Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City known by its former name of Saigon, or Prey Nokor in Khmer name, is the most populous city in Vietnam with a population of 8.4 million as of 2017. Located in southeast Vietnam, the metropolis surrounds the Saigon River and covers about 2,061 square kilometres. Under the name Saigon, it was the capital of French Indochina from 1887 to 1902 and again from 1945 to 1954. Saigon would become the capital of South Vietnam from 1955 until its fall in 1975. On 2 July 1976, Saigon merged with the surrounding Gia Định Province and was renamed Ho Chi Minh City after revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh. Ho Chi Minh City is the financial centre of Vietnam and is classified as a Beta+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it is home to the Ho Chi Minh City Stock Exchange, the largest stock exchange by total market capitalization in Vietnam and the headquarters of many national and international banks and companies. Ho Chi Minh City is the most visited city in Vietnam, with 6.3 million visitors in 2017.
Many of the city's landmarks which are well known to international visitors include the Bến Thành Market, Ho Chi Minh City Hall, Notre-Dame Cathedral Basilica of Saigon, Independence Palace and the Municipal Theatre. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Tan Son Nhat International Airport, it is the busiest airport in Vietnam handling 36 million passengers in 2017. Ho Chi Minh City has gone by several different names during its history, reflecting settlement by different ethnic and political groups. In 1623, Khmer king Chey Chettha II allowed Vietnamese refugees fleeing the Trịnh–Nguyễn War further to the north to settle in the area, which they colloquially referred to as Sài Gòn, to set up a custom house at the city known as Prey Nôkôr. In the 1690s, Nguyễn Hữu Cảnh, a Vietnamese noble, was sent by the Nguyễn rulers of Huế to establish Vietnamese administrative structures in the Mekong Delta and its surroundings. Control of the city and the area passed to the Vietnamese, who gave the city the official name of Gia Định.
This name remained until the time of French conquest in the 1860s, when the occupying force adopted the name Saïgon for the city, a westernized form of the traditional name, although the city was still indicated as 嘉 定 on Vietnamese maps written in Chữ Hán until at least 1891. After the communist takeover of South Vietnam in 1975, a provisional government renamed the city after Hồ Chí Minh, the late North Vietnamese leader. Today, the informal name of Sài Gòn/Saigon remains in daily speech both domestically and internationally among the Vietnamese diaspora. However, there is a technical difference between the two terms: Sài Gòn is used to refer to the city center in District 1 and the adjacent areas, while Ho Chi Minh City is referred more to the entire modern city with all its urban and rural districts. An etymology of Saigon is that Sài is a Sino-Vietnamese word meaning "firewood, twigs; this name may refer to the many kapok plants that the Khmer people had planted around Prey Nokor, which can still be seen at Cây Mai temple and surrounding areas.
It may refer to the dense and tall forest that once existed around the city, a forest to which the Khmer name, Prey Nokor referred. Other proposed etymologies draw parallels from Tai-Ngon, the Cantonese name of Cholon, which means "embankment", Vietnamese Sai Côn, a translation of the Khmer Prey Nokor. Prey means forest or jungle, nokor is a Khmer word of Sanskrit origin meaning city or kingdom, related to the English word'Nation' – thus, "forest city" or "forest kingdom". Truong Mealy, says that, according to a Khmer Chronicle, The Collection of the Council of the Kingdom, Prey Nokor's proper name was Preah Reach Nokor, "Royal City"; the current official name, Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh, abbreviated Tp. HCM, is translated as Ho Chi Minh City, abbreviated HCMC, in French as Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville, abbreviated HCMV; the name commemorates the first leader of North Vietnam. This name, though not his given name, was one he favored throughout his years, it combines a common Vietnamese surname with a given name meaning "enlightened will", in essence, meaning "light bringer".
The earliest settlement in the area was a Funan temple at the location of the current Phung Son Pagoda, founded in the 4th century AD. A settlement called; when the Cham Empire was invaded by the Khmer people, Baigaur was renamed Prey Nokor. This meant "Forest City". An alternative name was Preah Reach Nokor which, according to a Khmer Chronicle meant "Royal City", it was succeeded a small fishing village known as the area that the city now occupies was forested, was inhabited by Khmer people for centuries before the arrival of the Vietnames
The Later Lê dynasty, sometimes referred to as the Lê dynasty, was the longest-ruling dynasty of Vietnam, ruling the country from 1428 to 1788, with a brief six-year interruption of the Mạc dynasty usurpers. Vietnamese historians distinguish the 100-year Primitive Lê Dynasty from 256-years of figurehead emperors of the Restored Lê Dynasty following the dynasty's restoration by powerful warlords; the dynasty began in 1428 with the coronation of Lê Lợi after he drove the Ming army from Vietnam. In 1527, the Mạc dynasty usurped the throne; the restored Lê emperors held no real power, by the time the Mạc dynasty was confined to only a small area in 1592 and eradicated in 1677, actual power was in the hands of the Nguyễn lords in the South and the Trịnh lords in the North, both ruling in the name of the Lê emperor while fighting each other. Their rule ended in 1788, when the peasant uprising of the Tây Sơn brothers defeated both the Trịnh and the Nguyễn in order to restore power to the Lê dynasty.
The Lê dynasty's rule saw Vietnam's territories grow from a small state in northern Vietnam at the time of Lê Lợi's coronation into its current size by the time the Tây Sơn brothers took over. It saw massive changes to Vietnamese society: the Buddhist state became Confucian after 20 years of Ming rule; the Lê emperors instituted many changes modeled after the Chinese system, including the civil service and laws. Their long-lasting rule was attributed to the popularity of the early emperors. Lê Lợi's liberation of the country from 20 years of Ming rule and Lê Thánh Tông's bringing the country into a golden age was well-remembered by the people; when restored Lê emperors' rule was marked by civil strife and constant peasant uprisings, few dared to challenge their power, at least in name, for fear of losing popular support. When the Mạc dynasty tried to do so, they were not successful and were considered as usurpers and not recorded in official histories by dynasties; the founder of the Lê dynasty was the hero-Emperor of Lê Lợi.
Lê Lợi was the son of a village leader in Thanh Hóa Province, the southern-most province of Vietnam at the time. When he was born, Vietnam was independent and under the rule of the Trần dynasty. However, the Trần Emperors had been weak for some decades and the powerful neighbor to the north, China was now unified and under the rule of the energetic founder of the Ming dynasty, the Hongwu Emperor; as was usual in Vietnamese history, a disputed succession was an excuse for the Chinese to re-assert control over Vietnam. The Chinese, now under the Yongle Emperor conquered and ruled Vietnam starting in 1407, they tried to change it into another province of the Ming Empire. Many, if not all Vietnamese customs and laws were declared invalid. Distinctive features of Vietnamese life which had emerged during the nearly 500 years of independence from China were suppressed. All resistance to this effort was treated as rebellion and was dealt with according to normal Imperial Chinese methods. Lê Lợi started a revolt against the Ming rulers in 1418.
The revolt lasted for 10 years during which there was much bloodshed and many defeats. However, the Chinese were beaten and Lê Lợi was victorious, he proclaimed himself the new Emperor of Vietnam, gave himself the name Lê Thái Tổ, was recognized as such by the new Xuande Emperor of China. However, after only five years on the throne, Lê Lợi died. Lê Thái Tông was the official heir to Lê Lợi; as a result, a close friend of Lê Lợi, Lê Sát, assumed the regency of the kingdom. Not long after he assumed the official title as Emperor of Vietnam in 1438, Lê Thái Tông accused Lê Sát of abuse of power and had him executed. According to a Mạc–Trịnh version of Complete Annals of Đại Việt, the new Emperor had a weakness for women, he had many wives, he discarded one favorite after another. The great scandal was his affair with Nguyễn Thị Lộ, the wife of his father's chief advisor Nguyễn Trãi; the affair started early in 1442 and continued when the Emperor traveled to the home of Nguyễn Trãi, venerated as a great Confucian scholar.
Shortly after the Emperor left Trãi's home to continue his tour of the western province, he fell ill and died. At the time the powerful nobles in the court argued. Nguyễn Trãi was executed. With the sudden death of the Emperor at a young age, his heir was an infant son named Bang Co, he was the second son of his father but the elder son Nghi Dân had been passed over due to his mother's low social status. Bang Co was renamed Lê Nhân Tông but the real rulers were Trịnh Khả and the child's mother, the young Empress Nguyễn Thị Anh; the next 17 years were good years for Vietnam – there were no great troubles either internally or externally. Two things of note occurred: first, the Vietnamese sent an army south to attack the Champa kingdom in 1446. Two years at the age of twelve, Lê Nhân Tông was formally given the title of Emperor; this was unusual as according to old customary, youths could not a
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – known as the Great Ming Empire – for 276 years following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng, regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1683; the Hongwu Emperor attempted to create a society of self-sufficient rural communities ordered in a rigid, immobile system that would guarantee and support a permanent class of soldiers for his dynasty: the empire's standing army exceeded one million troops and the navy's dockyards in Nanjing were the largest in the world. He took great care breaking the power of the court eunuchs and unrelated magnates, enfeoffing his many sons throughout China and attempting to guide these princes through the Huang-Ming Zuxun, a set of published dynastic instructions; this failed when his teenage successor, the Jianwen Emperor, attempted to curtail his uncles' power, prompting the Jingnan Campaign, an uprising that placed the Prince of Yan upon the throne as the Yongle Emperor in 1402.
The Yongle Emperor established Yan as a secondary capital and renamed it Beijing, constructed the Forbidden City, restored the Grand Canal and the primacy of the imperial examinations in official appointments. He rewarded his eunuch supporters and employed them as a counterweight against the Confucian scholar-bureaucrats. One, Zheng He, led seven enormous voyages of exploration into the Indian Ocean as far as Arabia and the eastern coasts of Africa; the rise of new emperors and new factions diminished such extravagances. The imperial navy was allowed to fall into disrepair while forced labor constructed the Liaodong palisade and connected and fortified the Great Wall of China into its modern form. Wide-ranging censuses of the entire empire were conducted decennially, but the desire to avoid labor and taxes and the difficulty of storing and reviewing the enormous archives at Nanjing hampered accurate figures. Estimates for the late-Ming population vary from 160 to 200 million, but necessary revenues were squeezed out of smaller and smaller numbers of farmers as more disappeared from the official records or "donated" their lands to tax-exempt eunuchs or temples.
Haijin laws intended to protect the coasts from "Japanese" pirates instead turned many into smugglers and pirates themselves. By the 16th century, the expansion of European trade – albeit restricted to islands near Guangzhou like Macau – spread the Columbian Exchange of crops and animals into China, introducing chili peppers to Sichuan cuisine and productive corn and potatoes, which diminished famines and spurred population growth; the growth of Portuguese and Dutch trade created new demand for Chinese products and produced a massive influx of Japanese and American silver. This abundance of specie remonetized the Ming economy, whose paper money had suffered repeated hyperinflation and was no longer trusted. While traditional Confucians opposed such a prominent role for commerce and the newly rich it created, the heterodoxy introduced by Wang Yangming permitted a more accommodating attitude. Zhang Juzheng's successful reforms proved devastating when a slowdown in agriculture produced by the Little Ice Age joined changes in Japanese and Spanish policy that cut off the supply of silver now necessary for farmers to be able to pay their taxes.
Combined with crop failure and epidemic, the dynasty collapsed before the rebel leader Li Zicheng, defeated by the Manchu-led Eight Banner armies who founded the Qing dynasty. The Mongol-led Yuan dynasty ruled before the establishment of the Ming dynasty. Explanations for the demise of the Yuan include institutionalized ethnic discrimination against Han Chinese that stirred resentment and rebellion, overtaxation of areas hard-hit by inflation, massive flooding of the Yellow River as a result of the abandonment of irrigation projects. Agriculture and the economy were in shambles, rebellion broke out among the hundreds of thousands of peasants called upon to work on repairing the dykes of the Yellow River. A number of Han Chinese groups revolted, including the Red Turbans in 1351; the Red Turbans were affiliated with a Buddhist secret society. Zhu Yuanzhang was a penniless peasant and Buddhist monk who joined the Red Turbans in 1352. In 1356, Zhu's rebel force captured the city of Nanjing, which he would establish as the capital of the Ming dynasty.
With the Yuan dynasty crumbling, competing rebel groups began fighting for control of the country and thus the right to establish a new dynasty. In 1363, Zhu Yuanzhang eliminated his archrival and leader of the rebel Han faction, Chen Youliang, in the Battle of Lake Poyang, arguably the largest naval battle in history. Known for its ambitious use of fire ships, Zhu's force of 200,000 Ming sailors were able to defeat a Han rebel force over triple their size, claimed to be 650,000-strong; the victory destroyed the last opposing rebel faction, leaving Zhu Yuanzhang in uncontested control of the bountiful Yangtze River Valley and cementing his power in the south. After the dynastic head of the Red Turbans suspiciously died in 1367 while a guest of Zhu, there was no one left, remotely capable of contesting his march to the throne, he made his imperial ambitions known by sending an army toward the Yuan capital Dadu in 1368; the las
Gia Long, born Nguyễn Phúc Ánh or Nguyễn Ánh, was the first Emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty of Vietnam. Unifying what is now modern Vietnam in 1802, he founded the Nguyễn dynasty, the last of the Vietnamese dynasties. A nephew of the last Nguyễn lord who ruled over southern Vietnam, Nguyễn Ánh was forced into hiding in 1777 as a fifteen-year-old when his family was slain in the Tây Sơn revolt. After several changes of fortune in which his loyalists regained and again lost Saigon, he befriended the French Catholic priest Pigneau de Behaine. Pigneau championed his cause to the French government—and managed to recruit volunteers when this fell through—to help Nguyễn Ánh regain the throne. From 1789, Nguyễn Ánh was once again in the ascendancy and began his northward march to defeat the Tây Sơn, reaching the border with China by 1802, under the control of the Trịnh lords. Following their defeat, he succeeded in reuniting Vietnam after centuries of internecine feudal warfare, with a greater land mass than before, stretching from China down to the Gulf of Siam.
Gia Long's rule was noted for its Confucian orthodoxy. He overcame the Tây Sơn rebellion and reinstated the classical Confucian education and civil service system, he moved the capital from Hanoi south to Huế as the country's populace had shifted south over the preceding centuries, built up fortresses and a palace in his new capital. Using French expertise, he modernized Vietnam's defensive capabilities. In deference to the assistance of his French friends, he tolerated the activities of Roman Catholic missionaries, something that became restricted under his successors. Under his rule, Vietnam strengthened its military dominance in Indochina, expelling Siamese forces from Cambodia and turning it into a vassal state. Born on 8 February 1762, he had two other names in his childhood: Nguyễn Phúc Chủng and Nguyễn Phúc Noãn. Nguyễn Ánh was the third son of Nguyễn Thị Hoàn. Luan was the second son of Lord Nguyễn Phúc Khoát of southern Vietnam—the first son had predeceased the incumbent Lord. There are differing accounts.
According to one theory, Luân was the designated heir, but a high-ranking mandarin named Trương Phúc Loan changed Khoat's will of succession on his deathbed, installed Luan's younger brother Nguyễn Phúc Thuần—who was the sixteenth son—on the throne in 1765. Luan was died in the 1765, the same year as Thuan's installation. However, the historian Choi Byung Wook claims that the notion that Luân was the designated heir was based on fact but was propagated by 19th century Nguyễn Dynasty historians after Nguyễn Ánh had taken the throne as Gia Long to establish the emperor's legitimacy. According to Choi, Lord Khoát had chosen the ninth son, who died, leaving Loan to install Lord Thuần. At the time, the alternative was the eldest son of the ninth son, Nguyễn Phúc Dương, whom opposition groups tried unsuccessfully to convince to join them as a figurehead to lend legitimacy. In 1775, Thuan was forced to share power with Dương by military leaders. At this time, Nguyễn Ánh was a minor member of the family and did not have any political support among court powerbrokers.
However, Thuan lost his position as lord of southern Vietnam and was killed—along with Duong—during the Tây Sơn rebellion led by the brothers Nguyễn Nhạc, Nguyễn Huệ and Nguyễn Lữ in 1777. Nguyễn Ánh was the most senior member of the ruling family to have survived the Tây Sơn victory, which pushed the Nguyễn from their heartland in central Vietnam, southwards towards Saigon and into the Mekong Delta region in the far south; this turn of events changed the nature of the Nguyễn power hierarchy. Nguyễn Ánh was sheltered by a Catholic priest Paul Nghi in Rạch Giá, he fled to Hà Tiên on the southern coastal tip of Vietnam, where he met Pigneau de Behaine, a French priest who became his adviser and played a major part in his rise to power. Receiving information from Paul Nghi, Pigneau avoided the Tay Son army in Cambodia, came back to assist Nguyễn Ánh, they hid in the forest to advoid the pursuit of Tay Son army. Together, they escaped to the island of Pulo Panjang in the Gulf of Siam. Pigneau hoped that by playing a substantial role in a Nguyễn Ánh victory, he would be in position to lever important concessions for the Catholic Church in Vietnam, helping its expansion in South East Asia.
In late 1777, the main part of the Tây Sơn army left Saigon to go north and attack the Trịnh lords, who ruled the other half of Vietnam. Nguyễn Ánh stealthily returned to the mainland, reclaimed the city, he was crucially aided by the efforts of Do Thanh Nhon, a senior Nguyễn Lord commander who had organized an army for him, supplemented by Cambodian mercenaries and Chinese pirates. The following year, Nhon expelled further Tây Sơn troops from the surrounding province of Gia Dinh, inflicted heavy losses on the Tây Sơn naval fleet. Taking advantage of the more favorable situation, Nguyễn Ánh sent a diplomatic mission to Siam to propose a treaty of friendship. However, this pact was derailed in 1779 when the Cambodians held an uprising against their pro-Siamese leader Ang Non. Nguyễn Ánh sent Nhon to help the uprising, which
The Trịnh–Nguyễn Civil War was a long war waged between the two ruling families in Vietnam. Both the Trịnh and the Nguyễn families were descended from close friends and aides to the hero-Emperor Lê Lợi who liberated Đại Việt from Chinese rule of Ming Dynasty and started the Lê Dynasty in 1428. By 1520 a succession of weak emperors had brought the country into a state of civil war. For the next 20 years the Trịnh and Nguyễn clans fought as allies against the usurper Mạc Đăng Dung who took the throne of the emperor Lê Cung Hoàng; when Lê dynasty was restored in 1533,The Mạc dynasty still in the power and retreated to Cao Bang gradually. Both Trịnh and Nguyễn joined together as the alliance to against the Mạc dynasty to restore territory of Đại Việt to Lê. In theory, they both were fighting on behalf of the Lê Emperor Lê Trang Tông but in reality, the Emperor was a figurehead with little or no power; the prime mover in the period from 1525 onwards was Nguyễn Kim. His daughter married the young head of the Trịnh family Trịnh Kiểm.
Around 1530, the rebels of Lê Dynasty royalist were forced into exile in Lan Xang but they gathered a new army and captured some southern provinces of Đại Việt. In 1545, Nguyễn Kim and subsequently his eldest son Nguyễn Uông was assassinated and his son-in-law, Trịnh Kiểm, took control over the Royal army after that. 13 years Trịnh Kiểm gave the rulership over the southernmost province of Quảng Nam to Nguyễn Hoàng, the second son of Nguyễn Kim and his wife's brother. The suspicious causes of death of his father and brother and the takeover of his brother in law caused bitter resentment in Nguyễn Hoàng and the rivalry between the 2 families. For the next 55 years, Nguyễn Hoàng ruled Quảng Nam, he asserted his control over the province and extended his control south into the remaining Champa lands. Periodically, he sent military forces north to help the Trịnh in their long fight against the Mạc dynasty. In 1570 Trịnh Kiểm died and was succeeded by his second son Trịnh Tùng, a vigorous leader who captured Hanoi from the Mạc king in 1572.
However, the Mạc emperor recaptured the city the next year. 20 years Trịnh Tùng, again captured Hanoi and executed Mạc Mậu Hợp in 1592. In 1593, Nguyễn Hoàng went to the court, bringing money and an army to help destroy the remaining Mạc armies. Once the Mạc were defeated, Nguyễn Hoàng held the office of Grand Vizier for the next 7 years. However, his nephew Trịnh Tùng became wary of Nguyễn Hoàng's influence in the court and tried to put him under surveillance by having Hoàng near him at all time. Hoàng adopted Tùng's 2 important generals as his nephews and incited them to rebel against their commander; when the rebels stormed the court, Tùng fled with the Emperor while Hoàng took to the Southern Provinces, never to return. In 1600 the old Nguyen ruler titled himself as the Vương. Hoang died in 1613; the new leader of the Nguyễn, Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên, continued his father's policy of defiance, but initiated friendly relations with the Europeans sailing into the area. A foreign trading post was set up in Hội An.
By 1615 the Nguyễn were producing their own bronze cannons with the aid of Portuguese engineers. In 1620, Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên refused to send taxes to the court in Hanoi. A formal demand was made to the Nguyễn to submit to the authority of the court, it was formally refused. In 1623 Trịnh Tùng was succeeded by his son Trịnh Tráng. Now Trịnh Tráng made a formal demand for submission, again Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên refused. In 1627 open warfare broke out between the Trịnh and the Nguyễn. For four months a large Trịnh army were unable to defeat them; the result of this war was that Vietnam had been partitioned into northern and southern regions, with the Trịnh controlling most of the north and the Nguyễn controlling most of the south. This border was close to the Seventeenth parallel, imposed as the border between North Vietnam and South Vietnam during the Partition of Vietnam. While the Trịnh ruled over a much more populous territory, the Nguyễn had several advantages. First, they were on the defensive. Second, the Nguyễn were able to take advantage of their contacts with the Europeans the Portuguese, to purchase advanced European weapons and hire European military experts in fortifications.
Third, the geography was favorable to them, as the flat land suitable for large organized armies is narrow at this point of Vietnam. After the first assault, the Nguyễn built two massive fortified lines which stretched a few miles from the sea to the hills; the walls were built north of Huế near the city of Đồng Hới. The Nguyễn defended these lines against numerous Trịnh offensives which lasted till 1672; the story from this time is that the great military engineer was a Vietnamese general, hired away from the Trịnh court by the Nguyễn. This man is given the credit in Vietnam for the successful design of the Nguyễn walls. Against the walls the Trịnh mustered an army of 100,000 men, 500 elephants, 500 large ships; the initial attacks on the Nguyễn wall was unsuccessful. The attacks lasted for several years. In 1633 the Trịnh tried an amphibious assault on the Nguyễn to get around the wall; the Trịnh fleet was defeated by the Nguyễn fleet at the battle of Nhat-Le. Around 1635 the Trịnh copied the Nguyễn and sought military aid from the
Lê Thánh Tông
Lê Thánh Tông was the 5th emperor of Đại Việt during the Later Lê dynasty and is one of the greatest emperors in Vietnamese feudal history. He reigned for 38 years from 1460 to 1497. Lê Thánh Tông has a real name Lê Hạo, courtesy name Tư Thành, pseudonym Đạo Am chủ nhân, rhymed name Tao Đàn nguyên súy, formal title Thiên Nam động chủ, was the son of emperor Lê Thái Tông and his consort Ngô Thị Ngọc Dao, he was a half-brother of Lê Nhân Tông and it is that his mother and consort Nguyễn Thị Anh were related. He was educated just like the emperor, at the palace in Hanoi; when his elder half brother, Nghi Dân, staged a coup and killed the emperor in 1459, Prince Tư Thành was spared. Nine months when the second counter-coup was carried out, the plotters asked Prince Tư Thành to become the new emperor and he accepted; the leaders of the counter-coup which removed and killed Nghi Dân were two of the last surviving friends and aides of Lê Lợi- Nguyễn Xí and Đinh Liệt. The pair had been out of power since the 1440s, but they still commanded respect due to their association with the dynasty's founder, Lê Lợi.
The new emperor appointed these men to the highest positions in his new government- became one of the emperor's councilors Nguyễn Xí and Đinh Liệt was gifted command over the army of Việt Nam. Lê Thánh Tông created and distributed a new legal code- called'Hồng Đức'; the new laws were "based on Chinese law but included distinctly Vietnamese features, such as recognition of the higher position of women in Vietnamese society than in Chinese society. Under the new code, parental consent was not required for marriage, daughters were granted equal inheritance rights with sons. U. S. Library of Congress Country Studies – Vietnam A group of 28 poets was formally recognized by the court and a new official history of Vietnam was written called The Full History of Đại Việt; the historian Ngô Sĩ Liên compiled this in 1479 and it was published under supervision of the emperor. As a young prince he was given the best Confucian education, he went about implementing Confucian principals in his government and seeing that the land was in Confucian harmony through the invocation of various rituals.
The emperor toured the entire country in 1467, addressing local problems that he found, firing government officials that he found to be corrupt, re-distributing land, illegally taken. This made him popular with the people and increased his base of support among them, he wrote poetry, some of which has survived. He wrote the following at the start of his campaign against the Champa: One hundred thousand officers and men, Start out on a distant journey. Falling on the sails, the rain Softens the sounds of the army. Lê Thánh Tông tried to be and succeeded in becoming the ideal Confucian ruler. Thánh Tông was influenced by his Confucian teachers and he resolved to make Việt Nam more like the former Song Dynasty with its Neo-Confucianist philosophy and the key idea that the government should be run by men of noble character as opposed to men from noble families; this meant that he needed to take power away from the ruling families and give power to the scholars who did well on the official examinations.
The first step on this path was to revive the examination process, which had continued sporadically in the 1450s. The first examination was held in 1463 and, as expected, the top scholars were men from elsewhere- from the river delta surrounding the capital, not from Thanh Hóa. Thánh Tông encouraged the spread of Confucian values throughout Vietnam by having "temples of literature" built in all the provinces. There, Confucius was venerated and classic works on Confucianism could be found, he halted the building of any new Buddhist or Taoist temples and ordered that monks were not to be allowed to purchase any new land. Following the Chinese model, Lê Thánh Tông divided the government into six ministries. Nine grades of rank were set up for both the military. A Board of Censors was set up with royal authority to monitor governmental officials and reported to the emperor. However, governmental authority did not extend all the way to the village level; the villages were ruled by their own councils in Vietnam.
With the death of Nguyễn Xí in 1465, the noble families from Thanh Hóa province lost their leader. Soon they were relegated to secondary positions in the new Confucian government of Thánh Tông. However, they still retained control over Vietnam's armies as the old general, Đinh Liệt, was still in command of the army. In 1469, all of Vietnam was mapped and a full census was taken, listing all the villages in the kingdom. Around this time the country was divided into 13 dao; each was administrated by a Governor and the local army commander. The emperor Thánh Tông ordered that a new census should be taken every six years. Other public works that were undertaken included building and repair of granaries, using the army to rebuild and repair irrigation systems after floods, sending out doctors to areas afflicted by outbreaks of disease. In 1469, Thánh Tông's reign name was chosen- Great Virtue. Thoug
Huế (Vietnamese: is a city in central Vietnam, the capital of Đàng Trong Kingdom from 1738 to 1775 and of the Nguyễn Dynasty from 1802 to 1945. A major attraction is its 19th-century citadel, surrounded by a moat and thick stone walls, it encompasses the Imperial City, with shrines. The city was the battleground for the Battle of Huế, one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War; the oldest ruins in Huế belong to the Kingdom of Lâm Ấp, date back to the 4th century AD. The ruins of its capital, the ancient city of Kandapurpura is now located in Long Thọ Hill, 3 kilometers to the west of the city. Another Champa ruin, the ancient city of Hóa Châu is dated back to the 9th century. In 1306, the King of Champa Chế Mân offered Vietnam two Chăm prefectures, Ô and Lý, in exchange for marriage with a Vietnamese princess named Huyền Trân; the Vietnamese King Trần Anh Tông accepted this offer. He took and renamed Ô and Lý prefectures to Thuận prefecture and Hóa prefecture with both of them referred to as Thuận Hóa region.
In 1592, the Mạc dynasty was forced to flee to Cao Bằng and the Lê emperors were enthroned as de jure Vietnamese rulers under the leadership of Nguyễn Kim, the leader of Lê Dynasty loyalists. Kim was poisoned by a Mạc Dynasty general which paved the way for his son-in-law, Trịnh Kiểm, to take over the leadership. Kim's eldest son, Nguyễn Uông, was assassinated in order to secure Trịnh Kiểm's authority. Nguyễn Hoàng, another son of Nguyễn Kim, feared a fate like Nguyễn Uông's so he pretended to have mental illness, he asked his sister Ngoc Bao, a wife of Trịnh Kiểm, to entreat Kiểm to let Hoàng govern Thuận Hóa, the furthest south region of Vietnam at that time. Because Mạc dynasty loyalists were revolting in Thuận Hóa and Trịnh Kiểm was busy fighting the Mạc dynasty forces in northern Vietnam during this time, Ngoc Bao's request was approved and Nguyễn Hoàng went south. After Hoàng pacified Thuận Hóa, he and his heir Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên serectly made this region loyal to the Nguyễn family. Vietnam erupted into a new civil war between two de facto ruling families: the clan of the Nguyễn lords and the clan of the Trịnh lords.
The Nguyễn lords chose a northern territory of Thuận Hóa, as their family seat. In 1687 during the reign of Nguyễn lord Nguyễn Phúc Trăn, the construction of a citadel was started in Phú Xuân, a village in Thừa Thiên Province; the citadel was a power symbol of Nguyễn family rather than a defensive building because the Trịnh lords' army could not breach Nguyễn lords' defense in the north regions of Phú Xuân. In 1744, Phú Xuân became the capital of central and southern Vietnam after Nguyễn lord Nguyễn Phúc Khoát proclaimed himseft Võ vương. Among westerners living in the capital at this period was the Portuguese Jesuit João de Loureiro from 1752 onwards. However, Tây Sơn rebellions broke out in 1771 and occupied a large area from Quy Nhơn to Bình Thuận, thereby weakening the authority and power of the Nguyễn lords. While the war between Tây Sơn rebellion and Nguyễn lord was being fought, the Trịnh lords sent south a massive army and captured Phú Xuân in 1775. After the capture of Phú Xuân, the Trịnh lords' general Hoàng Ngũ Phúc made a tactical alliance with Tây Sơn and withdrew all troops to Tonkin and left some troops in Phú Xuân.
In 1786, Tây Sơn rebellion occupied Phú Xuân. Under the reign of emperor Quang Trung, Phú Xuân became Tây Sơn dynasty capital. In 1802, Nguyễn Ánh, a successor of the Nguyễn lords, recaptured unified the country. Nguyễn Ánh rebuilt the citadel and made it the Imperial City capital of all of Vietnam; the city's current name is a non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of the Chinese 化, as in the historical name Thuận Hoá. In 1802, Nguyễn Phúc Ánh succeeded in establishing his control over the whole of Vietnam, thereby making Huế the national capital. Minh Mạng was the second emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty, reigning from 14 February 1820 until his death, on 20 January 1841, he was a younger son of Emperor Gia Long, whose eldest son, Crown Prince Cảnh, had died in 1801. Minh Mạng was well known for his opposition to French involvement in Vietnam, for his rigid Confucian orthodoxy. During the French colonial period, Huế was in the protectorate of Annam, it remained the seat of the Imperial Palace until 1945, when Emperor Bảo Đại abdicated and the DRV government was established with its capital at Hà Nội, in the north.
While Bảo Đại was proclaimed "Head of the State of Vietnam" with the help of the returning French colonialists in 1949, his new capital was Sài Gòn, in the south. During the Republic of Vietnam period, Huế, being near the border between the North and South, was vulnerable in the Vietnam War. In the Tết Offensive of 1968, during the Battle of Huế, the city suffered considerable damage not only to its physical features, but its reputation as well, due to a combination of the American military bombing of historic buildings held by the North Vietnamese, the massacre at Huế committed by the communist forces. After the war's conclusion in 1975, many of the historic features of Huế were neglected because they were seen by the victorious communist regime and some other Vietnamese as "relics from the feudal regime". There has since been a change of polic