th largest federally recognized tribe in the United States.
Its members share a common history with them. The Chickasaw are divided in two groups: the Intcutwalipa, they traditionally followed a system of matrilineal descent, in which children were considered to be part of the mother's clan, whence they gained their status. Some property was controlled by women, hereditary leadership in the tribe passed through the maternal line; the name Chickasaw, as noted by anthropologist John Swanton, belonged to a Chickasaw leader. Chickasaw is the English spelling of Chikashsha, meaning "rebel" or "comes from Chicsa". A documented prior source was when the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto named them as "Chicaza" when De Soto's expedition came into contact with them in 1540 as the first Europeans that explored the North American south east; the origin of the Chickasaw is uncertain. Twentieth-century scholars, such as the archaeologist Patricia Galloway, theorize that the Chickasaw and Choctaw split into as distinct peoples in the 17th century from the remains of Plaquemine culture and other groups whose ancestors had lived in the Lower Mississippi Valley for thousands of years.
When Europeans first encountered them, the Chickasaw were living in villages in what is now Northeastern Mississippi. The Chickasaw migrated into Mississippi, their oral history says they migrated along with the Choctaw from west of the Mississippi River into present-day Mississippi in prehistoric times. The Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere spanned the Eastern Woodlands; the Mississippian cultures emerged from previous moundbuilding societies by 880 CE. They built complex, dense villages supporting a stratified society, with centers throughout the Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys and their tributaries. In the 15th century, proto-Chickasaw people left the Tombigbee Valley after the collapse of the Moundville chiefdom and settled into the upper Yazoo and Pearl River valleys in Mississippi. Historians Arrell Gibson and anthropology John R. Swanton believed the Chickasaw Old Fields were in Madison County, Alabama; these people are the only nation from whom I could learn any idea of a traditional account of a first origin.
Another version of the Chickasaw creation story is that they arose at Nanih Waiya, a great earthwork mound built about 300 CE by Woodland peoples. It is sacred to the Choctaw, who have a similar story about it; the mound was built about 1400 years before the coalescence of each of these peoples as ethnic groups. The first European contact with the Chickasaw ancestors was in 1540 when the Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto encountered them and stayed in one of their towns, most near present-day Tupelo, Mississippi. After various disagreements, the American Indians attacked the De Soto expedition in a nighttime raid, nearly destroying it; the Spanish moved on quickly. The Chickasaw began to trade with the British after the colony of Carolina was founded in 1670. With British-supplied guns, the Chickasaw raided their neighbors and enemies the Choctaw, capturing some members and selling them into Indian slavery to the British; when the Choctaw acquired guns from the French, power between the tribes became more equalized and the slave raids stopped.
Allied with the British, the Chickasaw were at war with the French and the Choctaw in the 18th century, such as in the Battle of Ackia on May 26, 1736. Skirmishes continued until France ceded its claims to the region east of the Mississippi River after being defeated by the British in the Seven Years' War. Following the American Revolutionary War, in 1793-94, Chickasaw fought as allies of the new United States under General Anthony Wayne against the Indians of the old Northwest Territory; the Shawnee and other, allied Northwest Indians were defeated in the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794. The 19th-century historian Horatio Cushman wrote, "Neither the Choctaws nor Chicksaws engaged in war against the American people, but always stood as their faithful allies." Cushman believed the Chickasaw, along with the Choctaw, may have had origins in present-day Mexico and migrated north. That theory does not have consensus. In 1797, a general appraisal of the tribe and its territorial bounds was made by Abraham B
Sam Houston was an American soldier and politician. An important leader of the Texas Revolution, Houston served as the 1st and 3rd president of the Republic of Texas, was one of the first two individuals to represent Texas in the United States Senate, he served as the 6th Governor of Tennessee and the seventh governor of Texas, the only American to be elected governor of two different states in the United States. Born in Rockbridge County, Virginia and his family migrated to Maryville, Tennessee when Houston was a teenager. Houston ran away from home and spent time with the Cherokee, becoming known as "Raven." He served under General Andrew Jackson in the War of 1812, after the war he presided over the removal of many Cherokee from Tennessee. With the support of Jackson and others, Houston won election to the United States House of Representatives in 1823, he supported Jackson's presidential candidacies, in 1827 Houston won election as the governor of Tennessee. In 1829, after divorcing his first wife, Houston resigned from office, joined his Cherokee friends in Arkansas Territory.
Houston settled in Texas in 1832. After the Battle of Gonzales, Houston helped organize Texas's provisional government and was selected as the top-ranking official in the Texian Army, he led the Texian Army to victory at the Battle of San Jacinto, the decisive battle in Texas's war for independence against Mexico. After the war, Houston won election in the 1836 Texas presidential election, he left office due to term limits in 1838, but won election to another term in the 1841 Texas presidential election. Houston played a key role in the annexation of Texas by the United States in 1845, in 1846 he was elected to represent Texas in the United States Senate, he joined the Democratic Party and supported President James K. Polk's prosecution of the Mexican–American War. Houston's Senate record was marked by his unionism and opposition to extremists from both the North and South, he voted for the Compromise of 1850, which settled many of the territorial issues left over from the Mexican–American War and the annexation of Texas.
He voted against the Kansas–Nebraska Act because he believed it would lead to increased sectional tensions over slavery, his opposition to that act led him to leave the Democratic Party. He was an unsuccessful candidate for the presidential nomination of the American Party in the 1856 presidential election and the Constitutional Union Party in the 1860 presidential election. In 1859, Houston won election as the governor of Texas. In that role, he opposed secession and unsuccessfully sought to keep Texas out of the Confederate States of America, he was forced out of office in 1861 and died in 1863. Houston's name has been honored in numerous ways, he is the namesake of the city of Houston, the fourth most populous city in the United States. Houston was born in Rockbridge County, Virginia on March 2, 1793, to Samuel Houston and Elizabeth Paxton. Both of Houston's parents were descended from British and Irish immigrants who had settled in British North America in the 1730s. Houston's father was descended from Ulster Scots people.
By 1793, the elder Samuel Houston owned a large farm and a handful of slaves, served as a colonel in the Virginia militia. Houston's uncle, the Presbyterian Rev. Samuel Houston, was an elected member of the "lost" State of Franklin in the western frontier of North Carolina, who advocated for the passage of his proposed "A Declaration of Rights or Form of Government on the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Frankland" at the convention, assembled in Greeneville on November 14, 1785. Rev. Houston returned to Rockbridge County, Virginia after the assembled State of Franklin convention rejected his constitutional proposal. Houston had five brothers and three sisters, as well as dozens of cousins who lived in the surrounding area. According to biographer John Hoyt Williams, Houston was not close with his siblings or his parents, he spoke of them in his life. Houston did take an interest in his father's library, reading works by classical authors like Virgil, as well as more recent works by authors such as Jedidiah Morse.
Houston's father was got into debt, in part because of his militia service. He planned to sell the farm and move west to Tennessee, where land was less expensive, but he died in 1806. Houston's mother followed through on those plans and settled the family near Maryville, the seat of Blount County, Tennessee. At that time, Tennessee was on the American frontier, larger towns like Nashville were vigilant against Native American raids. Houston disliked farming and working in the family store, at the age of sixteen he left his family to live with a Cherokee tribe led by Ahuludegi. Houston formed a close relationship with Ahuludegi and learned the Cherokee language, becoming known as "Raven." He returned to Maryville in 1812, he was hired at age 19 for a term as the schoolmaster of a one-room schoolhouse. In 1812, Houston enlisted in the United States Army, engaged in the War of 1812 against Britain and Britain's Native American allies, he impressed the commander of the 39th Infantry Regiment, Thomas Hart Benton, by the end of 1813, Houston had risen to the rank of the third lieutenant.
In early 1814, the 39th Infantry Regiment became a part of the force commanded General Andrew Jackson, charged with putting an end to raids by a faction of the Muscogee tribe in the Old Southwest. Houston was badly wounded in the Battle of the decisive battle in the Creek War. Although army doctors expected him to die of his wounds, Houston survived a
Lincoln County, Tennessee
Lincoln County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 33,361, its county seat and largest city is Fayetteville. The county is named for Major General Benjamin Lincoln, an officer in the American Revolutionary War. Lincoln County was created in 1809 from parts of Bedford County; the land occupied by the county was part of a land session obtained from the Cherokee and Chickasaw in 1806. The Lincoln County Process, used in the distillation of Tennessee whiskey, is named for this county, as the Jack Daniel Distillery was located there. However, a subsequent redrawing of county lines resulted in the establishment of adjacent Moore County, which includes the location of the distillery. Another distillery opened in Lincoln County in 1997 – the Benjamin Pritchard's Distillery. However, it does not use the Lincoln County Process for making its Tennessee whiskey; when a law was established in 2013 to require the Lincoln County Process to be used for making all Tennessee whiskey, the Benjamin Pritchard's Distillery was exempted by a grandfather clause.
As a result, no current Lincoln County business uses its namesake process. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 571 square miles, of which 570 square miles are land and 0.4 square miles are water. Bedford County Moore County Franklin County Madison County, Alabama Limestone County, Alabama Giles County Marshall County Flintville Hatchery Wildlife Management Area As of the 2010 census, there were 33,361 people, 15,241 households, 4,239 families residing in the county; the population density was 55 people per square mile. There were 13,999 housing units at an average density of 24 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 89.45% White, 6.80% Black or African American, 0.45% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.10% from other races, 1.78% from two or more races. 2.65% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 15,241 households out of which 28% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58% were married couples living together, 11% had a female head of household with no husband present, 27% were non-families.
25% of all households were made up of individuals and 12% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 24% under the age of 18, 8% from 18 to 24, 28% from 25 to 44, 25% from 45 to 64, 16% who were 65 years of age or older; the median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.8 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,434, the median income for a family was $41,454. Males had a median income of $30,917 versus $21,722 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,837. About 10% of families and 14% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17% of those under age 18 and 20% of those age 65 or over. Prior to 1968, Lincoln County was a Democratic Party stronghold in presidential elections similar to most other counties in the Solid South; the county backed segregationist George Wallace in 1968, & remained Democratic-leaning up through 1992.
Since it has become a Republican Party stronghold, with its candidates winning the county by increasing margins with each succeeding presidential election starting with 1996. Donald Trump won the county in 2016 by nearly 59 points over Hillary Clinton; the governing body of Lincoln County is the Lincoln County Commission, divided into eight districts and 24 commissioners, three from each district. The body is chaired by the County Mayor; the government center of Lincoln County is the Lincoln County Courthouse in Fayetteville. Ardmore Fayetteville Petersburg Flintville Park City National Register of Historic Places listings in Lincoln County, Tennessee Official site Lincoln County, TNGenWeb - free genealogy resources for the county Lincoln County at Curlie
Felix Grundy was a congressman and senator from Tennessee and served as the 13th Attorney General of the United States. Born in Berkeley County, Grundy moved to Brownsville and Kentucky with his parents, he was educated at the Bardstown Academy in Bardstown, Kentucky. He read law, was admitted to the Kentucky bar, commenced practice in Springfield, Kentucky, in 1799. In 1799, he was chosen to represent Washington County at the convention that drafted the second Kentucky Constitution. From 1800 to 1802, he represented Washington County in the Kentucky House of Representatives, he moved to Nelson County, which he represented in the Kentucky House from 1804 to 1806. On December 10, 1806, he was commissioned an associate justice of the Kentucky Court of Appeals, he was elevated to Chief Justice of the court on April 11, 1807. That year, he resigned and moved to Nashville, where he again took up the practice of law, he was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the 12th and 13th Congresses and served from March 4, 1811, until his resignation in July 1814.
He became a member of the Tennessee House of Representatives from 1819 to 1825, in 1820 was commissioner to settle the boundary line between Tennessee and Kentucky. He was elected as a Jacksonian in 1829 to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy in the term ending March 4, 1833, caused by the resignation of John H. Eaton to join the Cabinet of President Andrew Jackson. During this time he served as chairman of the U. S. Senate Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads, U. S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary, he entered the Cabinet when he was appointed Attorney General of the United States by President Martin Van Buren in July 1838. He resigned the post in December 1839, having been elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate on November 19, 1839, to fill the vacancy in the term commencing March 4, 1839, caused by the resignation of Ephraim Foster. During this stint in the upper house of the U. S. Congress he served as chairman of the U. S. Senate Committee on Revolutionary Claims in the 26th Congress.
He is interred in the Nashville City Cemetery in Tennessee. There are four Grundy Counties, including the one in Illinois, named in his honor. Grundy County and its county seat, Grundy Center, are both named in his honor. Grundy Center's annual festival "Felix Grundy Days", are held each July. There is a Town of Grundy, Virginia named for him in Buchanan County, Virginia. In Tennessee there is a county named Grundy County, Tennessee He was a mentor to future President James K. Polk. Polk purchased Grundy's home called "Grundy Place" and changed the name to "Polk Place", he died there after his presidency. It was demolished in 1901. Baylor, Orville W.. "Felix Grundy, 1777-1840". Filson Club History Quarterly. 16. Retrieved December 6, 2011. Heller III, J. Roderick. Democracy's Lawyer: Felix Grundy of the Old Southwest. Baton Rouge: LSU Press. ISBN 978-0-8071-3588-4. List of United States Congress members who died in office Biographical Cyclopedia of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Chicago, Illinois: J. M. Gresham Company.
1896. United States Congress. "Felix Grundy". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Allen, William B.. A History of Kentucky: Embracing Gleanings, Antiquities, Natural Curiosities and Biographical Sketches of Pioneers, Jurists, Statesmen, Mechanics, Farmers and Other Leading Men, of All Occupations and Pursuits. Bradley & Gilbert. Pp. 351–352. Retrieved November 10, 2008
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails known as tracks. It is commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks consist of steel rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a rail transport system encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger and freight cars can be coupled into longer trains; the operation is carried out by a railway company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway electrification system or produce their own power by diesel engines.
Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system. Railways are a safe land transport system. Railway transport is capable of high levels of passenger and cargo utilization and energy efficiency, but is less flexible and more capital-intensive than road transport, when lower traffic levels are considered; the oldest known, man/animal-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC in Greece. Rail transport commenced in mid 16th century in Germany in the form of horse-powered funiculars and wagonways. Modern rail transport commenced with the British development of the steam locomotives in the early 19th century, thus the railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world. Built by George Stephenson and his son Robert's company Robert Stephenson and Company, the Locomotion No. 1 is the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825. George Stephenson built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use only the steam locomotives all the time, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution. Railways reduced the costs of shipping, allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships; the change from canals to railways allowed for "national markets" in which prices varied little from city to city. The spread of the railway network and the use of railway timetables, led to the standardisation of time in Britain based on Greenwich Mean Time. Prior to this, major towns and cities varied their local time relative to GMT; the invention and development of the railway in the United Kingdom was one of the most important technological inventions of the 19th century. The world's first underground railway, the Metropolitan Railway, opened in 1863. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, leading to electrification of tramways and rapid transit systems. Starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being complete by the 2000s.
During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan and in some other countries. Many countries are in the process of replacing diesel locomotives with electric locomotives due to environmental concerns, a notable example being Switzerland, which has electrified its network. Other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. Following a decline after World War II due to competition from cars, rail transport has had a revival in recent decades due to road congestion and rising fuel prices, as well as governments investing in rail as a means of reducing CO2 emissions in the context of concerns about global warming; the history of rail transport began in the 6th century BC in Ancient Greece. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of track material and motive power used. Evidence indicates that there was 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos paved trackway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece from around 600 BC.
Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. The Diolkos was in use for over 650 years, until at least the 1st century AD; the paved trackways were later built in Roman Egypt. In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Fortress in Austria; the line used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel. The line still exists and is operational, although in updated form and is the oldest operational railway. Wagonways using wooden rails, hauled by horses, started appearing in the 1550s to facilitate the transport of ore tubs to and from mines, soon became popular in Europe; such an operation was illustrated in Germany in 1556 by Georgius Agricola in his work De re metallica. This line used "Hund" carts with unflanged wheels running on wooden planks and a vertical pin on the truck fitting into the gap between the planks to keep it going the right way.
The miners called the wagons Hunde from the noise. There are many references to their use in central Europe in the 16th century; such a transport system was used by German miners at Cal