Emory and Henry College
Emory & Henry College is a private liberal arts college in Emory, Virginia. The campus comprises 335 acres of Washington County, part of the Appalachian highlands of Southwest Virginia. Founded in 1836, Emory & Henry College is the oldest institution of higher learning in Southwest Virginia. Emory & Henry College is named after John Emory, a renowned Methodist bishop, Patrick Henry, an American patriot and Virginia's first governor, though some research suggests the name honors Henry's sister Elizabeth Henry Campbell Russell, who lived in nearby Saltville and Chilhowie; the college was founded upon the principles of vital faith and civic engagement by Creed Fulton, a Methodist minister. The foundation for Wiley Hall was laid on September 30, 1836; the Board of Trustees hired Charles Collins as the institution's first president, with classes beginning in the spring of 1838, with 60 students enrolled. The college closed its doors in April 1861 during the Civil War and was commandeered by the Confederate States of America in 1862, operating as a hospital until 1865.
During this time the campus saw battle during the Battle of Saltville. The hospital was the setting of Lieutenant Smith's murder on October 1864 by Champ Ferguson. After the war ended, the college reopened. During World War II, Emory & Henry was one of 131 US colleges and universities that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. Today, the college comprises a student body population of 1,100 and employs 75 full-time professors. Located in the Virginia Highlands, the Emory & Henry central campus encompasses 168 acres and is surrounded by an additional 167 undeveloped acres in the village of Emory; the entire central campus is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and the Virginia Register of Historic Landmarks. With many campus buildings dating from the mid-19th century, several major academic buildings are part of a historic district, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, including Wiley Hall, built 1838 and was used as a Confederate hospital during the Civil War.
In recent years, Emory & Henry has experienced a building boom, most notably with the construction of the James H. Brooks Field House, a major expansion of Byars Hall, the construction of the Woodrow W. McGlothlin Center for the Arts. Residence halls Emory & Henry boasts newly renovated campus housing. Among the residence halls are the newly built Elm and Hickory halls, which feature double occupancy rooms, each with its own bathroom. In the Emory "village" students enjoy Prillaman and Linden houses, modern residences that feature single and double occupancy rooms in a home-like setting. Other residence halls include Martha Washington Hall and Hillman Hall. Academics Academic buildings include McGlothlin-Street Hall which includes Emory & Henry's science programs as well as programs in education, political science and history. Historic Byars Hall was expanded to include classrooms, rehearsal spaces and office space for the Division of Visual and Performing Arts; the Hermesian and Calliopean rooms, which are home to the College's historic debate societies, have been restored to their early elegance.
Students attend classes on the main E&H campus in the Creed Fulton Observatory, Miller Hall and Wiley Hall. Other buildings Other campus buildings include Memorial Chapel, Kelly Library, the King Athletic Center, Brook Field House, Martin-Brock Student Center, Van Dyke, Emily Williams House, Tobias-Smyth Cabin. Emory & Henry College's liberal arts academic program is based upon a required four-year core curriculum of history and culture; the college has more than 25 academic programs of study, offers more than 50 bachelor degrees, offers master's degrees in education and community and organizational leadership. The college's programs in public policy and community service and international studies have been nationally recognized. Students have the opportunity to travel abroad with professors, they may attend a range of lectures and cultural events, called Lyceums, led by political figures, area experts, or artists. Service Students have opportunities to volunteer. Volunteerism can be achieved through social activism with the Public Policy and Community Service Program and the Appalachian Center for Civic Life.
The service fraternity Alpha Phi Omega has a chapter at Henry College. Student research E&H professors prepare students by providing research opportunities. Students studying biology might collect microbes 150 feet under water. Physics majors could find themselves photographing binary stars. Students doing research for a political science class might present their work to a major conferences such as the Western Political Science Association. Study abroad The International Education and Study Abroad Program is an important part of the liberal arts curriculum. In a partnership with CIEE, students have spent semesters or summers abroad, or participated in Emory abroad courses — short-term international programs led by the E&H faculty. Through active engagement, the program enhances global awareness through an understanding of cultural diversity and global interdependence. Lyceum Each year and Henry holds close to 100 concerts, theatre performances, dance performances, films and poetry readings to complete the academic experience.
Of the lyceum events, the biggest are a literary festival each November and a Spring Forum focused on a particular social
Pride of the Southland Band
The Pride of the Southland Band is the official name of the University of Tennessee's marching band. The Pride of the Southland Marching Band has been performing at halftime for more than 110 years, but has existed since 1869 when it was founded as part of the Military Department, forerunner to the school's ROTC program, it is one of the oldest collegiate band programs in the country. Its instrumentation in 1883 was made up of cornets; the band continued to grow to between thirteen and seventeen members, in 1892, it was reorganized under Ernest H. Garratt; the band wore West Point-style uniforms like the rest of the cadets in the Military Department and had a more varied repertoire of instruments, including a clarinet. At the turn of the twentieth century, William A. Knabe was appointed as band director, he was the first “full-time” band director. UT won the first game at which the band performed in 1902. By 1917, the band had doubled in size; the band grew along with the military units on campus.
By 1935, the band boasted eighty-five members, but remained all male due to the band’s continued association with the Military Department. In 1937, an all-female contingent called, its membership ranged from fifty to ninety. The 1940s brought women into the band. Two of the first women to play with the band were Martha Carroll, who played the lyre, Marjorie Abbott, a marimba player. By 1946, women outnumbered the male members of the band, due to World War II and the dearth of male students. By 1949, the band retained female majorettes. Major Walter Ryba was properties master for the Army and Air Force ROTC at Knoxville and for the Army ROTC at the UT-Martin campus; the name "Pride of the Southland" was a group decision of the band members themselves, on the morning of October 15, 1949, as they stood around on the sidelines at Legion Field in Birmingham, Alabama awaiting a chance to practice for the afternoon game. They were waiting for Alabama's Million Dollar Band, under the direction of "Colonel" Butler, to finish its practice.
That afternoon as the band came out on the field and paused for introduction, for the first time "Presenting The University of Tennessee's Pride of the Southland Band under the direction of'Major' Walter M. Ryba" was heard over the loudspeakers by the 44,000 fans present and listeners on the radio, it was felt that Ryba did not know ahead of time that he was receiving a "commission". In 1961, Tennessee native W J Julian was hired as an associate professor and director of the UT bands. Under Julian's leadership the band grew in size and reputation; the band was removed from the ROTC department and placed under the Music Education Department. Julian designed the band’s black, orange and creme-colored uniforms, which paid homage to the band’s military past and are still in use to this day; some of the many traditions established under Julian's direction are: the band's signature "Big Orange Sound". Although Julian retired in 1993, the band still upholds the tradition of excellence. Besides representing the State of Tennessee in 13 presidential inaugurations, the band has appeared at the many bowl games the Vol football team has traveled to throughout the nation.
Additionally, due to Julian's influence, the Pride is one of the few bands outside the Big Ten Conference to use the traditional and physically demanding chair step marching style. It is one of the few bands outside the Big Ten with a strutting drum major. In March 2007, The Pride traveled to Dublin, Ireland, to play at various concerts and in the St. Patrick's Day Parade. Director of Bands Gary Sousa was removed from his post October 14, 2013, placed on administrative leave by the university after a public confrontation with the UT Athletic Department. Donald Ryder was appointed interim Director of Bands, Michael Stewart was appointed interim Associate Director. On January 29, 2015 it was announced that Ryder would permanently serve as Director of Bands and W J Julian Professor of Music, Stewart would permanently serve as Associate Director of Bands; the UT Marching Band is an mobile unit. The UT band customarily enters the field live, playing music from the initial step-off from the sideline.
The Pride's pregame show was designed by Julian with musical arrangements by Warren Clark and Barry McDonald. This six minute and forty-five second show has remained unchanged since the 1960s, it begins with the drumline starting off a cadence as the band marches onto the field. Part of the "Tennessee Waltz March," a march version of the "Tennessee Waltz" in common time, is played as the band forms a block formation; the band plays the National Anthem in this formation. The full version of the "Tennessee Waltz March" followed by, starting in the 2007 season, a march version of Alabama's "Tennessee River" the "Alma Mater March"; as they march back playing the "Al
The Tennessee Volunteers and Lady Volunteers are the 18 male and female varsity intercollegiate athletics programs that represent the University of Tennessee in Knoxville, Tennessee. The Volunteers compete in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association as a member of the Southeastern Conference. In December 2017, former Tennessee football coach Phillip Fulmer was introduced as Tennessee's new athletic director. Fulmer gained the position after a tumultuous football coaching search led to the dismissal of then-AD John Currie. Men's and women's teams with the exception of women's basketball are called the Volunteers The Tennessee women's basketball team is called the Lady Volunteers; these names come from the nickname of The Volunteer State. The Tennessee Volunteers have competed in the Southeastern Conference since its inception in 1932 and been at the top; the Vols have adopted a tradition for competing in every sport resulting in many teams being ranked in the top 25. Tennessee has been known for its football and women's basketball programs that have both featured several famous coaches including Robert Neyland and Pat Summitt.
Tennessee's football team won the first BCS National Championship Game and represents the 9th winningest program in the NCAA. Tennessee women's basketball team won the 2007 and 2008 National Championships earning Pat Summit her eighth NCAA national title, at the time the most in college basketball. Overall Tennessee has won 147 regular season SEC championships and 23 national championships in women's basketball, men's indoor and outdoor track & field, women's indoor and outdoor track & field, men's swimming & diving; the only Tennessee sport that does not compete in the SEC is women's rowing which competes in Big 12. The rowing team competed in Conference USA, they won the 2010 Conference USA rowing championship. Many of Tennessee's traditions come from the early 20th century. Tennessee's orange and white colors were selected by Charles Moore, a member of the first football team in 1891, they were approved by a student body vote. The colors were chosen because of the common American daisy which grew on The Hill, an area of campus surrounding UT's most notable building, Ayres Hall.
The orange color is distinct to the school, dubbed "UT Orange", has been offered by The Home Depot for sale as a paint, licensed by the university. Home games at Neyland Stadium have been described as a "sea of Orange" due to the large number of fans wearing the school color. Tennessee adopted the name Volunteers, or more Vols, because of a now-official nickname that Tennessee received during the War of 1812, the Volunteer State; the name became more prominent in the Mexican War when Governor Aaron V. Brown issued a call for 2,800 men to battle Santa Ana and some 30,000 Tennesseans volunteered; the iconized'T' that represents the men's Tennessee sports programs was introduced by Doug Dickey and re-designed by Johnny Majors. The once-separate men and women's programs allowed the women's sports to adopt a separate identity apart from the men's by not only referring to themselves as the Lady Vols but adopting the color Columbia Blue into their uniforms and adopting a different logo with a different'T' that represents the Lady Vols.
The famous Smokey mascot was introduced in 1953 by Rev. Bill Brooks who entered his prize-winning blue tick coon hound, "Brooks' Blue Smokey," in a contest at halftime of the Mississippi State game that season; the dogs were lined up on the old cheerleaders' ramp at Shields-Watkins Field and each dog was introduced over the loudspeaker and the student body cheered for their favorite, with "Blue Smokey" being the last hound introduced. When his name was called, he barked; the students cheered and Smokey threw his head back and barked again. This kept going until the stadium was in an uproar and UT had found its mascot, Smokey; the known and unique tradition of running through the'T' on game days began in 1965 when Doug Dickey moved the teams' bench to the east side and had the team enter and turning around back to their sideline through a giant'T' performed by the Pride of the Southland Band. Changes came in 1983 and 2010, namely the direction of the team from turning around to going right and left out of the T.
From the team's locker room at the north end zone. One of the biggest and most popular trademarks and most recognized sights, other than the running through the T, about Tennessee sports is the orange and white checkerboard end zones, introduced in the 1960s and reappeared in the 1980s, inspired by the checkerboard design that Ayres Hall features on its outside brick work, can be found in the Thompson-Boling Arena on the basketball court; the Hill is another memorable aspect about UT because since the 19th century, The Hill has been symbolic of higher education in the state of Tennessee. The university, founded in 1794 as Blount College, moved to "The Hill" in 1828 and grew around it; the main part of UT's old campus stands on this rise above the north shore of the Tennessee River. Neyland Stadium sprawls between it and the River; the Vol Navy is one of the most unusual experiences for a game day at any school because only UT, the University of Pittsburgh, the University of Washington are adjacent to major bodies of waters.
Today 200 boats of all shapes and sizes make up this giant floating tailgate party on the river every fall, boats begin arriving days in advance of home games. The "Pride of the Southland" is one of the most recognizable bands in the country and has represented the st
Victory Tour (The Jacksons tour)
The Victory Tour was a concert tour of the United States and Canada by The Jacksons between July and December 1984. It was the only tour with all six Jackson brothers though Jackie was injured for most of it; the group performed 55 concerts to an audience of 2 million. Most came to see Michael, whose album Thriller had been dominating the popular music world at the time. Many consider it to be his Thriller tour, with most of the songs on the set list coming from his Off the Wall and Thriller albums; the tour grossed $75 million and set a new record for the highest-grossing tour. It showcased black sequined jacket and moonwalk. Despite its focus on Michael, it was named after the then-new Jacksons' album Victory though none of the album's songs were performed. According to Marlon, this was because Michael refused to perform them. On the tour, tensions between Michael and his brothers increased so much that at the final show he announced that it would be the last time they would perform together, ending plans for a European and Australian leg of the tour in the spring and summer of 1985.
The Jacksons and promoter Don King did make money from the tour. Michael donated his share to several charities as he had promised before it, but the rancor between him and his brothers had a deep and lasting effect on the Jacksons as a family, alienating him from them for most of his life and it ended the Jacksons as a performing group, they made one more album in 1989, but aside from the concert celebrating Michael's 30 years as a solo artist in 2001, they never toured again during Michael's lifetime. The tour was a financial disaster for promoter Chuck Sullivan, who along with his father Billy was forced to sell the New England Patriots football team they owned, along with Foxboro Stadium, the team's home field, as a result of the losses he incurred. In November 1983, the Jacksons announced plans for a major tour in 1984 at a press conference, with boxing promoter Don King offering $3 million in upfront advances; that spring, the Victory album was recorded. On the eve of the tour in July, Michael announced, in response to complaints about the lottery system for allocating tickets, that his entire earnings for the tour would go to charities—The United Negro College Fund, the Michael Jackson Scholarship Fund, Camp Good Times for terminally ill children and the T.
J. Martell Foundation for Leukemia and Cancer Research. At the time the tour was announced, the Jacksons had not lined up a promoter for the shows. In the spring of 1984, Chuck Sullivan, son of Billy Sullivan, owner of the New England Patriots of the National Football League, went to Los Angeles to see if he could get the Jacksons to choose the team's home, Sullivan Stadium, which the family owned, for the group's Boston-area shows. After using his financial and legal expertise to help his father regain control of the team he had founded and built in the wake of a 1974 boardroom coup, the younger Sullivan, who had promoted concerts as an undergraduate at Boston College and during his Army service in Thailand, had begun staging concerts at the stadium to generate extra income for the team. At a meeting, Frank DiLeo, a vice president at Epic Records, the Jacksons' label, told Sullivan that the group's talks with its original promoter had broken down and they were seeking a replacement. Sensing an opportunity, Sullivan returned to Boston and began putting together the financing to allow Stadium Management Corp. the Patriots' subsidiary that operated the stadium, to promote the entire Victory tour.
He partnered with Eddie DeBartolo owner of another NFL team, the San Francisco 49ers, in putting together a bid offering the Jacksons two-thirds of the tour's gross revenue against a guaranteed $40 million. DeBartolo withdrew when he began to see the deal as too risky, but Sullivan persevered by himself, in late April DiLeo told him at another meeting in Los Angeles that SMC, which had never handled a tour, would be the promoter of the year's most eagerly anticipated concert tour, expected to gross $70–80 million; the deal was generous to the Jacksons. Sullivan had agreed that they would receive 83.4% of gross potential ticket revenues, which meant in practical terms that the group would be paid as if the show had sold out regardless of whether it did. That percentage was at least 25 points above what was at that time the industry standard for artists on tour. Sullivan guaranteed the Jacksons an advance of $36.6 million. He put the stadium up as collateral for a $12.5 million loan to pay the first installment shortly before the tour started.
The balance was due two weeks later. The month after winning the tour bid, Sullivan approached stadium managers at the NFL's meetings, many of whom were there to bid for future Super Bowls, he sought changes to their usual arrangements with touring performers in order to make the Victory Tour more profitable. Kansas City's Arrowhead Stadium, home of the Chiefs, agreed to accept only a $100,000 fee for the three opening concerts instead of its usual percentage of ticket sales and concessions; the Gator Bowl in Jacksonville, provided nearly half a million dollars' worth of free goods and services. 26 of the 55 dates were played in 17 stadiums that were home to NFL teams. But some others balked at Sullivan's demands. To use John F. Kennedy Stadium, he asked the city of Philadelphia for $400,000 in tax breaks and subsidies. Among them were f
Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War
Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War began with demonstrations in 1964 against the escalating role of the U. S. grew into a broad social movement over the ensuing several years. This movement informed and helped shape the vigorous and polarizing debate in the United States, during the second half of the 1960s and early 1970s on how to end the war. Many in the peace movement within the U. S. were mothers, or anti-establishment hippies. Opposition grew with participation by the African-American civil rights, women's liberation, Chicano movements, sectors of organized labor. Additional involvement came from many other groups, including educators, academics, lawyers and military veterans, their actions consisted of peaceful, nonviolent events. In some cases, police used violent tactics against peaceful demonstrators. By 1967, according to Gallup Polls, an increasing majority of Americans considered U. S. military involvement in Vietnam to be a mistake, echoed decades by the head of American war planning, former U.
S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara; the draft, a system of conscription that drew from minorities and lower and middle class whites, drove much of the protest after 1965. Conscientious objectors played an active role despite their small numbers; the prevailing sentiment that the draft was unfairly administered inflamed blue-collar American African-American, opposition to the military draft itself. Opposition to the war arose during a time of unprecedented student activism, which followed the free speech movement and the Civil Rights Movement; the military draft mobilized the baby boomers, who were most at risk, but it grew to include a varied cross-section of Americans. The growing opposition to the Vietnam War was attributed to greater access to uncensored information through extensive television coverage on the ground in Vietnam. Beyond opposition to the draft, anti-war protesters made moral arguments against U. S. involvement in Vietnam. That moral imperative argument against the war was popular among American college students, who were more than the general public to accuse the United States of having imperialistic goals in Vietnam and to criticize the war as "immoral."
Civilian deaths, which were downplayed or omitted by the Western media, became a subject of protest when photographic evidence of casualties emerged. An infamous photo of General Nguyễn Ngọc Loan shooting an alleged terrorist in handcuffs during the Tet Offensive provoked public outcry. Another element of the American opposition to the war was the perception that U. S. intervention in Vietnam, argued as acceptable because of the domino theory and the threat of communism, was not justifiable. Some Americans believed that the communist threat was used as a scapegoat to hide imperialistic intentions, others argued that the American intervention in South Vietnam interfered with the self-determination of the country and felt that the war in Vietnam was a civil war that ought to have determined the fate of the country and that America was wrong to intervene. Media coverage of the war shook the faith of citizens at home as new television brought images of wartime conflict to the kitchen table. Newsmen like NBC's Frank McGee stated that the war was all but lost as a "conclusion to be drawn inescapably from the facts."
For the first time in American history, the media had the means to broadcast battlefield images. Graphic footage of casualties on the nightly news eliminated any myth of the glory of war. With no clear sign of victory in Vietnam, American military casualties helped stimulate opposition to the war by Americans. In their book Manufacturing Consent, Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman challenge that traditional view of how the media influenced the war and propose that the media instead censored the more brutal images of the fighting and the death of millions of innocent people. If America's soul becomes poisoned, part of the autopsy must read "Vietnam." The U. S. became polarized over the war. Many supporters of U. S. involvement argued for what was known as the domino theory, a theory that believed if one country fell to communism the bordering countries would be sure to fall as well, much like falling dominoes. This theory was held due to the fall of eastern Europe to communism and the Soviet sphere of influence following World War II.
However, military critics of the war pointed out that the Vietnam War was political and that the military mission lacked any clear idea of how to achieve its objectives. Civilian critics of the war argued that the government of South Vietnam lacked political legitimacy, or that support for the war was immoral; the media played a substantial role in the polarization of American opinion regarding the Vietnam War. For example, In 1965 a majority of the media attention focused on military tactics with little discussion about the necessity for a full scale intervention in Southeast Asia. After 1965, the media covered the dissent and domestic controversy that existed within the United States, but excluded the actual view of dissidents and resisters; the media established a sphere of public discourse surrounding the Dove debate. The Dove was a liberal and a critic of the war. Doves claimed that the war was well–intentioned but a disastrously wrong mistake in an otherwise benign foreign policy, it is important to note the Doves did not question the U.
S. intentions in intervening in Vietnam, nor did they question the morality or legality of the U. S. intervention. Rather, they made pragmatic claims. Contra
Fort Sanders, Knoxville
Fort Sanders is a neighborhood in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA, located west of the downtown area and north of the main campus of the University of Tennessee. Developed in the late 19th century as a residential area for Knoxville's growing upper and middle classes, the neighborhood now provides housing for the university's student population; the neighborhood still contains a notable number of its original Victorian-era houses and other buildings, several hundred of which were added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1980 as the Fort Sanders Historic District. Fort Sanders is named for a Civil War-era Union bastion that once stood near the center of the neighborhood, the site of a key engagement in 1863. In the 1880s, several of Knoxville's wealthier residents built sizeable houses in what is now the southern half of Fort Sanders known as "White's Addition," while the northern half, known as "Ramsey's Addition," was developed to provide housing for plant managers and workers employed in factories along Second Creek.
Fort Sanders was incorporated as the separate city of West Knoxville in 1888, was annexed by Knoxville in 1897. In its early years, Fort Sanders residents included some of Knoxville's leading industrialists and politicians, as well as professors from the University of Tennessee. Fort Sanders was the childhood home of author James Agee, provided the setting for his Pulitzer Prize-winning novel, A Death in the Family. A ten-fold expansion of U. T.'s student body after World War II brought about the need for student housing, many of the old homes in Fort Sanders have since been converted into apartments. Fort Sanders and the University of Tennessee campus straddle a hill, bounded by Second Creek on the east, Third Creek on the west, the Tennessee River on the south, a declivity now traversed by the Southern Railway tracks and Interstate 40 on the north; the university occupies the southern half of the hill, overlooking the river, while Fort Sanders occupies the northern half. Cumberland Avenue called "The Strip," is the approximate boundary between the two.
Fort Sanders Regional Medical Center occupies the western half of the Fort Sanders neighborhood. The World's Fair Park, the site of the 1982 World's Fair, lies opposite Second Creek to the east; the Mechanicsville neighborhood lies on the other side of I-40 to the north. West of the L&N tracks, Cumberland Avenue becomes Kingston Pike, which continues into West Knoxville. In November 1863, Confederate forces under General James Longstreet marched north from Chattanooga to Knoxville in hopes of dislodging Union forces under Ambrose Burnside, who had occupied Knoxville a few months prior. After a brief skirmish at Campbell's Station, Longstreet's forces approached Knoxville from the west along Kingston Pike. Delaying maneuvers executed by General William P. Sanders gave Union forces in the city time to complete fortifications, although Sanders was mortally wounded on November 18, died at the Lamar House the following day. With Union fortifications in place, Longstreet decided to surround the city and starve Union forces out.
During the Siege of Knoxville, Confederate pickets stretched along what is now Twenty-First Street between Cumberland and Forest avenues. Union fortifications included Fort Byington atop "The Hill," Battery Noble at what is now the intersection of Melrose and Seventeenth, Battery Zoellner near the intersection of Highland and Eleventh. Fort Sanders "Fort Loudon" but renamed in honor of the deceased General Sanders, was an earthen fort that spanned Seventeenth between Laurel and Clinch, continued along Laurel and Clinch eastward to Sixteenth Street. On the morning of November 29, 1863, after a two-week siege, Longstreet ordered three brigades under General Lafayette McLaws to attack Fort Sanders, in hopes of breaching Union lines; the attackers marched from what is now the intersection of Nineteenth and Forest, southeastward across the intersection of Eighteenth and Highland, toward the fort's northeast corner at the intersection of Seventeenth and Laurel. They were unable to overcome a deep trench at the base of the fort and retreated with heavy casualties.
The battle, which lasted just twenty minutes ended Longstreet's chances of taking the city, he retreated shortly afterward. Knoxville's industrial growth after the Civil War led to a rapid increase in the city's population. During the 1880s, pollution from an ore smelting operation drove residents in the upscale Summit Hill area to seek new homes elsewhere. Several chose the hillslope west of Second Creek known as White's Addition, which stretched from the Tennessee River to what is now Laurel Avenue. Among the earliest to build mansions in White's Addition were candy manufacturer Martin Luther Ross and Tennessee attorney general George Pickle. During the same period, a number of factories sprang up along Second Creek, the area known as Ramsey's Addition, which stretched northward from what is now Laurel Avenue to the railroad tracks, developed as housing for factory managers and workers. Unlike the more exclusive White's Addition, residents in Ramsey's Addition ranged from wage workers to upper-level managers, the neighborhood had a mix of houses ranging from impressive Victorian mansions to small, inconspicuous shotgun-style houses.
An 1886 map of Knoxville shows development in the Fort Sanders area stretching as far west as what is now Seventeenth Street. The University of Tennessee consisted of several buildings clustered around "The Hill." Factories located along Second Creek included the Knoxville Tannery, the Caswell Furniture Company, the Knoxville Ice Company, the Barker Bucket
The Yale Bowl is a college football stadium in the northeast United States, located in New Haven, Connecticut, on the border of West Haven, about 1½ miles west of the main campus of Yale University. The home of the Yale Bulldogs of the Ivy League, it opened in 1914 with 70,896 seats; the Yale Bowl inspired the design and naming of the Rose Bowl, from, derived the name of college football's post-season games and the NFL's "Super Bowl". In 1973 and 1974, the stadium hosted the New York Giants of the National Football League while Yankee Stadium was being renovated. Ground was broken on the stadium in August 1913. Fill excavated from the field area was used to build up a berm around the perimeter to create an elliptical bowl; the façade was designed to echo the campus's Neo-Gothic design, and, as with some central campus buildings, acid was applied to imitate the effects of aging. It was the first bowl-shaped stadium in the country, inspired the design of such stadiums as the Rose Bowl, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, Michigan Stadium.
It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1987 for its role in football history. The Yale Bowl's designer, Charles A. Ferry, for unknown reasons chose not to include locker rooms. Players walk 200 yards to the field; when the NFL's Giants played at the stadium, the pro players disliked the arrangement, but Yale players enjoy the walk. Fans cheer for the team; the Bowl's first game, on November 21, 1914, drew more than 68,000 spectators, who watched the Bulldogs lose 30–6 to rival Harvard. In 1958, a new scoreboard was installed. During the 1970s, the Bowl hosted several concerts. In 1971, Yes performed on July 24 and the Grateful Dead on July 31, a recording of, released as Road Trips Volume 1 Number 3, but neighborhood opposition to the concerts brought them to an end after a June 14, 1980, show featuring the Eagles and The Little River Band. A picture from the show was published with the vinyl edition of the Eagles double live album, issued that year, though no recordings from the event are included on the discs.
A Paul McCartney concert was cancelled amid neighbors' opposition. The stadium has hosted. Yale Bowl was mulled as a possible playing site when the United States hosted the World Cup in 1994, but lost out to Foxboro Stadium in Massachusetts and Giants Stadium in New Jersey. In 1991, the Bowl's vicinity saw the addition of the Cullman-Heyman Tennis Center, home to the annual ATP/WTA event, across Yale Avenue from the stadium. On October 5, 2001, the closing ceremony of the Yale Tercentennial was held at the Yale Bowl. Guests included Tom Wolfe'57, William F. Buckley'50, Sesame Street's Big Bird, Paul Simon'96 Hon, Garry Trudeau'70. By the 21st century, many of the outside retaining walls and portal entries were deteriorating. In the spring and summer of 2006, the bowl received a partial renovation, including a new scoreboard; the work was completed just in time for the first home game of the Yale football team's season on September 16. The New York Giants of the National Football League won just one of the dozen home games they played in New Haven in the 1973 and 1974 seasons.
List of NCAA Division I FCS football stadiums List of National Historic Landmarks in Connecticut National Register of Historic Places listings in New Haven, Connecticut The Yale Bowl