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Nez Perce County, Idaho

Nez Perce County is a county located in the U. S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 census, the population was 39,265; the county seat is Lewiston. The county is named after the Nez Percé tribe. Nez Perce County is part of ID-WA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Nez Perce County was organized in 1861, when the area was part of Washington Territory, it was reorganized in 1864 by the Idaho Territorial Legislature and was subdivided into new counties. Rapid migration to the Palouse in the 1880s led to the formation of Latah County in 1888. Isolated from its county seat of Wallace in the Silver Valley, the southern portion of Shoshone County was annexed by Nez Perce County in 1904 became Clearwater County in 1911. Lewis County was formed from Nez Perce County in 1911. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 856 square miles, of which 848 square miles is land and 8.2 square miles is water. Nez Perce County has two rivers, the Clearwater and the Snake, which meet in Lewiston and flow west.

The Clearwater flows from the east and the Snake from the south, creating the state border with Washington. The lowest point in the state of Idaho is located on the Snake River in Lewiston in Nez Perce County, where it flows out of Idaho and into Washington. North of Lewiston, Idaho's western border is a political line; the northern portion of the county is part of the Palouse, a wide and rolling agricultural region of the middle Columbia basin. Latah County - north Clearwater County - northeast Lewis County - east Idaho County - southwest/Mountain Time Border Wallowa County, Oregon - southwest Asotin County, Washington - west Whitman County, Washington - northwest US-12 US-95 US-195 SH-3 Clearwater National Forest Nez Perce National Historical Park Wallowa–Whitman National Forest Nez Perce County is strongly Republican, though less so than southern Idaho: it is one of only nine counties in Idaho that has failed to vote Republican in any presidential election since 1968, indeed supported Dukakis and Bill Clinton three times in succession from 1988 to 1996.

In 2004 Republican George W. Bush defeated Democrat John Kerry 62% to 36%. In 2008 Republican John McCain defeated Democrat Barack Obama by a smaller margin of 58.11 percent to 39.97 percent, a result exactly replicated by Mitt Romney in 2012. In 2016 Donald Trump increased the Republican majority to 62.2 percent as against Hillary Clinton’s 28.1 percent. As of the census of 2000, there were 37,410 people, 15,286 households, 10,149 families living in the county; the population density was 44 people per square mile. There were 16,203 housing units at an average density of 19 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.58% White, 0.28% Black or African American, 5.31% Native American, 0.65% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.50% from other races, 1.60% from two or more races. 1.93 % of the population were Latino of any race. 25.1 % were of 11.0 % American, 8.9 % Irish and 5.6 % Norwegian ancestry. There were 15,286 households out of which 29.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.80% were married couples living together, 9.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.60% were non-families.

26.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.90. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.80% under the age of 18, 10.00% from 18 to 24, 26.70% from 25 to 44, 23.00% from 45 to 64, 16.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,282, the median income for a family was $44,212. Males had a median income of $34,688 versus $23,014 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,544. About 8.60% of families and 12.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.40% of those under age 18 and 6.70% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 39,265 people, 16,241 households, 10,331 families living in the county.

The population density was 46.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 17,438 housing units at an average density of 20.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 90.1% white, 5.6% American Indian, 0.7% Asian, 0.3% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.7% from other races, 2.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 30.6% were German, 14.5% were Irish, 13.5% were English, 7.7% were American. Of the 16,241 households, 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.8% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.4% were non-families, 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age was 40.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $44,395 and the median income for a family was $55,180. Males had a median income of $42,451 versus $31,920 for females.

The per capita income for the county was $23,899. About 8.5% of families and 11.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.2% of those under age 18 and 5.9% of those age 65 or over. Culdesac Lapwai Lewiston Peck Sweetwater Gifford Jacques Lenore Myrtle Southwick Spalding Waha List of Idaho counties National Register of Historic Places listings in N

Rex Sellers

Rex Samuel Sellers is a yachtman from New Zealand. He won a gold medal in the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, a silver medal in the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, both in the Tornado class with Chris Timms, he competed in the Tornado class with Brian Jones at the 1992 and 1996 Olympics, where they finished fourth and 15th respectively. Sellers and Gerald Sly were selected to sail in the Tornado class for New Zealand at the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow, but did not compete because of the US-led boycott. Sellers attended Nelson College from 1965 to 1967, he was appointed a Member of the New Zealand Order of Merit in the 2010 New Year Honours, for services to yachting

James L. Jelinek

James "Jim" Louis Jelinek was the eighth Bishop of Minnesota in The Episcopal Church until his retirement on 13 February 2010. Born and raised in Wisconsin, Jelinek graduated from Carthage College in Kenosha and attended The General Theological Seminary in New York City, he served as Rector at St. Aidan’s Church, in the Diamond Heights area of San Francisco, St. Michael and All Angels Episcopal Church, Ohio. Jelenik was consecrated the eighth bishop of Minnesota in 1993, his episcopacy was noted for its focus on immigrants and refugees that began with an outreach to Latinos and to Hmong. In retirement, Bishop Jelinek served as interim rector of St. Paul's Episcopal in Washington, D. C. from 2013 to 2015 and in 2019-2020, Trinity Church, Rhode Island. List of Succession of Bishops for the Episcopal Church, USA The Episcopal Diocese of Minnesota James L. Jelinek VIII Bishop of Minnesota The Diocese of Minnesota


Saint Emygdius was a Christian bishop, venerated as a martyr. Tradition states, his legend states. He traveled to Rome and cured the paralytic daughter of his host Gratianus, who had let him stay with him at his house on Tiber Island. Gratianus' family converted to Christianity. Emygdius cured a blind man; the people of Rome believed him to be the son of Apollo and carried him off by force to the Temple of Aesculapius on the island in the Tiber, where he cured many of the sick. Emygdius declared himself a Christian and tore down the pagan altars and smashed into pieces a statue of Aesculapius, he converted many to Christianity. He was made a bishop by Pope Marcellus I, sent to Ascoli Piceno. On his way to Ascoli, Emydgius made more conversions, performed a miracle where he made water gush out of a mountain after striking a cliff. Polymius, the local governor, attempted to convince Emygdius to worship Jupiter and the goddess Angaria, the patroness of Ascoli. Polymius offered him the hand of his daughter Polisia.

Instead Emygdius baptized her as a Christian in the waters of the Tronto, along with many others. Enraged, Polymius decapitated him on the spot now occupied by the Sant'Emidio Red Temple, as well as his followers Eupolus and Valentius. Emygdius stood up, carried his own head to a spot on a mountain where he had constructed an oratory. After Emygdius' martyrdom, his followers pulled it down, his hagiography was written by a monk of Frankish origin in the eleventh century, after the rediscovery of the saint's relics, conserved in a Roman sarcophagus. However, his hagiography was attributed to his disciple Valentius, martyred with him; the cult of Saint Emygdius is ancient, documented by churches dedicated to him since the eighth century. The translation of his relics from the catacomb of Sant'Emidio alla Grotte to the crypt of the cathedral happened around the year 1000 under Bernardo II, bishop of Ascoli. In 1703, a violent earthquake did not affect the city of Ascoli Piceno; the city's salvation was attributed to Emygdius and he was thenceforth invoked against earthquakes.

As a result of this event, the church dedicated a church to the saint in 1717. Additionally, many towns appointed him as patron. Emygdius is considered to have protected Ascoli from other dangers. A dazzling vision of Emygdius is said to have deterred Alaric I from destroying Ascoli in 409; the troops of Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor passed through the region in 1038 carrying the plague. During World War II, on October 3, 1943, Emygdius is said to have protected the city against German movements against the Italian partisans. Saint Emygdius Catholic Online: Emygdius Emygdius EMIDIUS SAINT EMIDIO AND THE PATRON'S FEAST THROUGH THE CENTURIES Sant’Emidio: Vescovo e martire Sant'Emidio Emygdius

Chengguan (monk)

Chengguan was an important representative of the Huayan school of Chinese Buddhism, under whom the school gained great influence. Chengguan lived through the reigns of nine emperors and was an honored teacher to seven emperors starting with Xuanzong until Wenzong; the General Survey of Longxing’s Chronology chronicled during Southern Song and A Brief Account of the Five Patriarchs of Fajiezong of Qing recorded a difference of one year in Chengguan’s birth year, but both documented that he lived to be 102. According to the Song Biographies of Preeminent Monks Chengguan had studied the vinaya, the Three Śāstras when they were popular studies in the south and under more than one teacher, perused commentaries such as Awakening Faith in the Mahāyāna, studied the Avataṃsaka Sūtra with Indian master Fashen 法詵, the Lotus Sūtra and the Vimalakīrti Sūtra and their treatises, the Chan methods of north and south, not to mention the various Chinese philosophical classics, historical works, the Siddham script, Indian philosophies, the four Vedas, the five sciences and rituals.

This erudite intellectual lectured on the Avataṃsaka Sūtra and its insights, including his various commentaries. More than a scholar, Chengguan was much a practitioner, he maintained various self-determined prescripts including always keeping his sash and alms bowl by his side, avoiding looking at women, avoiding visits to laypeople’s homes, never lying down to sleep, abandoning any fame or fortune reciting The Lotus Sūtra lecturing the Avataṃsaka Sūtra studying Mahāyāna texts, never ceasing to be compassionate in an attempt to help all beings. The Song Biographies of Preeminent Monks and A Brief Account of the Five Patriarchs of Huayan School offer two specific sets of his ten vows that are equal in rigor but with slight variations. In general, Chengguan was an esteemed monk revered for his commentarial literature authoritative during his time and throughout generations in East Asia. Chengguan authored at least a dozen commentaries to significant Buddhist texts, the most important of which are the Commentaries to the Avataṃsaka Sūtra and The Meanings Proclaimed in the Accompanying Subcommentaries to the Avataṃsaka Sūtra.

While these treatises are not yet extant in English, Chengguan’s magnum opuses in Chinese are critical contributions to the religio-philosophical history of Huayan and Buddhism in China. In the eleventh century, Jingyuan 淨源 became known as the first editor to merge Chengguan’s Commentaries into each line of The Huayanjing, resulting in the publication, the Exegesis on the Commentaries to the Avataṃsaka Sūtra; the Subcommentaries remained a separate publication. Preeminent commentators of Yuan and Ming continued to annotate and lecture on Chengguan’s commentaries. In the Ming Dynasty Miaoming compiled Chengguan’s Commentaries and Subcommentaries into one publication for the first time, they did not mesh well, because Chengguan’s Outline to the Commentaries to the Avataṃsaka Sūtra was still missing. In 1912, laymen Xu Weiru 徐蔚如 and others edited Chengguan’s Commentaries and Subcommentaries based on a version of the Outline to the Commentaries to the Huayanjing that survived the Chinese persecutions by being in hiding in Japan.

Since more than 20 editions of compilations combining the Avataṃsaka Sūtra, Chengguan’s Commentaries and Subcommentaries based on his Outline have been disseminated. Different versions of the Chinese Tripiṭaka have selected to include different editions and portions of these compilations. Chengguan. Review: Imre Hamar: A Religious Leader in the Tang: Chengguan's Biography, Bulletin de l'École française d'Extrême-Orient, 90, 552-556 Hamar, Imre. A Religious Leader in the Tang: Chengguan’s Biography, Tokyo: The International Institute of Buddhist Studies, ISBN 4-906267-49-1 Hamar, Imre. Buddhism and The Dao in Tang China: The Impact of Confucianism and Daoism on the Philosophy of Chengguan. Acta Orientalia Hung. 52, pp. 283–292 Articles by Imre Hamar English Translation of Chengguan's Preface to the Commentaries to the Avataṃsaka Sūtra Chengguan's Commentaries to the Avataṃsaka Sūtra in Chinese Chengguan's Subcommentaries to the Avataṃsaka Sūtra in Chinese

Siege of Wardour Castle

Wardour Castle in Wiltshire was besieged twice during the First English Civil War. During the first siege, a Parliamentarian force of around 1,300 men led by Sir Edward Hungerford attacked the castle, the home of Thomas Arundell, 2nd Baron Arundell of Wardour, a prominent Catholic and Royalist. Arundell was absent, fighting for the King at the time of the attack, the defence was led by his wife, Lady Blanche Arundell, in command of 25 soldiers; the siege was started on 2 May, lasted for a week before the Parliamentarians forced Lady Arundell to surrender on 8 May. The Parliamentarians subsequently garrisoned the castle with 75 men, led by Colonel Edmund Ludlow. Henry Arundell, 3rd Baron Arundell of Wardour, the son of Thomas and Blanche, brought a Royalist force to reclaim the castle, by November 1643, a tight blockade had been established; the castle was well-provisioned however, it was only when the Royalists exploded mines under the walls, creating large holes in the defences, that they forced the castle's surrender.

The damage to the castle left it uninhabitable, over 100 years the Arundell family commissioned the New Wardour Castle to be built nearby. The Arundell family were prominent Catholics, he was suspected of involvement in the Gunpowder Plot, an attempt by dissident Catholics to assassinate King James. His son, Thomas Arundell married Lady Blanche Somerset, herself daughter of the "stiff papist" Edward Somerset, 4th Earl of Worcester. Arundell's support of King Charles led to an arrest warrant being issued for him by parliament in November 1641, at the outbreak of the First English Civil War, he raised a cavalry regiment in support of the Royalist cause, left Wardour Castle to fight for the King. Wardour Castle is located in southwest Wiltshire between the villages of Donhead St Andrew and Tisbury, around 15 miles west of Salisbury, it was built in the late 14th century, by the 5th Baron Lovel, bought by the Arundell family in the 1540s. The castle was subsequently confiscated, bought back in 1570 by Matthew Arundell, who oversaw its conversion to more of a stately home.

Despite these modifications, the castle remained a significant fortification, was described by John Aubrey as being "very built of freestone". The castle's defences were strengthened during the early stages of the Civil War. On 2 May 1643, Sir Edward Hungerford, the Parliamentarian commander-in-chief for the county of Wiltshire, arrived at Wardour Castle and ordered its surrender as it was claimed to be a known refuge of Royalists. Lady Arundell refused, responding that "she knew her duty and refused to deliver up the castle. Hungerford, finding that the castle was stronger than he had expected, added reinforcements to his force; the combined force numbered around 1,300 men. Alongside Lady Arundell, aged 60, was her daughter-in-law with her three young children, around fifty servants, including the guards and soldiers; the castle was besieged for six days. Accounts from Royalists and Parliamentarians vary on the effectiveness of the siege. In contrast, the Parliamentarian officer Edmund Ludlow wrote that when he arrived on 8 May, little damage had been done to the house other than to one of the chimneys.

On the day of Ludlow's arrival, the Parliamentarians blew up two or three barrels of gunpowder under one of the castle walls, where there was an opening "for the conveying away of filth", destroyed part of the wall. Lady Arundell rejected the terms of surrender offered, which gave quarter to the women and children, but not the men. However, when the Parliamentarians threatened to mine the other wall, to launch fireballs in through their broken windows, she relented. After their capture of the castle, the Royalists ransacked it, causing around £100,000 worth of damage. Many of the stolen goods were sold at low prices, but the more valuable loot was transported with the women to Shaftesbury; the women had been allowed to keep six servants, but otherwise only had the clothes they were wearing. From Shaftesbury they were transferred to Dorchester. Lady Arundell was released shortly thereafter. During her incarceration, her husband had been killed in the Battle of Stratton, she sought the protection of the Marquess of Hertford, a Royalist commander.

Lady Arundell's grandchildren were held until July 1644, when they were released in a prisoner exchange for the children of a Parliamentarian. Ludlow was appointed as the governor of Wardour Castle, garrisoned the castle with 75 men; the first challenge to the castle was posed by the Earl of Marlborough, who had men posted at Lord Cottington's house in Fonthill Gifford. Hungerford's cavalry drove Marlborough's