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Nguni people

The Nguni people are a group of Bantu peoples who speak Nguni languages and reside predominantly in Southern Africa. The Nguni people are Zulu, Xhosa and Swazi, they predominantly live in South Africa. Swazi people live in both South Africa and Eswatini, while Ndebele people live in both South Africa and Zimbabwe. In South Africa, the historic Nguni kingdoms of the Zulu, Xhosa and Swazi are on the present day provinces of the KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape, Gauteng and Mpumalanga; the most notable of these kingdoms is the Zulu Kingdom, ruled by Shaka a powerful warrior king whose conquest took place in the early nineteenth century. In Zimbabwe the Ndebele people live in the provinces of Matebeleland and Midlands. Most of what is known about ancient Nguni history comes from oral history and legends. Traditionally, they are said to have migrated to Africa's Great Lakes region from the North. According to linguistic evidence only, they migrated from what is now Central Africa, thought to be from 5000 years ago.

Nguni people had migrated in South Africa such as KwaZulu-Natal before 1100 AD but as early as the 3rd century AD. Other provinces in present South Africa like Eastern Cape saw the emergence of Nguni speakers at around the same time; some groups settled along the way, while others kept going. Thus, the following settlement pattern formed: the southern Ndebele in the north, the Swazi in the northeast, Zulu towards the east and the Xhosa in the south. Owing to the fact that these people had a common origin, their languages and cultures show marked similarities; the Nguni met with San hunters, which accounts for their use of "click" in their languages. Although the Northern Ndebele are said to have come from the Nguni people, this is true only for some of them; the South African Ndebeles, were the first group to separate from other Nguni clans after entering present-day South Africa and settling in the Transvaal region from around the year 1500. The remaining Nguni clans moved further south; those that moved south-west ended up calling themselves Xhosas, most of the clans that moved south-east ended up being forcibly united under the Zulus when Shaka defeated the Ndwandwe confederacy under Zwide kaLanga.

Before their defeat by Shaka Zulu they lived in the area north of the Umhlathuze River and south of the Pongola. After their defeat, they moved among other areas. Mzilikazi, chief of the Khumalo clan, became one of Shaka's top generals after the unification of the clans. Returning from a raid with his impi, he kept some of the stolen cattle for himself rather than handing them over to his overlord, Shaka, as was the custom; such conduct was punishable by death. A regiment was sent to punish this general, which resulted in him fleeing with hundreds of his followers ending up in the Transvaal region where they came into contact with the Manala Ndebeles; the Manala Ndebeles had been weakened by their separation from the Nzunza Ndebele after two to three centuries of their settlement in the Transvaal region. The separation led to the majority of the nation going with the minority with Manala; the Nzunza Ndebele moved north and the Manala Ndebele, who were predominantly composed of women, remained in present-day Pretoria.

When Mzilikazi arrived, he killed the Manala Ndebele king, King Silamba, they settled there for a while before moving further north, ending up in present-day Zimbabwe around 1839. By the time they arrived in present-day Zimbabwe, Mzilikazi's Khumalo clan was known as the Ndebele. Further conquests and assimilation of Zimbabwean groups meant that the original Khumalos from Zululand was a minority in this large ethnic group, united by a common Nguni language, isiNdebele. Many tribes and clans are said to have been forcibly united under Shaka Zulu. Shaka Zulu's political organisation was efficient in integrating "conquered" tribes by the age regiments, where men from different villages bonded with each other. Many versions in the historiography of Southern Africa state that during the southern African migrations known as Mfecane, the Nguni peoples spread across a large part of southern Africa, conquering or displacing many other peoples. However, the notion of the mfecane/difaqane has been disputed by some scholars, Julian Cobbing.

The Mfecane was initiated by Zwide and his Ndwandwe's. They stole their cattle leaving them destitute; the remnants of the Hlubi under their chief Matiwane fled into what is now the Free State and attacked the Batlokwa in The Harrismith Vrede area. This displaced the Batlokwa under Mantatese and she and her people spread death and destruction further into the central interior. Moshoeshoe and his Bakwena sent him tribute in return; when Matiwane settled at Mabolela, near present-day Clocolan, Moshoeshoe complained to Shaka that this prevented him from sending his tribute whereupon an impi was sent to drive Matiwane from this area. Matiwane fled south and was defeated in a battle with British troops in what became the Transkei. Mantatese and her Batlokwa settled near what is now Ficksburg and was followed by her son, Sekonyela, as chief of the Batlokwa, it was he who had stolen Zulu cattle that Piet Retief in his dealings with Dingane, Shaka's successor, had to retrieve. After the

Michael DeBakey

Michael Ellis DeBakey was a Lebanese-American cardiac surgeon and vascular surgeon and medical educator who became the chancellor emeritus of Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, director of The Methodist DeBakey Heart & Vascular Center, senior attending surgeon of The Methodist Hospital in Houston, with a career spanning 75 years. Born to Lebanese Christian immigrants, DeBakey was inspired towards a career in medicine by the physicians he met at his father's drug store and he learned sewing skills from his mother, he subsequently attended Tulane University for his premedical course and Tulane University School of Medicine to study medicine, where he developed a version of the roller pump, which he used to transfuse blood directly from person to person and which became a component of the heart–lung machine. Following early surgical training at Charity Hospital, he was encouraged to complete his surgical fellowships in Europe, before returning to Tulane University in 1937. During the Second World War, he helped develop the Mobile Army Surgical Hospital units and helped establish the Veteran's Administration Medical Center Research System.

DeBakey's surgical innovations included coronary bypass operations, carotid endarterectomy, artificial hearts and ventricular assist devices. He used Dacron grafts to replace or repair blood vessels and pioneered surgical repairs of aortic aneurysms, an operation he himself had at the age of 97. DeBakey received a number of awards in his lifetime including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the National Medal of Science, the Congressional Gold Medal. In addition, a number of institutions bear his name. Michael DeBakey was born in Lake Charles, Louisiana on September 7, 1908, to Shaker Morris and Raheeja Dabaghi; the name was anglicized to DeBakey. His parents were Lebanese Christian immigrants, spoke French, fled oppression from the Ottomans to settle in Cajun Country where French was spoken, his father was a businessman involved in establishing rice farms, drug stores, estate agencies, DeBakey helped out with keeping the books. He was inspired to become a doctor after meeting local physicians while he worked at his father's pharmacy.

DeBakey attended school at Lake Charles and was the eldest of five children, having three sisters and one brother, who would become a thoracic surgeon. His sisters Lois and Selma pursued careers in science. There was Selena; as a child, he learnt to play the saxophone and was taught by his mother, a seamstress, on how to sew, crochet and tat. He could sew his own shirt by the age of 10, he became intrigued with the Encyclopædia Britannica and is said by colleagues to have read it from beginning to end. He participated in the Boy Scout troop. In addition, he won awards for the vegetables. At Tulane University, DeBakey took two years to complete his premedical course, gaining a BSc in 1929. A year earlier, he had been granted admission to study medicine at Tulane University School of Medicine, where he took up part-time work in surgical research. During his final year in medical school at Tulane University, at age 23, prior to established blood banks, DeBakey adapted old pumps and rubber tubing and developed a version of the roller pump.

He used it to transfuse blood directly and continuously from person to person and this became a component of the heart–lung machine. In 1932, he received an M. D. degree from Tulane University School of Medicine. Between 1933 and 1935, DeBakey remained in New Orleans to complete his internship and residency in surgery at Charity Hospital, in 1935, he received a MS for his research on stomach ulcers; as was the trend for ambitious training surgeons at the time and as his mentors Rudolph Matas and Alton Ochsner had done before him, DeBakey was encouraged to complete his surgical fellowships at the University of Strasbourg, under Professor René Leriche, at the University of Heidelberg, under Professor Martin Kirschner. Returning to Tulane Medical School, he served on the surgical faculty from 1937 to 1948. With his mentor, Alton Ochsner, he postulated in 1939 a strong link between smoking and carcinoma of the lung, a hypothesis which other researchers supported as well. During the Second World War, DeBakey served in the U.

S. Army as Director of the Surgical Consultants’ Division in the Surgeon General's Office, he held rank of Colonel in the United States Army. In 1945, he was awarded the Legion of Merit Award. DeBakey helped develop the Mobile Army Surgical Hospital units, thereby promoting wartime medicine by supporting the stationing of doctors closer to the front lines, which improved the survival rate of wounded soldiers in the Korean War, he helped establish the Veteran's Administration Medical Center Research System. After the war, DeBakey returned to Tulane, he joined the faculty of Baylor University College of Medicine in 1948, serving as Chairman of the Department of Surgery until 1993. DeBakey was president of the college from 1969 to 1979, served as Chancellor from 1979 to January 1996, he was Olga Keith Wiess and Distinguished Service Professor in the Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery at Baylor College of Medicine and Director of the DeBakey Heart Center for research and public education at Baylor College of Medicine and The Methodist Hospital.

He was a member of the medical advisory committee of the Hoover Commission and was chairman of the President's Commission on Heart Disease and Stroke during the Johnson Administration

Barrow Area Information Database

The Barrow Area Information Database is designed to support Arctic science with a special focus on the research hubs of Barrow and Ivotuk on the North Slope of Alaska. The BAID Internet Map Server is available to scientists, land managers and the local community. Users can navigate to areas of interest and explore or query information about field-based scientific research. Current and historic research sites are shown as points with links to details about project investigators, funding program, related web sites, site photos and other information. Users can export tabular information. BAID-IMS includes the locations of over 7000 research plots and instrument locations; this ongoing effort incorporates both new research locations and sampling sites dating back to the 1940s. BAID-IMS includes satellite imagery and other remote sensing products, topographic maps, land ownership information and local infrastructure that facilitates research and science communication; the Barrow Area Information Database was initiated in June 2000 as a cooperative project between Michigan State University's Arctic Ecology Laboratory and the Barrow Arctic Science Consortium.

The project had humble beginnings as a Microsoft Access database, used to centralize information about research plots mapped with BASC's new DGPS system. In 2003, BASC's Digital Subcommittee saw an opportunity to visual the BAID database with Internet Map Server technology and requested base maps; the BAID-IMS prototype was soon released. On September 1, 2005 NSF awarded funding for the project to continue through August 30, 2009. BAID-IMS includes the locations of over 7000 research plots and instrument locations; this ongoing effort incorporates both new research locations and sampling sites dating back to the 1940s. In order to facilitate the documentation of field research sites in the Barrow area, the University of Texas at El Paso Systems Ecology Laboratory provides Differential GPS support to National Science Foundation researchers during the peak Summer field season. Support for historical studies and for other agencies working the vicinity of the Barrow Environmental Observatory provided.

BAID-IMS can be used to mine information about research locations, project descriptions and contact information. Metadata that meets the standards of the Federal Geographic Data Committee is available for many data layers in BAID-IMS. Data, considered unrestricted can be downloaded at the Arctic System Science Data Coordination Center at the National Snow and Ice Data Center located at University of Colorado at Boulder. BAID-IMS is linked to the Circumarctic Environmental Observatories Network and efforts to develop an Arctic Spatial Data Infrastructure. BAID-IMS is hosted at the University of Texas at El Paso; the application was designed with ESRI's ArcIMS 9.2 software. BAID-IMS integrates geospatial data from SDE databases, GeoTiffs and ERDAS Imagine files. Testing is underway to migrate the application to an ArcGIS Server Web Mapping Application. Dell blade server technology is associated database. Bulk purchases agreements and educational discounts available to UTEP have been leveraged in the acquisition of computer hardware, mapping grade GPS units and digital cameras in support of this effort.

Support for Open Geospatial Consortium standards are enhanced with each upgrade to the application. An OGC Web Mapping Service and a KML for use in Virtual Globes, such as Google Earth are planned for release in 2008; this article incorporates text from Barrow Area Information Database under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. The Barrow Area Information Database BAID-IMS Environmental Systems Research Institute ArcGIS Circumarctic Environmental Observatories Network The University of Texas at El Paso The University of Texas at El Paso's Systems Ecology Lab

Nayden Apostolov

Nayden Apostolov was a Bulgarian geographer, theorist and professor at the Department of Economics and Organization of Tourism, faculty Management at University of Economics – Varna, Bulgaria. Nayden Apostolov was born in Bogdan, Bulgaria on 19 August 1948. Upon graduating from primary school in Karlovo, Bulgaria, he studied at the School of Industrial Chemistry in Dimitrovgrad from 1963 to 1967 and earned a diploma for secondary education on 30 July 1967 with a degree in Technology of organic and inorganic substances and qualifications average chemist technologist. During the academic year 1969–70, he started his studies in Geology and Geography Department of Sofia University with a degree in Geography, he graduated with honors on 13 November 1973 with qualification geographer and economics-geographer, a professor of geography and history in middle and high schools. Prof. Nayden Apostolov worked as a deputy director in the know "PR Slaveykov" in Vratsa from 10 February 1974 to 1 October 1974.

He moved with his family in Karlovo, where he worked as an inspector at the District Council from 6 March to 4 November 1975. During this time he applied for the position of assistant at University of Economics Varna, won the competition and on 4 November 1975 he was appointed to the University. On 1 March 1978 he was promoted to senior assistant, on 21 July 1983 – to assistant professor. On 3 January 1983 he was awarded the academic degree candidate of geographical sciences of the Higher Attestation Commission after defending a thesis "Geographic systematization in studying the daily work commute trips in Bulgaria." On 5 July 1989 the Scientific Committee on Geology and Geography Sciences awarded him an associate professor title. He was Dean of the Center for Continuing Education from 1993 to 1995 and Head of the Department "Economics and Organization of Tourism" from 1993 to 1995. Through all the years he was managing the prospective student committees exams in Geography at the University.

There are more than 30 publications, including 5 books – "Daily Labor Travel in Bulgaria", "Geography of Tourism", "Tourism resources", "Economics and Organization of Tourism" and "Geography of Tourism – one century of development and achievements". There are two specializations in Guildford. Books Demographic situation and development of the settlement system. Varna: VINS D. Blagoev, 1984, p. 178 State and prospects for development of business tourism and recreation workers in Veliko Tarnovo district for the period 1990 – 2000. Varna, VINS D. Blagoev, 1985, p. 264 State and prospects for development of business tourism in the TP'Balkanturist "- St. Zagora. Varna, DP Strandzhata, 1989, p.152 Geography of Tourism – a century of development and achievements. Treatise. Varna and Economics, 2013, p.475Textbooks Geography of Tourism: A textbook for university students. Varna: G. Bakalov, 1982, 311p. Economics-geographical problems of perspective development and operation of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast.

Varna, Strandzhata, 1986, 362p. Economics and Organization of Tourism. Varna: G. Bakalov, 1987, 248p. Travel Resources. Varna, University Press ИУ, 2003, p.388. Travel Resources. Blagoevgrad, University Press Neofit Bozveli, 2006, 583p. Travel Resources. Veliko Tyrnovo, ASTARTA, 2008, 479 p. Articles Najden Apostolov, Unutargradska saobraċajna dostupnost gradova bugarske, Geographical Institute "Jovan Cvijic" SASA, 2007 No.57 Scientific literature reviews geography of tourism. Varna, 2011, Н.2, p. 134–141. Alternatives for the development of resorts, Varna – B: Science and Economics, 2010, p. 661–664. Tourist science and education in tourism in Bulgaria in the context of European experience – B: Economics and Management, 2008, N 3, p. 29–47. The Tourism in the Bulgarian Seaside Villages. – В: Dokumentacja Geograficzna: Transformations of Rural Areas in Poland and Bulgaria: A Case Study, Warszawa, 2002, N: 27, с. 141–147. The geography of the geography of tourism in Central Europe. – In: Tourism in the XXI century, Sofia, 2002, p. 400–406.

Transport services to the population in Bulgaria. – In: Izv. Univ. Press, Varna, 2002, N: 1, p. 41–51. Tourism science at the end of XX century. – In: Economic and social development, Varna, UE, 2002, p. 354–360. Inter-municipal bus lines in Bulgaria – functional and territorial conditioning. – In: Izv. Univ. Press, Varna, 1997, N: 2, p. 43–57. Transportation zo

Virginia's 39th Senate district

Virginia's 39th Senate district is one of 40 districts in the Senate of Virginia. It has been represented by Democratic Senator George Barker since his 2007 defeat of Republican incumbent Jay O'Brien. District 39 covers parts of Alexandria, Fairfax County, Prince William County in the suburbs of Washington D. C. including some or all of Rose Hill, Newington, Lake Ridge, Buckhall. The district overlaps with U. S. Congressional districts 1, 8, 10, 11, with Virginia House of Delegates districts 13, 39, 40, 42, 43, 46, 51. All election results below took place prior to 2011 redistricting, thus were under different district lines. Redistricting prior to the 2003 elections moved District 39 from Southwest Virginia to Northern Virginia, causing then-incumbent Madison Marye to resign and forcing a special election

Alma Wartenberg

Wilhelmine Catharina Alma Wartenberg was a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany und Women's Rights Activists. Alma Wartenberg was born into a social democratic working class family with twelve children, she worked as a housemaid. They had four children In Hamburg-Ottensen was crucially engaged in forming the proletarian women's movement. 1902 to 1906 she was elected every year on women's congresses as a social democratic delegate for the constituency Ottensen/Pinneberg. Asagitator amongst working women, Wartenberg toured through the North-German state of Schleswig-Holstein and participated in women's conferences and party conventions as a delegate. 1905 she initiated with others a campaign against the judgement of the Altona court to release four young and middle class men after they had been found guilty of the rape of a housemaid. During and after the campaign, Wartenberg supported a collaboration with the so-called "Radicals" of the middle class women's movement; this brought her in conflict with the party leadership.

A procedure to expel her from the party was stopped. However, she was nonetheless forced to put down her responsibilities as a delegate. Being denied to continue working as a delegate for the party, Wartenberg took action for maternity protection, birth control und sexual education. High infant mortality rate, widespread „women's suffering“ due to many births, miscarriages and a large number of illegal abortions, lack of information to sexual issues and missing government support had alarmed her. Again, she toured the country, this time with pictured slide shows, to educate about female anatomy and mother protection, her shows drew hundreds of listeners. After her show she publicly sold contraception though the "sale or transmission of hygienic rubber articles" was liable to prosecution in the German Empire. With this she didn't only antagonize the Empire's judiciary but the association of doctors and ecclesiastic circles, she was prosecuted for „offense of public nuisance“. However, she insisted on every woman's right to decide over her number of births alone.

Again in contradiction with official party policy, Wartenberg supported the idea of a „birthing strike“, controversially discussed within social democracy as a protest against the compulsion to give birth propagated by the state. In 1919, Alma Wartenberg became the SPD's delegate in the Altona Stadtverordnetenkollegium. In 1925 she was elected as the sole female member of the Landtag Schleswig-Holstein gewählt. After a stroke she stepped back from all her responsibilities in 1927 and died in the following year. In 1997, a public place was named after Alma Wartenberg. Inge Döll-Krämer: Alma Wartenberg – sozialdemokratische „Vertrauensperson“ in Ottensen, in: Aufgeweckt. Frauenalltag in vier Jahrhunderten. Ein Lesebuch. Ergebnisse Verlag, Hamburg 1988, S. 182–194. Heike Haarhoff: Späte Straßen-Taufe. Der neue Alma-Wartenberg-Platz wird heute gefeiert, in: taz, Hamburg Spezial 66, S. 42. Robert Jütte: Lust ohne Last. Geschichte der Empfängnisverhütung. Beck, München 2003, S. 257. Gisela Notz: Kalender 2005.

Wegbereiterinnen III. Bonn: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung 2004, Kalenderblatt für Oktober. Rita Bake: Wer steckt dahinter? Nach Frauen benannte Plätze und Brücken in Hamburg. Landeszentrale für politische S. 20f. Wer war eigentlich...? Alma Wartenberg, in: Ottenser – das unabhängige Stadtteilmagazin 01, S. 13. Bodo Schümann: Wartenberg, Wilhelmine Catharina Alma. In: Franklin Kopitzsch, Dirk Brietzke. Hamburgische Biografie, Personen-Lexikon. Wallstein, Göttingen 2012, ISBN 978-3-8353-1025-4, S. 359-361. Biografie Wartenbergs auf der Seite des Stadtteilarchivs Ottensen