The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Sabine County, Texas
Sabine County is a county located on the central eastern border of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 10,834, its county seat is Hemphill. The county was organized on December 14, 1837, named for the Sabine River, which forms its eastern border. Sabine County is represented in the Texas House of Representatives by Republican Chris Paddie, a radio broadcaster and former mayor of Marshall in Harrison County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 577 square miles, of which 491 square miles is land and 85 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 96 State Highway 21 State Highway 87 State Highway 103 State Highway 184 Sabine National Forest Shelby County Sabine Parish, Louisiana Newton County Jasper County San Augustine County Like other eastern Texas counties, Sabine was developed as cotton plantations, which depended on the labor of numerous enslaved African Americans. After the Civil War and emancipation, many freedmen remained in the rural area, working as tenant farmers and sharecroppers.
There was considerable violence by whites against blacks after Reconstruction. After 1877 and through the early 20th century, Sabine County had 10 lynchings of blacks by whites in acts of racial terrorism; this was the fourth-highest total in the state, where lynchings took place in nearly all counties through this period. From 1930 to 1970, the population declined as many African Americans left this rural county and other parts of the South in the Great Migration to escape Jim Crow oppression and seek better jobs in Northern industrial cities and on the West Coast, where the defense industry built up beginning during World War II; as of the census of 2000, there were 10,469 people, 4,485 households, 3,157 families residing in the county. The population density was 21 people per square mile. There were 7,659 housing units at an average density of 16 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.85% White, 9.92% Black or African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.09% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.82% from other races, 0.88% from two or more races.
1.81% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,485 households out of which 23.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.90% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.60% were non-families. 27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.78. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.10% under the age of 18, 5.60% from 18 to 24, 21.10% from 25 to 44, 27.20% from 45 to 64, 24.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females there were 93.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,198, the median income for a family was $32,554. Males had a median income of $28,695 versus $21,141 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,821.
About 11.80% of families and 15.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.90% of those under age 18 and 12.70% of those age 65 or over. The following school districts serve Sabine County: Brookeland Independent School District Hemphill Independent School District Shelbyville Independent School District West Sabine Independent School District Hemphill Pineland Milam Bronson Brookeland Fairmount Geneva Isla Pendelton Harbor Subdivision Rosevine Sexton Yellowpine National Register of Historic Places listings in Sabine County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Sabine County Sabine County website Sabine County Chamber of Commerce Sabine County from the Handbook of Texas Online
Texas Recreational Road 255
Recreational Road 255 is a Recreational Road located in Tyler and Newton counties, in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Texas. The highway is 56.6 miles long, travels through rural areas in the northern portion of the three counties. RE 255 begins at an intersection with U. S. Route 69, near the city of Colmesneil; the route travels through rural farmland in northern Tyler County, crosses the Neches River into Jasper County. The roadway intersects State Highway 63 and US 96, helps form part of the Sam Rayburn Dam; the route continues into Newton County, intersecting TX 87, before terminating at an intersection with Farm to Market Road 692, near the Louisiana border. RE 255 helps provide access to Angelina National Forest, the Sam Rayburn Reservoir, the Toledo Bend Reservoir, which give the highway its Recreational Road designation. Recreational Road 255 began as Farm to Market Road 255, with the first section of the route being designated in 1945. Throughout the 1950s and the 1960s, FM 255 was extended several times, with the final extension being made in early 1970.
The first stretch of RE 255 was designated in 1970 by Minute Order 063535, creating the first Recreational Road. The highway was extended three more times in the 1970s replacing FM 255. FM 255 had a short spur, designated in 1970, was transferred over to RE 255 in 1974 when the main route was replaced. RE 255 Spur was cancelled in 1979. Recreational Road 255 begins at its western terminus at an intersection with U. S. Route 69 as a two-lane, paved road; the highway proceeds eastward through rural areas, passing several small farms. The roadway continues, turning northeast; the road proceeds northeast before bending east again and continuing. It turns northeasterly. RE 255 continues, passing several homes and the small Gregory Cemetery as well as intersecting several county roads and bending east; the route continues easterly, passing through a large forest and intersecting CR 3725 before crossing the Neches River and exiting Tyler County. After crossing the Neches River, RE 255 enters proceeds easterly.
After a short distance, it crosses over a small relief creek for the Neches River and continues through forested rural areas before turning southeast. The route proceeds over a small creek before bending northeastward; the roadway passes the small community of Beans. While traveling through Beans, the road passes several small houses, it intersects several county roads, including the former RE 255 Spur, now CR 32. The highway enters Angelina National Forest. Recreational Road 255 continues northeasterly, passing through farmland before reaching its junction with SH 63. RE 255 continues northward, entering the community of Ebenezer and intersecting a few local roads in the community; the roadway passes the McGee Cemetery. RE 255 proceeds to the Angelina River at the Sam Rayburn Dam; the road bends northeastward, passing through the small Overlook Park and continuing northeast along the dam. It continues along the dam; the dam ends after 1.5 miles and the highway exits Angelina National Forest and enters Twin Dikes Park.
The roadway continues, taking a large bend southeast and intersecting several local roads that lead to the reservoir. The highway proceeds southeasterly, passing several small homes and businesses that make up a portion of the community of Sam Rayburn. RE 255 proceeds northeast for a short distance before shifting eastward through Rayburn Country and intersecting FM 1007. Turning southeast, the route passes the southern edge of the Rayburn Country golf resort before exiting the community of Sam Rayburn and reentering rural areas. RE 255 shifts southeast and proceeds to an intersection with U. S. Route 96, a divided highway; the route bends northeasterly. RE 255 enters Newton County traveling eastward; the highway proceeds eastward before entering dense forest. Continuing eastward, the road reaches an intersection with SH 87; the route continues east. The highway intersects a couple of county routes and turns east before crossing over a small cove on the Toledo Bend Reservoir. RE 255 the enters the community of South Toledo Bend.
It travels parallel to the reservoir. RE 255 passes the Shady Oaks Marina and the Sam Forse Collins Recreational Area before reaching its eastern terminus at an at-grade intersection with FM 692; the Texas Department of Transportation publishes yearly reports of the highway's annual average daily traffic, with counts taken near intersections. In 2010, RE 255's highest traveled point was at the intersection with FM 1007, with a daily county of 2,800 vehicles; the lowest traveled point along the highway is just east of the intersection with SH 87, with a daily county of 550 vehicles. The most traveled point in Tyler County is at the intersection with US 69, with a daily count of 1,100 vehicles; the intersection with FM 1007 has the highest AADT counts in Jasper County, while the most densely traveled point in Newton County is near the intersection with FM 692, at a count of 880 vehicles. These counts are somewhat higher than those of 2008, when the highest taken count, at the FM 1007 intersection, was at just 2,200 vehicles.
The least traveled point had a count of 510 vehicles. At 56.596 miles long, RE 255 is the longe
U.S. Route 190
U. S. Route 190 is an east -- west United States Highway in Texas. Segments of US 190 will be upgraded to Interstate 14, the first 24.8-mile segment was opened on January 26, 2017. The western terminus is at a point where US 190 intersects with I-10, a few miles east of Bakersfield and 20 mi west of the town of Iraan, in the middle of Pecos County, it runs east through Texas Hill Country speckled with sage brush, intersecting with State Highway 305, crossing into Schleicher County, intersecting with US 277 in Eldorado. Just outside Eldorado was. US 190 continues east into Menard County, intersecting State Highway 864, passing a few miles north of Fort McKavett State Historic Site, entering Menard and intersecting with US 83 north a short distance. Continuing on a northeastward route US 190 enters McCulloch County and into Brady; as the closest city to the geographical center of Texas, the city proclaims itself the "True Heart of Texas", "where five major highways meet, making it a major gateway to all regions of the state".
US 190 enters Brady from the south merging and running concurrently with north US 377 and US 87 through town, intersecting Farm to Market Road 2028, FM 2309 splitting with US 87 and US 377, before exiting the city heading east. US 190 goes through Rochelle, enters San Saba County, through Richland Springs where it intersects FM 45, the communities Algerita, Harkeyville, into San Saba, the birthplace of actor Tommy Lee Jones, an intersection with SH 16. Continuing east US 190 enters Lampasas County, entering Lometa and running concurrently with US 183 south into the city of Lampasas. Splitting from US 183 and continuing east, US 190 runs through Kempner and into the extreme southern corner of Coryell County and Copperas Cove, located on the southwestern edge of Fort Hood. On the east side of Copperas Cove, a concurrency with I-14 begins. US 190 traverses through part of Fort Hood, into Bell County and Killeen. Being directly adjacent to the main cantonment of Fort Hood, both Killeen and Copperas Cove depend on the fort and those stationed there.
US enters Temple, where I-14 ends. The highway merges and runs concurrently with SH 36 south. Continuing east and south, US 190 passes through Rogers and enters Milam County Cameron and merges with US 77 south for a distance. A few miles south of Cameron, US 190 runs concurrently with US 79 north. In Hearne, US 190 splits with US 79 and merges to run concurrently with SH 6 south, entering Brazos County, through Benchley, into Bryan, considered the heart of the Brazos Valley, is part of the Bryan-College Station metropolitan area. US 190 splits with SH 6, turning northeast and merging with SH 21 north, entering Kurten, entering Madison County passing through North Zulch and into Madisonville, before merging with I-45 south and into Walker County entering Huntsville, where US 190 splits heading into Eastern Texas. Continuing east, US 190 enters San Jacinto County, passing north of Oakhurst and Point Blank, crossing Lake Livingston, entering Polk County and into Onalaska. US 190 from the west makes a semi-loop up over Lake Livingston and down to Livingston, intersecting US 59 and Business US 59 and through Alabama-Coushatta Indian Reservation, entering Tyler County, merging with FM 256 and into Woodville.
East of Woodville, FM 256 splits north and US 190 crosses BA Steinhagen Lake, into Jasper County, intersecting with SH 63 east, in the center of Jasper intersecting with US 96. Continuing east, US 190 travels through Holly Springs and enters Newton County, proceeding into Newton. In Newton, US 190 turns south through Bon Wier, crosses the Louisiana line. In Newton County, US 190 has been designated one of the routes on the Great Texas Coastal Birding Trail. US 190 crosses the Sabine River and enters the western portion of Louisiana in swampy bayou terrain three miles west of Merryville, Louisiana. Merryville is the location of the old Coushatta Indian village. From Merryville the highway heads north by northeast to the community of Junction, Louisiana referred to as "The Junction". Junction is where Louisiana Highway 111 and US 190 intersect and is the site of a roadside marker and the joining of two Indian trails. From Junction, US 190 heads east to DeRidder, where it runs concurrently with US 171 south and passes several sites on the National Register of Historic Places, such as the Beauregard Parish Jail, Beauregard Parish Courthouse, the DeRidder Commercial Historic District.
US 190 runs concurrently with US 171 to Ragley. From Ragley, the two-lane highway heads nearly due east parallel to I-10 until Opelousas. US 190 crosses the northern reach of the Atchafalaya Basin near the Morganza Spillway en route to Baton Rouge. From Baton Rouge, US 190 passes, in places divided, through Denham Springs, Hammond, Goodbee, Mandeville, before reaching the eastern terminus at Slidell; the stretch between I-12 south of Covington and the intersection with LA 22 at Mandeville is multilane divided with controlled access. The highway's eastern terminus is in the bayous near Slidell, at an intersection with US 90; this junction was once known as the "White Kitchen" after a restaurant, once located there. Acadiana Trail / Evangeline Highway — US 190 in Louisiana Earl Rudder Freeway and Central Texas Expressway — US 190 in Texas In the original 1926 plan, US 190 served the purpose of modern-day I-12, as the road around the north side of Lake Pontchartrain
East Texas is a distinct cultural and ecological area in the U. S. state of Texas. According to the Handbook of Texas, the East Texas area "may be separated from the rest of Texas by a line extending from the Red River in north central Lamar County southwestward to east central Limestone County and southeastward towards eastern Galveston Bay", though most sources separate the Gulf Coast area into a separate region. Another popular, somewhat simpler, definition defines East Texas as the region between the Trinity River and east of Houston, as the western border, the Louisiana border as the eastern border, the Gulf of Mexico as the southern border, the Oklahoma border as the northern border, Arkansas as the northeastern border, extending as far south as Orange, Texas; the East Texas Regions includes Tyler, Longview Lufkin, Palestine, Mount Pleasant, Nacogdoches. Most of the region consists of the Piney Woods ecoregion, East Texas can sometimes be reduced to include only the Piney Woods. At the fringes, towards Central Texas, the forests expand outward toward sparser trees and into open plains.
East Texas comprises 41 counties, 38 of which collaborate in sub-regional Ark-Tex Council of Governments, the East Texas Council of Governments, the Deep East Texas Council of Governments and the South East Texas Regional Planning Commission. Counties included are Anderson, Bowie, Cass, Delta, Gregg, Harrison, Hopkins, Jasper, Lamar, Morris, Newton, Panola, Rains, Red River, Sabine, San Augustine, San Jacinto, Smith, Trinity, Upshur, Van Zandt, Wood County, Texas; the three additional East Texas counties that join with other regional government councils are Chambers County, Liberty County and Walker County, all three in geographic proximity to the Houston metropolitan areas. Outside of the Greater Houston area the average population density is around 18–45 per square mile, with the population density near the Big Thicket dropping below 18 people per sq mi. East Texas's population is large and is centered around the Golden Triangle, Beaumont/Port Arthur/Orange in Southeast Texas. Moving north from the coast and Nacogdoches anchor the population center of Deep East Texas.
Continuing north from Deep East Texas, Tyler and Marshall, in Northeast Texas, along with Texarkana, on the far northeastern border with Arkansas, represent the major population centers in the northern section of East Texas. Only eight miles from the Texas border, Louisiana, is considered the economic and cultural center for the Ark-La-Tex, the area where Arkansas and East Texas meet; the 2010 U. S. Census shows these 41 East Texas counties with a population of 2,057,518 residents, which represents 8% of the total state population of Texas. Per the 2010 US Census records, the five most populous counties are: Jefferson County, Texas Smith County, Texas Gregg County, Texas Bowie County, Texas Angelina County, Texas Per the 2010 US census records, the ten most populous East Texas cities are: Beaumont, Texas Tyler, Texas Longview, Texas Port Arthur, Texas Huntsville, Texas Texarkana, Texas Lufkin, Texas Nacogdoches, Texas Paris, Texas Marshall, Texas According to US Census records from 2010, the population of East Texas counties is 65.93% White Non-Hispanic, 17.44% African-American, 14.29% Hispanic or Latino Origin and 2.34% Other.
East Texas' most ethnically and racially diverse county is Jefferson County, East Texas' largest county which includes the city of Beaumont, with 44.1% White Non-Hispanic, 34.1% African-American, 17.7% Hispanic or Latino Origin and 4.1% Other. Unlike Texas' total state racial demographics, only two counties in East Texas have a majority minority, Jefferson County in the Golden Triangle and Titus County having a 40.6% Hispanic or Latino origin population. East Texas and Southeast Texas has a significant African-American population, ranging to nearly 20% in some counties Climate is the unifying factor in the region's geography—all of East Texas has the humid subtropical climate typical of the Southeast interrupted by intrusions of cold air from the north. East Texas receives 35 to 60 inches, than the rest of Texas. In Houston the average January temperature is 50.4 °F and the average July temperature is 82.6 °F, however Houston has warmer winters than most of East Texas due to its proximity to the coast.
All of East Texas lies within the Gulf Coastal Plain, but with less uniformity than the climate with rolling hills in the north and flat coastal plains in the south. Local vegetation varies from north to south with the lower third consisting of the temperate grassland extending from South Texas to South Louisiana; the upper two-thirds of the region dominated by temperate forest known as the Piney Woods, which extends over 23,500 square miles. The Piney Woods are part of a much larger region of pine-hardwood forest that extends into Louisiana and Oklahoma; the Piney Woods thins out. West of the Piney Woods are the ranchlands and remnant oak forests of the East Central Texas forests ecoregion; the Sabine River, Trinity River, Neches River, Angelina River and Sulphur River are the major rivers in East Texas, but the Br
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Port Arthur, Texas
Port Arthur is a city in Jefferson County within the Beaumont–Port Arthur metropolitan area of the U. S. state of Texas. A small portion extends into Orange County, it is 90 mi east of Houston. It is host to the largest oil refinery in the United States; the population of Port Arthur was 53,818 at the 2010 census, down from 57,755 at the 2000 census. Early attempts at settlements in the area had all failed. However, in 1895, Arthur Stilwell founded Port Arthur, the town grew. Port Arthur was soon developed into a seaport, it became the center of a large oil refinery network. The Rainbow Bridge across the Neches River connects Port Arthur to Bridge City. Aurora was an early settlement attempt near the mouth of Taylor Bayou on Sabine Lake, about 14 miles long and 7 miles wide, it is a saltwater estuary formed by the confluence of the Sabine rivers. Through its tidal outlet, 5-mile-long Sabine Pass, Sabine Lake drains some 50,000 sq mi of Texas and Louisiana into the Gulf of Mexico; the town was conceived in 1837, in 1840 promoters led by Almanzon Huston were offering town lots for sale.
Some were sold. The area next was known as "Sparks", after John Sparks, who moved his family to the shores of Sabine Lake near the site of Aurora; the Eastern Texas Railroad, completed between Sabine Pass and Beaumont, passed 4-mile west of Sparks. However, the American Civil War soon began, rail lines were removed. In 1886, a destructive hurricane hit the coast, causing the remaining residents to dismantle their homes and move to Beaumont. By 1895, Aurora had become a ghost town. Arthur Stilwell led the resettling of the area as part of his planned city of Port Arthur. Pleasure Island now separates the city from the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway; the 18.5-mile man-made island was created between 1899 and 1908 by the Corps of Engineers to support development of the port. Arthur Stilwell founded the Port Arthur Dock Company to manage the port facilities; the port opened with the arrival of the British steamer Saint Oswald in 1899. When oil was discovered in the region, Port Arthur developed for a time as the center of the largest oil refinery network in the world.
Port Arthur is located on the eastern edge of Jefferson County at 29°53′6″N 93°56′24″W, on the west side of Sabine Lake. It is bordered to the northeast by Orange County, to the southeast, across Sabine Lake, by Cameron Parish, Louisiana; the Port Arthur city limits extend south along the west side of Sabine Pass, the outlet of Sabine Lake, as far as the Gulf of Mexico on the city's southern border. To the north the city limits extend across the Neches River into Orange County. Port Arthur is bordered to the northwest by the cities of Nederland and Port Neches, to the northeast by Bridge City in Orange County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 144.1 square miles, of which 76.9 square miles are land and 67.1 square miles, or 46.61%, are covered by water. Communities in Port Arthur include: El Vista Griffing Park Lakeview Pear Ridge Port Acres Sabine Pass Port Arthur is tied with Lake Charles and Astoria, Oregon, as the most humid city in the contiguous United States.
The average relative humidity is 90% in the morning, 72% in the afternoon. As of the 2010 census, 53,818 people, 20,183 households, 13,191 families resided in the city; the population density was 654.6 people per square mile. The 23,577 housing units averaged 284.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 41.7% African American, 37.9% White, 1.2% Native American, 6.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 15.3% from other races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 29.6% of the population. Of the 20,183 households, 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.2% were married couples living together, 19.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.6% were not families. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.31. In the city, the population was distributed as 27.0% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 25.2% from 45 to 64, 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.9 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.1 males. As of the census of 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $26,455, for a family was $32,143. Males had a median income of $30,915 versus $21,063 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,183. About 22.9% of families and 25.2% of the population were below the poverty line. Of the total people living in poverty, 35.2% were under age 18 and 14.4% were age 65 or over. Home to a large portion of United States refining capacity, Port Arthur is now seeing renewed investment in several key installations. Motiva Enterprises is undertaking a major addition to its western Port Arthur refinery, expanding capacity to 600,000 barrels per day; this $10.0 billion project is the largest US refinery expansion to occur in 30 years. Premcor Refining completed a $775 million expansion of its petrochemical plant, BASF/Fina commenced operations of a new $1.75 billion gasification and cogeneration unit on premises of its current installation, which had just completed its own $1 billion upgrade.