A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legislatures worldwide, the lower house has come to wield more power; the lower house is the larger of the two chambers, i.e. its members are more numerous. A legislature composed of only one house is described as unicameral. In comparison with the upper house, lower houses display certain characteristics. Powers In a parliamentary system, the lower house: In the modern era, has much more power based on restrictions against the upper house. Able to override the upper house in some ways. Can vote a motion of no confidence against the government, as well as vote for or against any proposed candidate for head of government at the beginning of the parliamentary term. Exceptions are Australia, where the Senate has considerable power approximate to that of the House of Representatives, Italy, where the Senate has the same powers as the Chamber of Deputies.
In a presidential system, the lower house: Debatably somewhat less, the lower house has exclusive powers in some areas. Has the sole power to impeach the executive. Initiates appropriation/supply-related legislation. Status of lower house Always elected directly, while the upper house may be elected directly, indirectly, or not elected at all, its members may be elected with a different voting system to the upper house. Most populated administrative divisions are better represented than in the upper house. Elected more frequently. Elected all at once, not by staggered terms. In a parliamentary system, can be dissolved by the executive. More members. Has total or initial control over budget and monetary laws. Lower age of candidacy than the upper house. Many lower houses are named in the following manner: House/Chamber of Representatives/the People/Commons/Deputies. Chamber of Deputies Chamber of Representatives House of Assembly House of Representatives House of Commons House of Delegates Legislative Assembly National Assembly Representative democracy
Jon Stevens Corzine is an American financial executive and retired politician who served as a United States Senator from New Jersey from 2001 to 2006 and the 54th Governor of New Jersey from 2006 to 2010. A member of the Democratic Party, he worked at Goldman Sachs. Corzine was born in the son of Nancy June and Roy Allen Corzine, Jr.. His grandfather Roy A. Corzine, Sr. served in the Illinois General Assembly. He is of Italian descent from paternal side, he grew up on a small family farm in Illinois near Taylorville. After completing high school at Taylorville High School, where he had been the football quarterback and basketball captain, he attended the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, where he was a member of the Phi Delta Theta fraternity, graduated in 1969, earning Phi Beta Kappa honors. While in college, he enlisted in the United States Marine Corps Reserve and served from 1969 until 1975, attaining the rank of sergeant. In 1970 he enrolled in the University of Chicago Booth School of Business, from which he received a Master of Business Administration degree in 1973.
His first business experience was in the bond department of Continental Illinois National Bank, where he worked days while attending the Booth School of Business MBA program at night. He moved to BancOhio National Bank, a regional bank in Columbus, acquired in 1984 by National City Bank. Corzine worked at BancOhio until 1975 when he moved his family to New Jersey and was hired as a bond trader for Goldman Sachs. In 1976, Corzine joined Goldman Sachs as a bond trader and became co-manager of the Fixed Income and Commodities Division, he became a partner in 1980 and a member of the management committee in 1984. He served as a senior partner. During his leadership, Corzine oversaw the firm's expansion into Asia and was instrumental in leading the transition of the firm from a private partnership to a public company. Corzine chaired a presidential commission on capital budgeting for Bill Clinton and served as Chairman of the United States Department of the Treasury's borrowing committee; as the Goldman Sachs senior partner, he helped develop a private sector plan to rescue the hedge fund Long Term Capital Management when the leveraged fund's collapse in the fall of 1998 threatened contagion across the U.
S. financial system. According to U. S. News & World Report, Corzine did not get along with co-CEO Henry Paulson, who came from the other major area of the bank, investment banking; when Corzine participated in structuring the bailout, Paulson seized control of the firm. As co-chairman of the firm, he oversaw its expansion into Asia; when Goldman Sachs went public after Corzine's departure, Corzine made $400 million. Corzine has participated in meetings of the Bilderberg Group, a network of leaders in the fields of politics and banking, he is a former member of the group's Steering Committee. Corzine is a member of Kappa Beta Phi. After being forced from Goldman Sachs in January 1999, Corzine campaigned for a New Jersey Senate seat after Frank Lautenberg announced his retirement. Despite trailing behind his opponent in the Democratic primary by 30 percentage points, Corzine won the nomination by 16 points, he attributed his successful primary run to pollster Bob Shrum who convinced him to run not as "a seasoned investment banker and job creator" but as a "liberal progressive".
In the general election, Corzine won by just a three point margin over his Republican opponent, four-term United States Congressman Bob Franks, in the November 2000 election. He was sworn into the Senate in January 2001, he spent more than $62 million of his own money on his campaign, the most expensive Senate campaign in U. S. history – over $33 million of this was spent on the primary election alone, where he defeated former Governor James Florio 58–42%. Franks had been a last-minute choice because New Jersey Governor Christine Todd Whitman had been expected to run for the Senate; the record $62 million amount surpassed Michael Huffington, who spent nearly $28 million in an unsuccessful 1994 Senate race. During the campaign, Corzine refused to release his income tax return records, he claimed an interest in doing so. Skeptics argued that Corzine should have followed the example of his predecessor Robert Rubin, who converted his equity stake into debt upon leaving Goldman. Corzine campaigned for state government programs including universal health care, universal gun registration, mandatory public preschool, more taxpayer funding for college education.
He pushed same-sex marriage. David Brooks opined that Corzine was so liberal that his election, although the fact that his predecessor was a Democrat, helped push the Senate to the left. During Corzine's campaign for the United States Senate, he made some controversial off-color statements; when introduced to a man with an Italian name who said he was in the construction business, Corzine quipped: "Oh, you make cement shoes!" According to Emanuel Alfano, chairman of the Italian-American One Voice Committee. Alfano reported that when introduced to a lawyer named David Stein, Corzine said: "He's not Italian, is he? Oh, I guess he's your Jewish lawyer, here to get the rest of you out of jail." Corzine denied mentioning religion, but did not deny the quip about Italians, stating that some of his own ancestors were Italian, or maybe French. In 2000, Corzine denied having made payments to African-American ministers, although the foundation controlled by Jon and Joanne Corzine had paid one influential b
Glen Ridge, New Jersey
Glen Ridge is a borough in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 7,527, reflecting an increase of 256 from the 7,271 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 195 from the 7,076 counted in the 1990 Census. Glen Ridge was incorporated as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 13, 1895, from portions of Bloomfield Township, based on the results of a referendum held the previous day. In 1982, the official name was changed to the "Township of Glen Ridge Borough" as one of seven four Essex County municipalities to pass a referendum to become a township, joining 11 municipalities that had made the change, of what would be more than a dozen Essex County municipalities to reclassify themselves as townships in order take advantage of federal revenue sharing policies that allocated townships a greater share of government aid to municipalities on a per capita basis. Effective May 1993, the borough's original name of "Glen Ridge Borough" was restored.
The borough's name comes from the ridge formed by Toney's Brook. Of the many legacies left to the town by its founders, the one that has become its trademark is the gas lamps. With only 3,000 gaslights remaining in operation in the entire United States, Glen Ridge has 665 such lamps lighting its streets. In 1924, Glen Ridge became the first municipality in New Jersey to establish a zoning ordinance. In 2010, Glen Ridge was ranked as the 38th Best Place to live by New Jersey Monthly magazine. Glen Ridge traces its beginning to 1666 when 64 Connecticut families led by Robert Treat bought land from the Lenni Lenape Native Americans and named it New Ark to reflect a covenant to worship without persecution; the territory included the future towns of Bloomfield, Montclair and Nutley. When Bloomfield was established in 1812, Glen Ridge was a section "on the hill" composed of farms and woodlands with the exception of a thriving industrial area along Toney's Brook in the glen. For most of the nineteenth century, three water-powered mills produced lumber, pasteboard boxes and brass fittings.
A copper mine and a sandstone quarry were located on the north side of the brook. With the arrival of the Newark and Bloomfield Railroad in 1856 and the construction of the Glen Ridge station and the New York and Greenwood Lake Railway station at today's Benson Street in 1872, Glen Ridge began its transition to a suburban residential community. Stately homes replaced orchards and wooded fields. Mountainside Hospital, a local hospital with more than 300 beds now known as HackensackUMC Mountainside, was founded in 1891; the Glen Ridge Country Club was founded in 1894. Residents "on the hill" became unhappy with their representation on the Bloomfield Council. In spite of repeated requests to Bloomfield officials, roads remained unpaved and sewer systems were nonexistent, schools were miles away. Area residents marked out the boundaries of a 1.45-square-mile area to secede from the adjoining town. At the election held on February 12, 1895, the decision to secede passed by only 23 votes. Robert Rudd was elected the first mayor of Glen Ridge.
In 1989, athletes from the high school were involved in the sexual assault of a mentally handicapped student. Three teenagers were found guilty of first-degree aggravated sexual assault. Author Bernard Lefkowitz wrote about the incident in the 1997 book Our Guys: The Glen Ridge Rape and the Secret Life of the Perfect Suburb. Lefkowitz's book was adapted into the 1999 TV movie Our Guys: Outrage at Glen Ridge. Glen Ridge is a common location for film and commercial shoots. Notable works include Mona Lisa Smile. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 1.287 square miles, including 1.282 square miles of land and 0.005 square miles of water. It is bounded by Bloomfield and East Orange. Glen Ridge is a maximum of six blocks wide and in "the Panhandle" north of Bay Avenue it is only three or two blocks wide. Glen Ridge has a temperate climate, with warm / hot humid summers and cool / cold winters, according to the Köppen climate classification humid subtropical climate.
The town gets an average of 49 inches of rain per year and 20 inches of snowfall, compared to the US averages of 37 inches and 25 inches inches. Glen Ridge has 124 days of measurable precipitation a year. During the winter, it is recommended to wear warm clothing because it can get cold, while the summers can get hot and humid; the majority of February and a bit of March is. Sometimes if the snowfall gets dangerous, they will cancel school in order to maintain the safety in the town. There are about 205 sunny days per year in Glen Ridge; the temperature ranges from a high around 86 degrees in a low around 21 degrees in January. The comfort index for the town is 47 out of 100, compared to a national average of 44; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 7,527 people, 2,476 households, 2,032.796 families residing in the borough. The population density was 5,872.8 per square mile. There were 2,541 housing units at an average density of 1,982.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 86.21% White, 5.04% Black or African American, 0.04% Native American, 4.65% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 1.37% from other races, 2.70% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.01% of the population. There were 2,476 hou
Equal Protection Clause
The Equal Protection Clause is a clause within the text of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The clause, which took effect in 1868, provides "nor shall any State deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws". A primary motivation for this clause was to validate the equality provisions contained in the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which guaranteed that all citizens would have the guaranteed right to equal protection by law; as a whole, the Fourteenth Amendment marked a large shift in American constitutionalism, by applying more constitutional restrictions against the states than had applied before the Civil War. The meaning of the Equal Protection Clause has been the subject of much debate, inspired the well-known phrase "Equal Justice Under Law"; this clause was the basis for Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court decision that helped to dismantle racial segregation, the basis for many other decisions rejecting discrimination against, bigotry towards, people belonging to various groups.
While the Equal Protection Clause itself applies only to state and local governments, the Supreme Court held in Bolling v. Sharpe that the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment nonetheless imposes various equal protection requirements on the federal government via reverse incorporation; the Equal Protection Clause is located at the end of Section 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States. Equality as a concept has been enshrined in America since the Declaration of Independence, this did not mean that equality was a part of daily life or legal practices. Before the passing of the reconstruction amendments, which included the Equal Protection Clause, there were various legal challenges for the rights of Black people in America.
Blacks were considered inferior and, until the ratification of Thirteenth Amendment, it was legal to own them as slaves. Blacks that were not bound to involuntary servitude had no legal rights with the Supreme Court, in one of the most infamous Supreme Court cases of all time, purporting that Blacks in America had no constitutional rights which they could appeal to in society or in the courts. Before this decision there was nothing barring free Black Americans from theoretical access to rights under the law, but in the 1857 Dred Scott v. Sandford decision, the Supreme Court established a precedent in which Black men, whether free or in bondage, had no legal rights within America. A plurality of historians believe that this judicial decision was the point of no return that set the United States on the path to the Civil War, which would subsequently lead to the ratifications of the reconstruction amendments, in which the Equal Protection Clause is located. Before and during the Civil War, the Southern states prohibited speech of pro-Union citizens, anti-slavery advocates, northerners in general, since the Bill of Rights did not apply to the states during such times.
During the Civil War, many of the Southern states stripped the state citizenship of many whites and banished them from their state seizing their property. Shortly after the Union victory in the American Civil War, the Thirteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress and ratified by the states in 1865, abolishing slavery. Subsequently, many ex-Confederate states adopted Black Codes following the war, with these laws restricting the rights of blacks to hold property, including real property, many forms of personal property, to form enforceable contracts; such codes established harsher criminal consequences for blacks than for whites. Because of the inequality imposed by Black Codes, a Republican controlled Congress enacted the Civil Rights Act of 1866; the Act provided that all persons born in the United States were citizens, required that "citizens of every race and color... full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of person and property, as is enjoyed by white citizens."President Andrew Johnson vetoed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 amid concerns that Congress did not have the constitutional authority to enact such bill.
Such doubts were one factor that led Congress to begin to draft and debate what would become the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Additionally, Congress wanted to protect white Unionists who were under personal and legal attack in the former Confederacy; the effort was led by the Radical Republicans of both houses of Congress, including John Bingham, Charles Sumner, Thaddeus Stevens. It was the most influential of these men, John Bingham, the principal author and drafter of the Equal Protection Clause; the Southern states were opposed to the Civil Rights Act, but in 1865 Congress, exercising its power under Article I, Section 5, Clause 1 of the Constitution, to "be the Judge of the... Qualifications of its own Members", had excluded Southerners from Congress, declaring that their states, having rebelled against the Union, could therefore not elect members to Congress, it was this fact—the fact that the Fourteenth Amendment was enacted by a "rump" Congress—that permitted the passage of the Fourteenth Amendment by Congress and subsequently proposed to the states.
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is a public research university in New Jersey. It is the largest institution of higher education in New Jersey. Rutgers was chartered as Queen's College on November 10, 1766, it is the eighth-oldest college in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The college was renamed Rutgers College in 1825 in honor of Colonel Henry Rutgers. For most of its existence, Rutgers was a private liberal arts college but it evolved into a coeducational public research university after being designated "The State University of New Jersey" by the New Jersey Legislature in laws enacted in 1945 and 1956. Rutgers has three campuses located throughout New Jersey: New Brunswick campus in New Brunswick and adjacent Piscataway, the Newark campus, the Camden campus; the university has additional facilities elsewhere in the state. Instruction is offered by 9,000 faculty members in 175 academic departments to over 45,000 undergraduate students and more than 20,000 graduate and professional students.
The university is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools and is a member of the Big Ten Academic Alliance, the Association of American Universities and the Universities Research Association. The New Brunswick campus was categorized by Howard and Matthew Green in their book titled The Public Ivies: America's Flagship Public Universities as a Public Ivy. Two decades after the College of New Jersey was established in 1746 by the New Light Presbyterians, ministers of the Dutch Reformed Church, seeking autonomy in ecclesiastical affairs in the American colonies, sought to establish a college to train those who wanted to become ministers within the church. Through several years of effort by the Rev. Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen and Rev. Jacob Rutsen Hardenbergh the college's first president, Queen's College received its charter on November 10, 1766 from New Jersey's last Royal Governor, William Franklin, the illegitimate son of Founding Father Benjamin Franklin; the original charter established the college under the corporate name the trustees of Queen's College, in New-Jersey, named in honor of King George III's Queen consort, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, created both the college and the Queen's College Grammar School, intended to be a preparatory school affiliated and governed by the college.
The Grammar School, today the private Rutgers Preparatory School, was a part of the college community until 1959. New Brunswick was chosen as the location over Hackensack because the New Brunswick Dutch had the support of the Anglican population, making the royal charter easier to obtain; the original purpose of Queen's College was to "educate the youth in language, the divinity, useful arts and sciences" and for the training of future ministers for the Dutch Reformed Church The college admitted its first students in 1771—a single sophomore and a handful of first-year students taught by a lone instructor—and granted its first degree in 1774, to Matthew Leydt. Despite the religious nature of the early college, the first classes were held at a tavern called the Sign of the Red Lion; when the Revolutionary War broke out and taverns were suspected by the British as being hotbeds of rebel activity, the college abandoned the tavern and held classes in private homes. According to research from Scarlet and Black, "Rutgers depended on slaves to build its campuses and serve its students and faculty.
In its early years, due to a lack of funds, Queen's College was closed for two extended periods. Early trustees considered merging the college with the College of New Jersey, in Princeton and considered relocating to New York City. In 1808, after raising $12,000, the college was temporarily reopened and broke ground on a building of its own, called "Old Queens", designed by architect John McComb, Jr; the college's third president, the Rev. Ira Condict, laid the cornerstone on April 27, 1809. Shortly after, the New Brunswick Theological Seminary, founded in 1784, relocated from Brooklyn, New York, to New Brunswick, shared facilities with Queen's College. During those formative years, all three institutions fit into Old Queens. In 1830, the Queen's College Grammar School moved across the street, in 1856, the Seminary relocated to a seven-acre tract less than one-half miles away. After several years of closure resulting from an economic depression after the War of 1812, Queen's College reopened in 1825 and was renamed "Rutgers College" in honor of American Revolutionary War hero Colonel Henry Rutgers.
According to the Board of Trustees, Colonel Rutgers was honored because he epitomized Christian values. A year after the school was renamed, it received two donations from its namesake: a $200 bell still hanging from the cupola of Old Queen's and a $5,000 bond which placed the college on sound financial footing. Rutgers College became the land-grant college of New Jersey in 1864 under the Morrill Act of 1862, resulting in the establishment of the Rutgers Scientific School, featuring departments of agriculture and chemistry; the Rutgers Scientific School would expand over the years to grow into the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station and divide into the College of Engineering and the College of Agriculture. Rutgers created the New Jersey College for Women in 1918, the School of Education in 1
Supreme Court of New Jersey
The Supreme Court of New Jersey is the highest court in the U. S. state of New Jersey. In its current form, the Supreme Court of New Jersey is the final judicial authority on all cases in the state court system, including cases challenging the validity of state laws under the state constitution. One of its former members, William J. Brennan, Jr. became an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. It has existed in three different forms under the three different state constitutions since the independence of the state in 1776; as constituted, the court replaced the prior New Jersey Court of Errors and Appeals, the highest court created under the Constitution of 1844. Now, the Supreme Court hears appeals from the Appellate Division and, on rare occasions, directly by order of the Court from other cases within the judicial and administrative system; until the Constitution of 1947, the Supreme Court was an intermediate court. Under the two previous New Jersey state constitutions, the phrase "Supreme Court" referred to a lower court, similar to the New York Supreme Court.
Both the "supreme court" and the actual highest court were composed in a radically different manner from that of the current supreme court or its inferior courts. Under the colonial constitution of 1776 the upper house of the legislature along with the governor was to be "the Court of Appeals", defined as the court of last resort, similar to the Law Lords of Great Britain. A separate "Supreme Court" was mentioned, but no indication of its duties was given, only term limits of its judges; as time progressed and political philosophies changed, people took issue with numerous parts of the original constitution: It was hastily thrown together, used property qualifications for enfranchisement, contained scant guarantees of freedoms, was unamendable, intermingled the three branches of government. Under the current constitution, the highest court in the state is the Supreme Court, it does not have original jurisdiction, hearing appeals, regulating the state's court system, regulating the legal profession within the state.
An appeal from one of the trial divisions of the New Jersey Superior Court goes to the Appellate Division of that court. Thereafter, it may be brought before the Supreme Court if a statute provides that the case may go to that court, or if it meets one or more of the following five requirements: as of right if the case involves a question of constitutionality. In practice, appeal to the Supreme Court as of right is rare, the Supreme Court hears cases on certification; the court serves as a de facto tie-breaker in case the twelve-member New Jersey Redistricting Commission fails to come to an agreement on who the 13th independent tie-breaking member will be, following the decennial United States Census. If the commission reports to the court that it is evenly divided, the commission may nominate two people to become an independent 13th member; the court appoints the one deemed "more qualified," who will break the tie. If the Commission still cannot reach a 7–6 majority in favor of a final redistricting configuration, the two district plans receiving the greatest number of votes, but not fewer than five votes, are submitted to the Supreme Court, which selects and certifies whichever of the two plans so submitted conforms most to the requirements of the Constitution and laws of the United States.
In the case of the Apportionment Commission for state legislative districts, the Chief Justice alone gets to pick the final 11th member of the Commission. The court acts as final arbiter of the inability or absence of the Governor or Lieutenant Governor, following a declaration by the Legislature; as in federal impeachment trials, in case of impeachment of the Governor, the Chief Justice presides. The Governor nominates all Justices to the Court but may choose only from among those lawyers admitted to the New Jersey bar for at least ten years. Following seven days of public notice, nominees are put before the Senate for "advice and consent". Once appointed after State Senate confirmation, justices serve for an initial term of seven years. After their initial term, the Governor may choose to nominate them for tenure, sending the nomination for tenure to the State Senate, which must again decide whether or not to grant advice and consent. Judges confirmed to a tenured position on the Court serve until they die, retire or are retired, are impeached and removed, or reach the age of 70, at which point they are automatically retired.
The Court consists of seven justices. The Chief Justice may select judges from the Superior Court, senior in service, to serve temporarily on the Supreme Court when he determines it necessary to fill a vacancy; the salary of the Chief Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court is $192,795 while the salary of each Associate Justice is $185,482. Once in office, the salary of judges may not be decreased. While sitting on the bench, judges are not permitted to practice law or earn money from any other source. A majority of the General Assembly may pas
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –