The 100 metres, or 100 metre dash, is a sprint race in track and field competitions. The shortest common outdoor running distance, it is one of the most popular and prestigious events in the sport of athletics, it has been contested at the Summer Olympics since 1896 since 1928 for women. The reigning 100 m Olympic champion is named "the fastest man in the world"; the World Championships 100 metres has been contested since 1983. Justin Gatlin and Tori Bowie are the reigning world champions. On an outdoor 400 metres running track, the 100 m is run on the home straight, with the start being set on an extension to make it a straight-line race. Runners begin in the starting blocks and the race begins when an official fires the starter's pistol. Sprinters reach top speed after somewhere between 50 and 60 m, their speed slows towards the finish line. The 10-second barrier has been a barometer of fast men's performances, while the best female sprinters take eleven seconds or less to complete the race; the current men's world record is 9.58 seconds, set by Jamaica's Usain Bolt in 2009, while the women's world record of 10.49 seconds set by American Florence Griffith-Joyner in 1988 remains unbroken.
The 100 m emerged from the metrication of the 100 yards, a now defunct distance contested in English-speaking countries. The event is held outdoors as few indoor facilities have a 100 m straight. US athletes have won the men's Olympic 100 metres title more times than any other country, 16 out of the 28 times that it has been run. US women have dominated the event winning 9 out of 21 times. At the start, some athletes play psychological games such as trying to be last to the starting blocks. At high level meets, the time between the gun and first kick against the starting block is measured electronically, via sensors built in the gun and the blocks. A reaction time less than 0.1. The 0.2-second interval accounts for the sum of the time it takes for the sound of the starter's pistol to reach the runners' ears, the time they take to react to it. For many years a sprinter was disqualified. However, this rule allowed some major races to be restarted so many times that the sprinters started to lose focus.
The next iteration of the rule, introduced in February 2003, meant that one false start was allowed among the field, but anyone responsible for a subsequent false start was disqualified. This rule led to some sprinters deliberately false-starting to gain a psychological advantage: an individual with a slower reaction time might false-start, forcing the faster starters to wait and be sure of hearing the gun for the subsequent start, thereby losing some of their advantage. To avoid such abuse and to improve spectator enjoyment, the IAAF implemented a further change in the 2010 season – a false starting athlete now receives immediate disqualification; this proposal was met with objections when first raised in 2005, on the grounds that it would not leave any room for innocent mistakes. Justin Gatlin commented, "Just a flinch or a leg cramp could cost you a year's worth of work." The rule had a dramatic impact at the 2011 World Championships, when current world record holder Usain Bolt was disqualified.
Runners reach their top speed just past the halfway point of the race and they progressively decelerate in the stages of the race. Maintaining that top speed for as long as possible is a primary focus of training for the 100 m. Pacing and running tactics do not play a significant role in the 100 m, as success in the event depends more on pure athletic qualities and technique; the winner, by IAAF Competition Rules, is determined by the first athlete with his or her torso over the nearer edge of the finish line. There is therefore no requirement for the entire body to cross the finish line; when the placing of the athletes is not obvious, a photo finish is used to distinguish which runner was first to cross the line. Climatic conditions, in particular air resistance, can affect performances in the 100 m. A strong head wind is detrimental to performance, while a tail wind can improve performances significantly. For this reason, a maximum tail wind of 2.0 m/s is allowed for a 100 m performance to be considered eligible for records, or "wind legal".
Furthermore, sprint athletes perform a better run at high altitudes because of the thinner air, which provides less air resistance. In theory, the thinner air would make breathing more difficult, but this difference is negligible for sprint distances where all the oxygen needed for the short dash is in the muscles and bloodstream when the race starts. While there are no limitations on altitude, performances made at altitudes greater than 1000 m above sea level are marked with an "A". Only male sprinters have beaten the 100 m 10-second barrier, nearly all of them being of West African descent. Namibian Frankie Fredericks became the first man of non-West African heritage to achieve the feat in 1991 and in 2003 Australia's Patrick Johnson became the first sub-10-second runner without an African background. In 2010, French sprinter Christophe Lemaitre became the first Caucasian to break the 10-second barrier, in 2017, Azerbaijani-born naturalized Turkish Ramil Guliyev followed. In the Prefontaine Classic 2015 Diamond League meet at Eugene, Su Bingtian of China ran a time of 9.99 seconds, becoming the first East Asian athlete to break the 10-second barrier.
On 22 June 2018, Su improved his time in Madrid
Gabriel Mvumvure is a Zimbabwean sprinter. He represented his country at two indoor World Championships. Outdoor 100 metres – 9.98 200 metres – 20.67 Indoor 60 metres – 6.60 200 metres – 20.96
Sport of athletics
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping and walking. The most common types of athletics competitions are track and field, road running, cross country running, walking race; the results of racing events are decided by finishing position, while the jumps and throws are won by the athlete that achieves the highest or furthest measurement from a series of attempts. The simplicity of the competitions, the lack of a need for expensive equipment, makes athletics one of the most competed sports in the world. Athletics is an individual sport, with the exception of relay races and competitions which combine athletes' performances for a team score, such as cross country. Organized athletics are traced back to the Ancient Olympic Games from 776 BC; the rules and format of the modern events in athletics were defined in Western Europe and North America in the 19th and early 20th century, were spread to other parts of the world. Most modern top level meetings are conducted by the International Association of Athletics Federations and its member federations.
The athletics meeting forms the backbone of the Summer Olympics. The foremost international athletics meeting is the IAAF World Championships in Athletics, which incorporates track and field, marathon running and race walking. Other top level competitions in athletics include the IAAF World Cross Country Championships and the IAAF World Half Marathon Championships. Athletes with a physical disability compete at the Summer Paralympics and the World Para Athletics Championships; the word athletics is derived from the Ancient Greek ἀθλητής from ἆθλον or ἆθλος. The term was used to describe athletic contests in general – i.e. sporting competition based on human physical feats. In the 19th century, the term athletics acquired a more narrow definition in Europe and came to describe sports involving competitive running, walking and throwing; this definition continues to be the most prominent one in the United Kingdom and most of the areas of the former British Empire. Furthermore, foreign words in many Germanic and Romance languages which are related to the term athletics have a similar meaning.
In much of North America, athletics is synonymous with sports in general, maintaining a more historical usage of the term. The word "athletics" is used to refer to the sport of athletics in this region. Track and field is preferred, is used in the United States and Canada to refer to most athletics events, including racewalking and marathon running. Athletic contests in running, walking and throwing are among the oldest of all sports and their roots are prehistoric. Athletics events were depicted in the Ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara, with illustrations of running at the Heb Sed festival and high jumping appearing in tombs from as early as of 2250 BC; the Tailteann Games were an ancient Celtic festival in Ireland, founded circa 1800 BC, the thirty-day meeting included running and stone-throwing among its sporting events. The original and only event at the first Olympics in 776 BC was a stadium-length running event known as the stadion; this expanded to include throwing and jumping events within the ancient pentathlon.
Athletics competitions took place at other Panhellenic Games, which were founded around 500 BC. The Cotswold Olimpick Games, a sports festival which emerged in 17th century England, featured athletics in the form of sledgehammer throwing contests. Annually, from 1796 to 1798, L'Olympiade de la République was held in revolutionary France, is an early forerunner to the Modern Summer Olympic Games; the premier event of this competition was a running event, but various ancient Greek disciplines were on display. The 1796 Olympiade marked the introduction of the metric system into the sport. Athletics competitions were held about 1812 at the Royal Military College, in 1840 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire at the Royal Shrewsbury School Hunt; the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich held an organised competition in 1849, a regular series of closed meetings open only to undergraduates, was held by Exeter College, Oxford from 1850. The annual Wenlock Olympian Games, first held in 1850 in Wenlock, incorporated athletics events into its sports programme.
The first modern-style indoor athletics meetings were recorded shortly after in the 1860s, including a meet at Ashburnham Hall in London which featured four running events and a triple jump competition. The Amateur Athletic Association was established in England on 1880 as the first national body for the sport of athletics and began holding its own annual athletics competition – the AAA Championships; the United States began holding an annual national competition – the USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships – first held in 1876 by the New York Athletic Club. Athletics became codified and standardized via the English AAA and other general sports organisations in the late 19th century, such as the Amateur Athletic Union and the Union des sociétés françaises de sports athlétiques. An athletics competition was included in the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 and it has been as one of the foremost competitions at the quadrennial multi-sport event since. For men only, the 1928 Olympics saw the introduction of women's events in the athletics programme.
Athletics is part of the Paralympic Games since the inaugural Games in 1960. Athletics has a high-profile during major championships the Olympics, but otherwise is less popular. An internation
2008 Summer Olympics
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event, held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China. A total of 10,942 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees competed in 28 sports and 302 events; this was the first time that China had hosted the Summer Olympics, but the third time that the Games had been held in East Asia, following the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo and the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, South Korea. These were the third Olympic Games staged in a socialist country, after the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, Soviet Union, the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. Beijing was awarded the 2008 Games over four competitors on 13 July 2001, having won a majority of votes from members of the International Olympic Committee after two rounds of voting; the Government of the People's Republic of China promoted the Games and invested in new facilities and transportation systems. A total of 37 venues were used to host the events, including twelve constructed for use at the Games.
The equestrian events were held in Hong Kong, making this the third Olympics for which the events were held under the jurisdiction of two different NOCs. The sailing events were contested in Qingdao, while the football events took place in several different cities; the official logo for the 2008 Games, titled "Dancing Beijing", featured a stylized calligraphic character jīng in reference to the host city. Beijing Olympics was watched by 3.5 billion people worldwide. Longest distance for an Olympic torch relay The event sets numerous world and Olympics records in the history of Sports, is the most expensive Summer Olympics of all time and second most expensive overall, after the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi; the opening ceremony was lauded by spectators and numerous international presses as spectacular and spellbinding, by many accounts "the greatest in the history of Olympics". An unprecedented 87 countries won at least one medal during the Games. China won the most gold medals, with 48, became only the seventh different team to top an overall Olympic medal tally, winning a total of 100 medals overall.
The United States placed second in the gold medal tally but won the highest number of medals overall, with a total of 112. The third place in the gold medal tally was achieved by Russia. Beijing has been selected to host the 2022 Winter Olympics. Beijing was elected as the host city for the 2008 Summer Olympics on 13 July 2001, during the 112th IOC Session in Moscow, defeating bids from Toronto, Paris and Osaka. Prior to the session, five other cities had submitted bids to the IOC, but failed to make the short list chosen by the IOC Executive Committee in 2000. After the first round of voting, Beijing held a significant lead over the other four candidates. Osaka was eliminated. In the second round, Beijing was supported by a majority of voters, eliminating the need for subsequent rounds. Toronto's bid was their 5th failure since 1960. Members of the IOC did not disclose their votes, but news reports speculated that broad international support led to China's selection from developing nations who had received assistance from China in the construction of stadiums.
The size of China, its increased enforcement of doping controls, sympathy concerning its loss of the 2000 Summer Olympics to Sydney were all factors in the decision. Eight years earlier, Beijing had led every round of voting for the 2000 Summer Olympics before losing to Sydney by two votes in the final round. Human rights concerns expressed by Amnesty International and politicians in both Europe and the United States were considered by the delegates, according to IOC Executive Director François Carrard. Carrard and others suggested. In addition, a number of IOC delegates, athletes expressed concern about heat and air quality during the Games, considering the high levels of air pollution in Beijing. China outlined plans to address these environmental concerns in its bid application; the Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics at US$6.8 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 2% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The Beijing Olympics' cost of US$6.8 billion compares with costs of US$4.6 billion for Rio 2016 and US$15 billion for London 2012. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is US$5.2 billion. On 6 March 2009, the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games reported that total spending on the games was "generally as much as that of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games", equivalen
Des Moines, Iowa
Des Moines is the capital and the most populous city in the U. S. state of Iowa. It is the county seat of Polk County. A small part of the city extends into Warren County, it was incorporated on September 22, 1851, as Fort Des Moines, shortened to "Des Moines" in 1857. It is on and named after the Des Moines River, adapted from the early French name, Rivière des Moines, meaning "River of the Monks"; the city's population was 217,521 as of the 2017 population estimate. The five-county metropolitan area is ranked 89th in terms of population in the United States with 634,725 residents according to the 2016 estimate by the United States Census Bureau, is the second largest metropolitan area in the state after that of Omaha, which includes three counties in southwest Iowa. Des Moines is a major center of the U. S. insurance industry, has a sizable financial services and publishing business base. The city was credited as the "number one spot for U. S. insurance companies" in a Business Wire article and named the third-largest "insurance capital" of the world.
The city is the headquarters for the Principal Financial Group, the Meredith Corporation, Ruan Transportation, EMC Insurance Companies, Wellmark Blue Cross Blue Shield. Other major corporations such as Wells Fargo, Voya Financial, Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company, ACE Limited, Monsanto, DuPont Pioneer have large operations in or near the metropolitan area. In recent years, Hewlett Packard, Facebook have built data-processing and logistical facilities in the Des Moines area. Forbes ranked Des Moines as the "Best Place for Business" in both 2010 and 2013. In 2014, NBC ranked Des Moines as the "Wealthiest City in America" according to its criteria. Des Moines is an important city in U. S. presidential politics. Many presidential candidates set up campaign headquarters in Des Moines. A 2007 article in The New York Times said, "If you have any desire to witness presidential candidates in the most close-up and intimate of settings, there is arguably no better place to go than Des Moines." Des Moines takes its name from Fort Des Moines, named for the Des Moines River.
This was adopted from the name given by French colonists. "Des Moines" translates to either "from the monks" or "of the monks". The historian Virgil Vogel claimed that the name was derived from Moingona, an Algonquian clan name, which means "Loon"; some historians and researchers lacking linguistic or Algonquianist training concluded that Moingona meant "people by the portage" or something similar, a reference to the Des Moines Rapids. This was where the earliest known encounters between the European explorers took place. One popular interpretation of "Des Moines" ignores Vogel's research, concludes that it refers to a group of French Trappist monks, who in the 17th century lived in huts built on top of what is now known as the ancient Monks Mound at Cahokia, the major center of Mississippian culture, which developed in what is present-day Illinois, east of the Mississippi River and the city of St. Louis; this was some 200 miles from the Des Moines River. Based on archeological evidence, the junction of the Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers has attracted humans for at least 7,000 years.
Several prehistoric occupation areas have been identified by archeologists in downtown Des Moines. Discovered in December 2010, the "Palace" is an expansive, 7,000-year-old site found during excavations prior to construction of the new wastewater treatment plant in southeastern Des Moines, it contains numerous graves. More than 6,000 artifacts were found at this site. State of Iowa archaeologist John Doershuk was assisted by University of Iowa archaeologists at this dig. At least three Late Prehistoric villages, dating from about AD 1300 to 1700, stood in or near what developed as downtown Des Moines. In addition, 15 to 18 prehistoric American Indian mounds were observed in this area by early settlers. All have been destroyed during development of the city. Des Moines traces its origins to May 1843, when Captain James Allen supervised the construction of a fort on the site where the Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers merge. Allen wanted to use the name Fort Raccoon. S. War Department preferred Fort Des Moines.
The fort was built to control the Sauk and Meskwaki Indians, whom the government had moved to the area from their traditional lands in eastern Iowa. The fort was abandoned in 1846 after the Sauk and Meskwaki were removed from the state and shifted to the Indian Territory; the Sauk and Meskwaki did not fare well in Des Moines. The illegal whiskey trade, combined with the destruction of traditional lifeways, led to severe problems for their society. One newspaper reported: "It is a fact that the location of Fort Des Moines among the Sac and Fox Indians for the last two years, had corrupted them more and lowered them deeper in the scale of vice and degradation, than all their intercourse with the whites for the ten years previous". After official removal, the Meskwaki continued to return to Des Moines until around 1857. Archaeological excavations have shown that many fort-related features survived under what is now Martin Luther King, Jr. Parkway and First Street. Soldiers stationed at Fort Des Moines opened the first coal mines in the area, mining coal from the riverbank for the fort's blacksmith.
Settlers occupied nearby areas. On May 25, 1846, the state legislature designated Fort Des Moines as the seat of Polk County. Arozina Perkins, a school teacher who spent the winter of 1850–1851 in the
A freshman, first year, or frosh, is a person in the first year at an educational institution a secondary or post-secondary school. In much of the Arab world, a first-year is called a "Mubtadi", Arabic for "begin". In Brazil, students that pass the vestibulares and begin studying in a college or university are called "calouros" or more informally "bixos", an alternate spelling of "bicho", which means "animal". Calouros are subject to hazing, known as "trote" there; the first known hazing episode in Brazil happened 1831 at the Law School of Olinda and resulted in the death of a student. In 1999, a Chinese Brazilian calouro of the University of São Paulo Medicine School named Edison Tsung Chi Hsueh was found dead at the institution's swimming pool. In Scotland, the first year of compulsory education is Primary 1; the first year of secondary school is known as S1 but one can use first year. At the four ancient Scottish universities the traditional names for the four years at university are Bejan, Semi and Magistrand, though all Scottish universities will have a "freshers' week" and the term is as used with more traditional terms.
Freshman is in use as a US English idiomatic term to describe a beginner or novice, someone, naive, a first effort, instance, or a student in the first year of study. New members of Congress in their first term are referred to as freshmen senators or freshmen congressmen or congresswomen, no matter how experienced they were in previous government positions. High school first year students are exclusively referred to as freshmen, or in some cases by their grade year, 9th graders. Second year students are sophomores, or 10th graders juniors or 11th graders, seniors or 12th graders. At college or university, freshman denotes students in their first year of study; the grade designations of high school are not used, but the terms sophomore and senior are kept at most schools. Some colleges, including women's colleges, do not use the term freshman but use first year, instead. Beyond the fourth year, students are classified as fifth year, sixth year, etc; some institutions use the term freshman for specific reporting purposes.
Freshman fifteen Sophomore Junior Senior
Florida State Seminoles track and field
The track and field teams of Florida State University, are coached by Bob Braman and compete in the Atlantic Coast Conference. The men's team has won thirteen indoor conference championships, thirty-two outdoor conference championships, two outdoor national championships; the women's team has won three indoor conference championships, seven outdoor conference championships, four indoor national championships, three outdoor national championships. The FSU men's Track & Field team won the NCAA National Championship three times in a row from 2005-2007. Since 2006, Head Coach Bob Braman and Associate Head Coach Harlis Meaders helped lead individual champions in the 200 m, the triple jump, the shot put to consecutive outdoor national titles. Individual runners-up were Walter Dix in the 100 m, Ricardo Chambers in the 400 m, Tom Lancashire in the 1500 m. Others scoring points in the National Championship were Michael Ray Garvin in the 200 m, Andrew Lemoncello in the 3000 m steeplechase, Rafeeq Curry in the long jump, Garrett Johnson in the discus.
In 2007, when FSU won its second straight men's Track & Field NCAA National Championship when Dix became the first person to hold the individual title in the 100 m, 200 m, 4*100 m Relay at the same time. The Florida State Seminoles have a new track and field building complex on the south end of Mike Long Track, the Mcintosh Track and Field Building, named after Michael A. Mcintosh. On February 7, 2010, the Seminoles vacated their 2007 Men's Outdoor Track and Field NCAA Championship in the wake of an academic cheating scandal. 60-meter Dash Walter Dix 2005 Maurice Mitchell 2010, 2011 Kemar Hyman 2012 Marvin Bracy 2013 Dentarius Locke 2014 Kendal Williams 201555-meter Dash Phillip Riley 1994200-meter Dash Jonathan Carter 1994 Brian Dzingai 2004 Walter Dix 2005, 2007 Ricardo Chambers 2006 Michael Ray Garvin 2008 Charles Clark 2009, 2010 Maurice Mitchell 2011, 2012 Stephen Newbold 2013400-meter Dash Sean Campbell 2004 Ricardo Chambers 2005, 2006, 2007 Charles Clark 2008 Stephen Newbold 2012800-meter Final Jake Burton 2015Mile Run Maarten van den Heuvel 2003 Tom Lancashire 2005, 2006, 2007 Daniel Roberts 20083000-meter Run Joep Tigchelaar 2004 Andrew Lemoncello 2005, 2006, 2007 Luke Gunn 20085000-meter Run Joep Tigchelaar 2003 Andrew Lemoncello 2006, 200760-meter High Hurdles Drew Brunson 200855-meter Hurdles Phillip Riley 19944x400-meter Relay 2003, 2004, 2005Distance Medley Relay 2004, 2005, 2007High Jump Kevin Crist 1993 Christian Bland 2000 James Harris 2013, 2014Long Jump Kelsey Nash 1994 Darius Jones 1999 Ngoni Makusha 2009, 2011 Brian Chibudu 2010 Paul Madzivire 2012, 2014 Jalen Ramsey 2015Triple Jump Kelsey Nash 1994 Joe Allen 2000 Mario Lowe 2001, 2002 Rafeeq Curry 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 Jonathan Reid 2014Shot Put Garrett Johnson 2003, 2006 Michael Putman 2011, 2012Pole Vault Jeff Bray 1992, 1993 Jason Dean 1999 Jeff Atkinson 2002, 2003 Patrick Gerberich 2004 Gonzalo Barroilhe 2012Weight Throw Joseph Lawrence 1999Heptathlon Gonzalo Barriolhet 2008, 2009 100-meter Dash Jonathan Carter 1994 Craphonso Thorpe 2003 Walter Dix 2005 Maurice Mitchell 2010 Ngoni Makusha 2011 Kemar Hyman 2012 Dentarius Locke 2014200-meter Dash Craphonso Thorpe 2003 Brian Dzingai 2004 Walter Dix 2005, 2007 Charles Clark 2008, 2009 Maurice Mitchell 2010, 2011, 2012400-meter Dash Sean Campbell 2004 Ricardo Chambers 2005, 2006, 2007 Kevin Borlée 2010 Brandon O'Connor 2011 Michael Cherry 2015800-meter Dash Maarten van den Heuvel 2001 Sean Campbell 2002 Tom Lanchashire 2005 Otniel Teixeira 20141500-meter Run Maarten van den Heuvel 2002, 2003 Tom Lancashire 2005, 2006, 2007 Ciaran O’Lionaird 20115000-meter Run Andrew Lemoncello 2005 Ciaran O’Lionaird 201110,000-meter Run Joep Tigchelaar 2002, 2003, 2004 Andrew Lemoncello 2005 Steve Gabart 20093000-meter Steeplechase Andrew Lemoncello 2006, 2007 Luke Gunn 2008110-meter Hurdles Phillip Riley 1994, 1996400-meter Hurdles John Rothwell 1993 Matt Mason 2001 Byron Taylor 2002 Danyne Brown 2003 Elliott Wood 2005 Javier Garcia-Tunon 20094x100-meter Relay Bolden, Garvin, Clark 2005, 1007, 2009, 2010, 2011 John Franklin, Dentarius Locke, Jalen Ramsey, James Harris 2014 Ramsey, Williams, Friday 20154x400-meter Relay 1999, 2000, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2009, 2010High Jump Kevin Crist 1992 Shawn Brown 2001 James Harris 2014Long Jump James Milton 1992 Zyris Hill 1999 Joe Allen 2000,2001 Kolby Jones 2002 Rafeeq Curry 2006 Ngoni Makusha 2008, 2011 Brian Chibudu 2010 Jalen Ramsey 2015 Stefan Brits 2016Triple Jump Kelsey Nash 1992 Joe Allen 2001 Mario Lowe 2002 Rafeeq Curry 2005, 2006Pole Vault Jeff Bray 1992, 1993, 1994 Jeff Atkinson 2003 Matt Hurley 2007Shot Put Ryan Carson 1994 Garrett Johnson 2003, 2006 Dorian Scott 2005Discus Marquis Johnson 2001 Michael Putman 2011Javelin Lou Angelo 1994 Justin Johnston 1995, 1997Decathlon Dore Louis 1998 60-meter Dash Tonya Carter 2000 Marecia Pemberton 201455-meter Dash Sheryl Covington 1993, 1994200-meter Dash Sheryl Covington 1994 Tonya Carter 2000400-meter Dash Samantha George 2000800-meter Dash Erica Shepard 1996, 1997 Rikke Ronholt 1998 Laura Gerber 1999Mile Run Natalie Hughes 2004 Susan Kuijken 2008, 2009 Pilar McShine 2010 Amanda Winslow 2011 Colleen Quigley 2014, 20153000-meter Run Amanda Winslow 2012, 20135000-meter Run Vicky Gill 200460-meter High Hurdles Kim Jones 2002, 2003 Meme Jean 20164x400-meter Relay 1994, 1996, 1999, 2003, 2004, 2007Distance Medley Relay 2004, 2006, 2008, 2009, 2012 2013 2015 Long Jump Trinette Johnson 1993 Kim Jones 2002 Kimberly Williams 2011 Amy Haris 2012 Der'Renae Freeman 2014Triple Jump Kimberly Williams 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011Shot Put Shannon Cook 1997 Makiba Batten 2000 Kamorean Hayes 2009 Kellion Knibb 2015Pole Vault Lacy Janson 2002, 2003, 2005, 2