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La Niña was one of the three Spanish ships used by Italian explorer Christopher Columbus in his first voyage to the West Indies in 1492. As was tradition for Spanish ships of the day, she bore Santa Clara. However, she was referred to by her nickname, La Niña, a pun on the name of her owner, Juan Niño of Moguer, she was a standard caravel-type vessel. The other ships of the Columbus expedition were the caravel-type Pinta and the carrack-type Santa María. Niña was by far Columbus' favorite, she was lateen sail rigged caravela latina, but she was re-rigged as caravela redonda at Las Palmas, in the Canary Islands, with square sails for better ocean performance. There is no authentic documentation on the specifics of Niña's design, although Michele de Cuneo, who accompanied Columbus on his second voyage, mentioned that Niña was "about 60 toneladas", which may indicate a medium-sized caravel of around 50 feet in length on deck. Said to have had three masts, there is some evidence she may have had four masts.

Niña, like Pinta and Santa María, was a smaller trade ship built to sail the Mediterranean sea, not the open ocean. It was surpassed in size by ships like Peter von Danzig of the Hanseatic League, built in 1462, 51 m in length, the English carrack Grace Dieu, built during the period 1420–1439, weighing between 1,400 and 2,750 tons, 66.4 m long, in both weight and length. On Columbus' first expedition, Niña carried 26 men, captained by Vicente Yáñez Pinzón, they left Palos de la Frontera on 3 August 1492, stopping at the Canary Islands on 12 August 1492, continued westward. Landfall was made in the Bahamas at dawn on 12 October 1492. On 14 February 1493, in the east of the Azores, a storm threatened to capsize Niña, at Columbus' instigation, he and the crew took a series of vows to perform certain acts including religious pilgrimages upon their return to Spain. Niña reached Lisbon, Portugal, on 4 March 1493, arrived in Palos de la Frontera on 15 March 1493. On the first voyage to America, the crew of Niña slept on the deck but adopted the use of hammocks after seeing Native Americans utilizing them.

In September 1493, Niña joined a grand fleet of 17 ships for the second voyage to Hispaniola, becoming the flagship for an exploration of Cuba. She was the only ship to survive the 1495 hurricane, returning to Spain in 1496. Niña was chartered for an unauthorized voyage to Rome, she was captured by a pirate corsair when leaving the port of Cagliari and brought to Cape Pula, Sardinia. The Captain, Alonso Medel, escaped with a few men, he stole a boat, rowed back to Niña, made sail, returning to Cádiz. In 1498, she returned to Hispaniola as advance guard of Columbus' Third Voyage, she was lying in wait at Santo Domingo in 1500. In 1501, she made a trading voyage to the Pearl Coast on the island of Cubagua, no further log of her is found in historic archives. Niña logged at least 25,000 nautical miles under Columbus' command. A replica of Niña was built by the Spanish government for the Columbian Naval Review of 1893. Along with replicas of Santa María and Pinta she participated in the review. A replica of Niña now sails around the world.

The 4-masted replica Niña was built 1988-1991 by engineer and naval researcher John Patrick Sarsfield, British naval historian Jonathan Morton Nance, a group of master shipbuilders in Bahia, Brazil who were still using design and construction techniques dating back to the 15th century. They built it from heavy, teredo-resistant Brazilian hardwoods using only adzes, hand saws, chisels; the sails were designed by Nance using square main sails and two aft lateen sails as were used by ships of this size at the end of the 15th century. The crew of Niña say that it can make about 5–7 knots, quicker than older designs of the era; the replica weighs 75 tons. In 1991, the replica sailed to Costa Rica to take part in the filming of 1492: Conquest of Paradise, Niña has visited hundreds of North America ports to give the public a chance to see and tour the ship; the vessel continues to visit ports across the Eastern to mid-United States along with its sister replica ship, Pinta. The replicas of Niña and Pinta were built in Valença, Brazil using the same methods as the 15th century Portuguese.

Other replicas are located in Spain. A replica had been harbored in Corpus Christi, Texas in the United States, but it sunk on April 23, 2019—from Hurricane Harvey; the historic San Francisco restaurant Bernstein's Fish Grotto was designed to look like Niña. Columbian Exchange Nina The Grand Exchange The Pinzón Brothers Voyages of Christopher Columbus Wharf of the Caravels – Official site of one of the replica ships

Doug Menuez

Doug Menuez is an American photographer. His career encompasses photojournalism, documentary and commissioned photography, he has traveled to the North Pole, the Amazon, Africa, Dubai and other regions of the world. “I know how to tell a story, but there’s a deeper thing I’m trying to get to now that can’t be expressed with a caption.” Menuez was born in Texas. His father moved the family to the south side of Chicago to work for the community organizer, Saul Alinsky, they moved, again, to Long Island. His mother counseled conscientious objectors to the Vietnam War, he studied art and photography at the San Francisco Art Institute and San Francisco State University, graduating from SFSU with a bachelor's degree in photojournalism. He worked as a photojournalist from 1979 to the middle of the 1990s. From until 2004, he managed his own commercial photography studio in the San Francisco Bay Area. In 2004, he moved to New York with his son, he is represented by Stockland Martel. Upon graduating from SFSU in 1981, Menuez began an internship at The Washington Post.

From until 1994, he accepted editorial assignments for magazines and newspapers, including: Time, Life magazine, others. These assignments included the 1984-85 Ethiopian famine, the Olympics, the Amazon, the World Series, presidential campaigns, Silicon Valley, the AIDS crisis and other events. From 1986 to 1988, Doug Menuez documented Steve Jobs’ new company NeXT Inc. and its development and launch of the computer NeXT Computer for Life magazine. At Apple Computer, Doug Menuez documented various projects, including the Apple Newton from its early stages in 1992 to its launch in 1993. In 1992, Menuez published, with the book, Defying Gravity: The Making of Newton. Between 1988 and 1995, Menuez documented the corporate life and the early development of PDF, the development of Adobe Photoshop at Adobe Systems San Jose, California; the 250,000 photographs Menuez shot, documenting Silicon Valley from 1986 to 2000, are now archived in the Douglas Menuez Photography Collection at Stanford University Library.

Heaven, Tequila: Un Viaje al Corazón de Mexico is a portrait of Mexican culture through the traditions of growing and drinking Tequila in the Jalisco region, as told by Menuez in black and white and color photographs. In 2007, Menuez visited sub-Saharan Africa to photograph the Children of Uganda, a 22-member dance troupe comprising children and young adults, orphaned by AIDS and civil war. Published in 2008, with an introduction by Dame Elizabeth Taylor, Transcendent Spirit: The Orphans of Uganda is a photo-essay of the East African dance troupe. Doug Menuez was a contributor to nine of the Day in the Life series of books; as one of one hundred photojournalists, Menuez visited Africa in 2002 to shoot for the book, A Day in the Life of Africa. Menuez’s portrait of a member of the famously camera-shy Maasai tribe of Tanzania is on the cover. In the mid-1990s, Menuez took on commercial work with several global brands. In 2008, Emirates Airlines commissioned him to document the region of Dubai. Menuez built a relationship with Nikon founded on the Nikkormat and its 50 mm lens.

He developed a professional relationship with Nikon to test their equipment. In 2008 they worked together, traveling in Vietnam to test the D700.:15: Fifteen Seconds: The Great California Earthquake of 1989. David Elliot Cohen. 119 p. p.: ill. The Tides Foundation, San Francisco, 1989. ISBN 1559630418 Defying Gravity: The Making of Newton. Photographs by Doug Menuez. 176 p.: ill. Beyond Words, Hillsboro, 1993. ISBN 0941831949 A Day in the Life of Africa. David Elliot Cohen, Susan Wels and Lee Lieberman Foreword by Archbishop Desmond Tutu. 288 p.: ill. Maps. Tides Foundation, San Francisco, 2002. ISBN 0971802106 Heaven, Tequila: un viaje al corazón de México. Photographs by Douglas Menuez. 141, p.: ill. Waterside Press, Cardiff-by-the-Sea, 2005. ISBN 0976680106 Transcendent Spirit: The Orphans of Uganda. Photographs by Douglas Menuez. 151 p.: ill. Beaufort Books, New York, 2008. ISBN 9780825305856 Fearless Genius: The Digital Revolution in Silicon Valley 1985-2000. Simon and Schuster. 3 June 2014. ISBN 978-1-4767-5273-0.

Drag Meet: 1996. Sears Point Race Track, California. Amateur drag racers. Offset printing, edition of 500. Facetime. 2006, Woodstock. Various portraits, including: Robert Redford, Francis Ford Coppola, Bob Weir, Sonia Braga, Martin Cruz Smith, Delroy Lindo, Natasha Richardson, others. Indigo printing, edition of 100. My Year in the Wilderness. 1996. A collection of images 1970-1996 taken in various locations, including: Brazil, France and Spain. Inkjet printing on watercolor paper. Edition of 10. 2012Multimedia Art Museum, Fearless Genius: The Digital Revolution in Silicon Valley 1985-2000.2007Studio B Gallery, New York, Infinite City: A Walk Around New York Farmani Gallery, Los Angeles, Transcendent Spirit: The Orphans of Uganda. Holbrook Art Center, New York, Earth, Tequila: Un Viaje al Corazón de México.2006Innova Gallery photokina: Cologne, Selected Works.2005Mexican Cultural Institute, Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Washington, D. C. Heaven, Tequila: Un Viaje al Corazón de México.2004Farmani Gallery: Los Angeles, Lucky Shots1997Digital Soup Gallery: Los Angeles, California, My Year in the Wilderness.

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Cour des Senteurs

La Cour des Senteurs is a newly opened area in Versailles, dedicated to the culture of perfume, one of the important cultures in France. It was opened in 2013 after the renovation of a former historical area nearby the Palace of Versailles, it is composed by several shops and restaurants in a courtyard, two gardens. 100m from the Palace of Versailles at 8, rue de la Chancellerie, France. It can be accessed from either la rue des Récollets, beside the former Recollects Convent, or la rue de Fontenay from le Jardin des Récollets; the group of buildings in this area are leaning against the former Recollects Convent. Cour des Senteurs Behind the entrance, several prestigious brands and restaurants receive visitors in the courtyard. Small green square There is a small green square which explains the histories of the famous perfumes on display with some samples of raw materials; this area can be visited directly from the side entrance at la rue des Récollets. Jardin des Récollets, « Jardin des Senteurs » This park, accessible from the square, was once a part of the domain of the Recollects convent, found behind of la Cour des Senteurs.

It was opened in 2001 as a public park by Deputy-Mayor of Versailles. On, for the project of la Cour des Senteurs, the city asked Nicolas Gilsoul, architect/landscape architect, to create a new design this garden, it is called "Jardin des Senteurs". La Cour des Senteurs represents a meeting of culture and nature combined; the building at the entrance was an extension of a property owned by Philippe de Courcillon, marquis de Dangeau. It had been affected by the body guard officers of Count of Provence, Louis XVIII. Construction of the original building started in 17th century, the extension being added in the 19th century. In 1930, the building was registered in the Monuments historiques. In 2013, la Cour des Senteurs was inaugurated as one of the projects of l’Année Le Notre. "The first Court, a part of the first city project in 1685, planned by Le Notre and Le Vau for the area around la place d’Armes, became an isolated island forgotten and degraded through the centuries." Explained François de Mazières, Deputy-Mayor of Versailles.

The City of Versailles launched the project "la Cour des Senteurs" to represent an urban crossing between la Place d’Armes and the Saint-Louis area. Project owner: City of Versailles Architect: For the initial plan of "Maison des Parfums", an exhibition space of the perfume history, Philippe Pumain and museographer, in collaboration with Elisabeth de Feydeau, historian of perfume; the buildings surrounding the court have been modified for receiving visitors. "The over-hanged structure of the display window has been modified, because here we don’t have enough pedestrian area in la rue de Chancellerie, although we need to attract and invite the maximum visitors into this public space. Two extensions inside of the court have been demolished; the front side of la Maison des Parfums has been restructured with an image of the perfumes shop of former period". Described Philippe Pumain. Several other historical sites in walking distance are: Salle de Jeu de Paume Cathédrale Saint-Louis Potager du Roi Parc Balbi Certain organizations collaborate for events taking place in la Cour des Senteurs: ISIPCA Osmothèque, Conservatoire International des Parfums

Pagadai Panirendu

Pagadai Panirendu is a 1982 Tamil language Indian feature film directed by Dhamodharan N. starring Kamal Haasan, Sripriya and Y. G. Mahendra; the film was a hit at the box office. The film is the story of a journalist and a martial arts expert. Anand is in love with Sripriya, he gets a microfilm showing the wrongdoings of underworld king Sudarsan. Now the gang is after Anand for the microfilm. Sudarsan's gang member Sathyapriya fails. Meanwhile, Anand's love Sripriya leaves her house as her father Major Sundarrajan is against their affair. Sripriya gets threatened by Sudarsan's gang for the microfilm. Anand's friend Y. G. Mahendran gets trapped by the underworld gang to retrieve the microfilm. Anand had to fight against his martial arts master too, an aide of Sudarsan. Anand succeeds in eliminating the entire gang, saving the microfilm. Kamal Haasan - Anand Kanchana - Anand's Mother Sripriya - Anand's lover Usha R. N. Sudarshan - Dais Major Sundarrajan - Usha's Father Y. G. Mahendra - Vishnu Sathyapriya - Renuka Sathyaraj - henchman T. K. S. Natarajan The music composed by K. Chakravarthy and lyrics were written by Kannadasan and Vaali.

Sathyaraj appears for a few minutes as a gang member of Sudharshan. All the action sequences were Karate oriented and Kamal Haasan excelled in those action scenes. Pagadai Panirendu on IMDb

Lake Quinault

Lake Quinault is a lake on the Olympic Peninsula in western Washington state. It is located in the glacial-carved Quinault Valley of the Quinault River, at the southern edge of Olympic National Park in the northwestern United States. One of the most dominant features of Lake Quinault is its location within the Quinault Rain Forest, a temperate rain forest. Lake Quinault is owned by the Quinault Indian Nation; the area is accessible from U. S. Route 101. Area activities include fishing, scenic drives, hiking; the southern side of the lake features a system of short hiking trails maintained by the U. S. Forest Service that are accessible to casual day hikers; the southern side of the lake is home to the historic Lake Quinault Lodge and the Rain Forest Resort Village and is encompassed by the Olympic National Forest. The Quinault Loop Trail on the south side of the lake and the nearby Quinault Rain Forest Interpretive Trail connecting campgrounds and the lodge, with excellent temperate rainforest viewing.

Each trail was designated a National Recreation Trail in 1979. The north side of the lake is bordered by private homes and some small resorts located in Olympic National Park. Lake Quinault receives an average of 332.92 centimeters of precipitation per year. "History of Lake Quinault". Retrieved 2006-06-18. "Quinault Rain Forest". Retrieved 2006-06-18. "Quinault Rain Forest". Retrieved 2009-06-19

Good Friday Appeal

The Good Friday Appeal is an annual fundraising activity on behalf of the Royal Children's Hospital, in Melbourne, Australia. The event occurs on Good Friday every year. In 2019, the appeal raised over $18 million. More than $345 million has been raised for the hospital since the appeal began in 1931. Individuals and businesses, clubs and country towns throughout the state conduct activities to raise money for the hospital; the appeal is a non-political, non-denominational organisation that exists to financially support The Royal Children's Hospital. For the first time in 2014, the telethon was staged within the 2,500-seat Plenary theatre at the Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre; the public were able to purchase tickets to join the live studio audience, with proceeds donated to the appeal. In 2016, the evening concert was marketed as a ticketed event via Ticketek; the state-of-the-art MCEC complex, undercover features a vast foyer area and support rooms which allowed the appeal to expand activities such as the popular Kids Day Out program and host community groups which fundraise for the hospital.

The Appeal started in 1931 when groups of journalists from The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd organised a sporting carnival in aid of Melbourne hospitals. The proceeds from the appeal went to different hospitals each year, but from their third-year proceeds have gone to the Melbourne Royal Children's Hospital. In 1942, Sir Keith Murdoch as managing director and editor of The Herald agreed that The Herald and radio station 3DB should broadcast an all-day appeal on Good Friday. In 1957, the Seven Network joined the appeal and presented a three-hour telethon on Good Friday afternoon. In 1960, the telethon adopted the day-long format. During the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, the telethon was re-broadcast through regional Victoria via local channels, with Prime Television being the sole regional broadcaster from 1992 with the aggregation of regional markets. Royal Children's Hospital Herald Sun AFL premiers poster cartoonists William Ellis Green – raised over $2 million Mark Knight Official Site Donate to the Appeal AFL Posters and Merchandise Shop Herald Sun Shop Good Friday Appeal