A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
88th United States Congress
The Eighty-eighth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from January 3, 1963, to January 3, 1965, during the last year of the administration of U. S. President John F. Kennedy, the first of the administration of his successor, U. S. President Lyndon B. Johnson; the apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Eighteenth Census of the United States in 1960, the number of members was again 435. Both chambers had a Democratic majority. November 22, 1963: Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson became President of the United States on the death of President John F. Kennedy. March 30 – June 10, 1964: The longest filibuster in the history of the Senate was waged against the Civil Rights Act of 1964, with 57 days of debate over a 73-day period, it ended when the Senate voted 71–29 to invoke cloture, with the filibuster carried out by southern members of the Democratic Party, the first successful cloture motion on a civil rights bill.
August 2–4, 1964: Gulf of Tonkin Incident June 10, 1963: Equal Pay Act, Pub. L. 88–38 October 17, 1963: Department of Defense Appropriations Act, Pub. L. 88–149 October 31, 1963: Community Mental Health Centers Act, Pub. L. 88–164, title II, including Mental Retardation Facilities Construction Act December 17, 1963: Clean Air Act, Pub. L. 88–206 July 2, 1964: Civil Rights Act of 1964, Pub. L. 88–352 July 9, 1964: Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964, Pub. L. 88–365 August 7, 1964: Tonkin Gulf Resolution, Pub. L. 88–408 August 20, 1964: Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, Pub. L. 88–452 August 31, 1964: Food Stamp Act of 1964, Pub. L. 88–525 September 3, 1964: Wilderness Act, Pub. L. 88–577 September 4, 1964: Nurse Training Act, Pub. L. 88–581 1964: Library Services and Construction Act January 23, 1964: Twenty-fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, prohibiting both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax, was ratified by the requisite number of states to become part of the Constitution President of the Senate: Lyndon Johnson, until November 22, 1963.
Hickenlooper Speaker: John McCormack Majority Leader: Carl Albert Majority Whip: Hale Boggs Democratic Caucus Chairman: Francis E. Walter, until May 31, 1963 Albert Richard Thomas, from January 21, 1964 Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: Michael J. Kirwan Minority Leader: Charles A. Halleck Minority Whip: Leslie C. Arends Conference Chair: Gerald Ford Policy Committee Chairman: John W. Byrnes House Democratic Caucus Senate Democratic Caucus Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Senators are ordered first by state, by class. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election, In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1964. Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
Aeronautical and Space Sciences Agriculture and Forestry Appropriations Banking and Currency Commerce District of Columbia Finance Foreign Relations Government Operations Interior and Insular Affairs Judiciary Labor and Public Welfare Post Office and Civil Service Public Works Small Business Standards and Conduct Subcommittee on Internal Security Whole Agriculture Appropriations Banking and Currency District of Columbia Education and Labor Foreign Affairs Government Operations House Administration Interior and Insular Affairs Merchant Marine and Fisheries Post Office and Civil Service Public Works Rules Science and Astronautics Small Business Standards of Official Conduct Un-American Activities Veterans' Affairs Ways and Means Whole Atomic Energy Conditions of Indian Tribes Construction of a Building for a Museum of History and Technology for the Smithsonian Defense Production Disposition of Executive Papers Economic Immigration and Nationality Policy Legislative Budget The Library Navajo-Hopi Indian Administration Printing Reduction of Nonessential Federal Expenditures Taxation Architect of the Capitol: J. George Stewart Attending Physician of the United States Congress: George Calver Compt
GAF Materials Corporation
GAF is a manufacturing company based in Parsippany, New Jersey, that has roots dating back to the late 19th century. The GAF acronym stands for General Film; the company has been focused on manufacturing of roofing materials for residential and commercial applications. At one time GAF was active in manufacturing photographic film as well as cameras and projectors, was the manufacturer of the View-Master, the famous line of 3D transparencies and projectors. In the 1970s, it was the official film of Disneyland and Walt Disney World, at this time, actor Henry Fonda served as the company's spokesman in several television commercials including one that featured Jodie Foster in her first acting role. Jim Schnepper is the President of an operating subsidiary of Standard Industries. Founded in 1886, GAF has become one of the largest roofing manufacturers in North America, with sales approaching $3 billion. With more than two dozen manufacturing plants located throughout the United States, the company has over 3,000 employees and sells its roofing products worldwide.
American IG, began as the American holdings of the German IG Farben 1886 – Company founded as The Standard Paint Company 1892 – First ready-to-lay asphalt roofing is created, known as "Ruberoid" 1904 – Method perfected to embed colored granules in asphalt coating 1912 – Individually-cut asphalt shingles are introduced 1921 – Based on the success of its roofing line, Standard Paint changes its name to the Ruberoid Company 1928 - The American holdings of the German company I. G. Farben were organized into American I. G.. 1933 – Interlocking shingles introduced 1941 - American assets seized as enemy property by the U. S. government.1965 - The U. S. government sells shares of GAF.1966 – General Aniline & Film acquires Sawyer's, manufacturer of photographic equipment1967 – Ruberoid merges with General Aniline & Film and adopts the GAF name1967 – "Timberline" architectural shingle introduced 1968 – General Aniline & Film Corp. formally changes its name to GAF Corporation1982 – Samuel J. Heyman took control of the company 1987 – Samuel J. Heyman took the company private.
7, 2001, GAF's principal shareholder became the 27th company in the United States to file for protection under Chapter 11 of the U. S. Bankruptcy Code from liabilities relating to asbestos-related bodily injury claims. In what was an ill-fated acquisition, GAF's purchase of Ruberoid brought with it a product line that contained considerable quantities of asbestos; the asbestos-containing products ranged from roofing shingles and siding to insulation and numerous other construction-related products. Along with the purchase came ownership of an asbestos mine in Vermont. Once the sale was complete, GAF Corporation became the de facto leader in asbestos supplies in the state; the mine was shut down in 1975. GAF's roofing business was not involved in the manufacture or sale of asbestos containing products and thus it did not have any liability related to these claims. GAF's shareholder emerged from bankruptcy in 2009 having discharged its asbestos-related bodily injury claims. Steep Slope Certifications GAF Master Elite.
GAF Certified Authorized Home BuilderLow Slope Certifications GAF Master Select GAF MasterSolar Certifications GAF Solar EliteAll require a contractor to be licensed, insured, up to date on training requirements, to be in good standing regarding customer satisfaction. GAF - Roofing GAF Truslate - Slate Roofing GAF Canada GAF Poland GAF Factory Certified Contractors NY http://www.colorantshistory.org/IGFarbenAmerica.html
The Hotchkiss School is a private, coeducational, college preparatory boarding school in Lakeville, founded in 1891. The school offers a classical education with grades 9–12 and a postgraduate option, attracting students across the United States and 34 foreign countries. Hotchkiss is a member of the Eight Schools Association, Ten Schools Admissions Organization, G20 Schools group, Founders League, New England Preparatory School Athletic Council, New England Association of Schools and Colleges, The Association of Boarding Schools, National Association of Independent Schools, Global Education Benchmark Group, Round Square, Cum Laude Society, Green Schools Alliance. Hotchkiss has one of the largest private school endowments in the country. In 1891, Maria Harrison Bissell Hotchkiss, with guidance from Yale President Timothy Dwight V, founded the school to prepare young men for Yale University. In 1892, The Hotchkiss School opened its doors to 50 male boarding students for $600. Hotchkiss's endowment precipitated scholarship aid to deserving students.
In 1974, the school became coeducational. George Van Santvoord, a headmaster hailed as the Duke with an honorary dorm, claimed there was only one school rule: "Be a gentleman." In 1954, TIME recognized in Education: The Duke Steps Down, that "of all U. S. prep schools, few, if any, can beat the standards Hotchkiss has set." Maria Hotchkiss was uninterested in establishing "a school for the pampered sons of rich gentlemen." The school has enrolled international students since 1896. In 1928, the school joined the English-Speaking Union and established the International Schoolboy Exchange. Established by the Class of 1948, the Fund for Global Understanding enables student participation in summer service projects across the world. In 1953, Hotchkiss alumnus Eugene Van Voorhis incorporated the Ulysses S. Grant Foundation program to assist minority New Haven students with boarding school admission, with Hotchkiss formally participating in addition to other recruitment initiatives from the 1960s onward, such as A Better Chance, Greater Opportunity summer program for inner-city students, Prep for Prep to foster minority leaders.
The school has a 43% diverse student body, offers a School Year Abroad program, is a member of the Global Education Benchmark Group, Round Square, Confucius Institute International Division. In 2010, Hotchkiss partnered with Peking University High School to establish its study abroad, international division called Dalton Academy. On August 16, 2018, an independent investigation released by the school found that seven former faculty members abused students for years, yet school administrators took no action when made aware of the sexual misconduct; the report stated that the abuse, stretching from 1969 through 1992, involved at least 16 students and consisted of intercourse and unnecessary "medical gynecological" exams. The law firm hired by the school interviewed more than 150 individuals and reviewed more than 200,000 pages of documents. A former headmaster, serving on the Board of Trustees resigned after cooperating with investigators. Board of Trustee representatives said the information would be turned over to law enforcement officials.
In 2015, a lawsuit was filed against the school by a male student who claimed that he had been subject to rape and sexual harassment in "an environment of well-known and tolerated sexual assaults, sexually violent hazing, pedophilia" wherein the Dormitory Master and instructor had drugged him and lured him to his quarters where he was raped. The plaintiff in the suit wrote an article for the student newspaper about the failure of the school to appropriately respond to complaints, yet the headmaster blocked publication and, according to the suit "conspired to prevent from informing the students and the school community about the faculty members's sexual assault and his aberrant and predatory propensities and behavior."As a result of this complaint and others, the investigation by the law firm was initiated, resulting in the August 2018 report. Operating on a semester schedule, Hotchkiss offers a classical education, 224 courses, 7 foreign languages, study abroad programs. In 1991, the New York Times recognized Hotchkiss' summer program as, "Summer School for the Very Ambitious" and in 2011, as a private school leader in the farm-to-table movement, by incorporating agriculture into the curriculum since 2008.
The year prior, the Deerfield Scroll featured that "many consider The Hotchkiss School to be the leader in environmental awareness among the top prep schools in the country."The school has a 100% college matriculation rate, among the classes of 2011–14, 33 enrolled at Yale, 19 at Harvard, 16 at Princeton. In 2007, The Wall Street Journal listed Hotchkiss as among the schools with a higher success rate in matriculation at Harvard and six others. Hotchkiss fields 19 interscholastic sports teams that compete in the Founders League, Eight Schools Athletic Council, New England Preparatory School Athletic Council, Interscholastic Sailing Association's New England Schools Sailing Association district, its colors are Yale Blue and white, with the mascot being the bearcat. In 1933, Samuel Gottscho photographed the Hotchkiss baseball team, which appears in the Library of Congress' Gottscho-Schleisner Collection. Despite Kent School's location in the same county and Taft School have a long-standing rivalry, where on
Eugene Luther Gore Vidal was an American writer and public intellectual known for his patrician manner, epigrammatic wit, polished style of writing. Vidal was born to a political family, he was a Democratic Party politician. S. Senate; as a political commentator and essayist, Vidal's principal subject was the history of the United States and its society how the militaristic foreign policy reduced the country to a decadent empire. His political and cultural essays were published in The Nation, the New Statesman, the New York Review of Books, Esquire magazines; as a public intellectual, Gore Vidal's topical debates on sex and religion with other intellectuals and writers turned into quarrels with the likes of William F. Buckley Jr. and Norman Mailer. Vidal thought all men and women are bisexual; as a novelist Vidal explored the nature of corruption in private life. His polished and erudite style of narration evoked the time and place of his stories, perceptively delineated the psychology of his characters.
His third novel, The City and the Pillar, offended the literary and moral sensibilities of conservative book reviewers, with a dispassionately presented male homosexual relationship. In the historical novel genre, Vidal re-created in Julian the imperial world of Julian the Apostate, the Roman emperor who used general religious toleration to re-establish pagan polytheism to counter the political subversion of Christian monotheism. In the genre of social satire, Myra Breckinridge explores the mutability of gender role and sexual orientation as being social constructs established by social mores. In Burr and Lincoln, the protagonist is presented as "A Man of the People" and as "A Man" in a narrative exploration of how the public and private facets of personality affect the national politics of the United States. Eugene Louis Vidal was born in the cadet hospital of the U. S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, the only child of Eugene Luther Vidal and Nina S. Gore. Vidal was born there because his first lieutenant father was the first aeronautics instructor of the military academy.
The middle name, was a mistake on the part of his father, "who could not remember, for certain, whether his own name was Eugene Louis or Eugene Luther". In the memoir Palimpsest, Vidal said, "My birth certificate says'Eugene Louis Vidal': this was changed to Eugene Luther Vidal Jr.. The baptismal ceremony was effected so he "could be confirmed " at the Washington Cathedral, in February 1939, as "Eugene Luther Gore Vidal", he said that, although the surname "Gore" was added to his names at the time of the baptism, "I wasn't named for him, although he had a great influence on my life." In 1941, Vidal dropped his two first names, because he "wanted a sharp, distinctive name, appropriate for an aspiring author, or a national political leader... I wasn't going to write as'Gene' since there was one. I didn't want to use the'Jr.'" Eugene Luther Vidal Sr. was director of the Commerce Department's Bureau of Air Commerce during the Roosevelt Administration, was the great love of the aviator Amelia Earhart.
At the U. S. Military Academy, the exceptionally athletic Vidal Sr. had been a quarterback and captain of the football team. Subsequently, he competed in the 1924 Summer Olympics. In the 1920s and the 1930s, Vidal Sr. co-founded a railroad line. Gore's great-grandfather Eugen Fidel Vidal was born in Feldkirch, Austria, of Romansh background, had come to the U. S. with Gore's Swiss great-grandmother, Emma Hartmann. Vidal's mother, Nina Gore, was a socialite who made her Broadway theatre debut as an extra actress in Sign of the Leopard, in 1928. In 1922, Nina married Eugene Luther Vidal, Sr. and thirteen years in 1935, divorced him. Nina Gore Vidal was married two more times, she had "a long off-and-on affair" with the actor Clark Gable. As Nina Gore Auchincloss, Vidal's mother was an alternate delegate to the 1940 Democratic National Convention; the subsequent marriages of his mother and father yielded four half-siblings for Gore Vidal – Vance Vidal, Valerie Vidal, Thomas Gore Auchincloss, Nina Gore Auchincloss – and four step-brothers from his mother's third marriage to Robert Olds, a major general in the United States Army Air Forces, who died in 1943, 10 months after marrying Nina.
The nephews of Gore Vidal include Burr Steers, a writer and film director, Hugh Auchincloss Steers, a figurative painter. Raised in Washington, D. C. Vidal attended the St. Albans School. Given the blindness of his maternal grandfather, Senator Thomas Pryor Gore, of Oklahoma, Vidal read aloud to him, was his Senate page, his seeing-eye
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Yale Law School
Yale Law School is the law school of Yale University, located in New Haven, United States. Established in 1824, Yale Law offers the J. D. LL. M. J. S. D. M. S. L. and Ph. D. degrees in law. The school's small size and prestige make its admissions process the most selective of any law school in the United States, with an acceptance rate of 6.7% in the 2017-18 cycle. Its yield rate of 85% is the highest of any law school in the United States. Yale Law has been ranked the number one law school in the country by U. S. News and World Report every year since the magazine began publishing law school rankings. Considered to be the preeminent law school in the nation, it is one of the most prestigious law schools in the world. Yale Law has produced a significant number of luminaries in law and politics, including United States presidents Gerald Ford, Bill Clinton and former U. S. secretary of state and presidential nominee, Hillary Clinton. Former president William Howard Taft was a professor of constitutional law at Yale Law School from 1913 until he resigned to become chief justice of the United States in 1921.
Alumni include current United States Supreme Court associate justices Clarence Thomas, Samuel Alito, Sonia Sotomayor and Brett Kavanaugh, as well as a number of former justices, including Abe Fortas, Potter Stewart and Byron White. S. senators. Each class in Yale Law's three-year J. D. program enrolls 200 students. Yale's flagship law review is the Yale Law Journal, one of the most cited legal publications in the nation. According to Yale Law School's 2014 ABA-required disclosures, 88.3% of the Class of 2014 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required or JD-advantage employment nine months after graduation, excluding solo practitioners. The institution is known for its scholarly orientation. Another feature of Yale Law's culture since the 1930s, among both faculty and student graduates, has been an emphasis on the importance of spending at least a few years in government service. A similar emphasis has long been placed on service as a judicial law clerk upon graduation, its 7.6:1 student-to-faculty ratio is the third lowest among U.
S. law schools. Yale Law does not have a traditional grading system, a consequence of student unrest in the late 1960s. Instead, it grades first-semester first-year students on a simple Credit/No Credit system. For their remaining two-and-a-half years, students are graded on an Honors/Pass/Low Pass/Fail system; the school does not rank its students. It is notable for having only a single semester of required classes, instead of the full year most U. S. schools require. Unusually, as a result of unique Connecticut State court rules, Yale Law allows first-year students to represent clients through one of its numerous clinics. Students publish nine law journals that, unlike those at most other schools accept student editors without a competition; the only exception is YLS's flagship journal, the Yale Law Journal, which holds a two-part admissions competition each spring, consisting of a four or five-hour "bluebooking exam," followed by a traditional writing competition. Although the Journal identifies a target maximum number of members to accept each year, it is not a firm number.
Other leading student-edited publications include the Yale Journal on Regulation, the Yale Law and Policy Review, the Yale Journal of International Law. In November 2013, it was announced that a $25 million donation would bring student dormitory living back onto campus, with renovations to begin in 2018. Yale Law has been ranked the number one law school in the country by U. S. News and World Report in every year in which the magazine has published law school rankings. Among U. S. law schools, Yale has the lowest acceptance rate and the highest yield rate—whereas less than 10% of applicants are admitted, about 80% of those who are accepted enroll, either in the Fall following their acceptance or after a deferral. It is ranked as the second best law school in U. S and fourth in the world by the 2016 QS Rankings; the school saw a greater percentage of its students go on to become Supreme Court clerks between the 2000 and 2010 terms than any other law school, more than double the percentage of the second-highest law school.
In addition to producing the most Supreme Court clerks per capita, Yale saw a greater percentage of its graduates accept federal clerkships among the United States Courts of Appeal and District Courts than any other law school. Additionally, a 2010 survey of "scholarly impact," measured by per capita citations to faculty scholarship, found Yale's faculty to be the most cited law school faculty in the United States; the School began in the New Haven law office of Seth P. Staples in the 1800s, who began training lawyers. By 1810 he was operating a law school, he took on a former student, Samuel J. Hitchcock as a law partner, Hitchcock became the proprietor of the New Haven Law School, joined by David Daggett in 1824. (The Y