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Niagara-on-the-Lake is a town in Ontario, Canada. It is located on the Niagara Peninsula at the point where the Niagara River meets Lake Ontario, across the river from New York, United States. Niagara-on-the-Lake is in the Niagara Region of Ontario, is the only town in Canada that has a Lord Mayor, it has a population of 17,511. Niagara-on-the-Lake is important in the history of Canada: it served as the first capital of the Province of Upper Canada, the predecessor of Ontario, called Newark from 1792 to 1797. During the War of 1812, the town, the two former villages of St. David's and Queenston, Fort George were the site of numerous battles following the American invasion of Upper Canada, the town was razed. Niagara-on-the-Lake is home to the oldest Anglican and Catholic churches in Ontario, the oldest surviving golf course in North America. Today, Niagara-on-the-Lake draws tourists with its quaint colonial-style buildings, the Shaw Festival, Fort George, wineries, an outlet mall on the highway, its proximity to Niagara Falls.

The Niagara Region has the second-highest percentage of seniors in Ontario. Niagara-on-the-Lake has been rated among the best places to retire in Ontario according to Comfort Life, a publication for seniors. Before the British settlers came, the point where Fort Mississauga is situated was used by at least three Native American tribes: the Neutral; the settlement was founded in 1781 as Butlersburg, in honour of Colonel John Butler, the commander of Butler's Rangers. It was renamed West Niagara to distinguish it from Fort Niagara, it was a British military base and haven for pro-British loyalists fleeing the United States during the volatile aftermath of the American Revolution. Renamed Newark by Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe in 1792, it was the first capital of Upper Canada; the Upper Canada legislature first met at Navy Hall on September 17, 1792 and met here another four times until June 1796. In 1797, Simcoe moved the capital to York because Newark was close to the border with the U.

S. Newark was renamed Niagara in 1798. Fort George, just south of the settlement, was built in 1796-1799. During the War of 1812, Niagara was taken in the Battle of Fort George by American forces in May 1813 after a two-day bombardment by cannon from Fort Niagara and the American fleet, followed by a fierce battle. After capturing Fort George, the Americans built their own fortifications here; the fort was retaken by the British in December 1813 but left to fall into ruins and abandoned in 1815. Only a small portion of the fort remains. Fort Mississauga was built, starting in 1813, but was not completed until after the war in 1816. During the war, the settlement of Niagara was razed and burnt to the ground by American soldiers as they withdrew to Fort Niagara; the citizens rebuilt Niagara after the war, with the residential quarter around Queen Street and toward King Street, where the new Court House was rebuilt out of range of Fort Niagara's cannons. The Smith's Canadian Gazetteer of 1846 describes "Niagara" as follows: "It has been a place of considerable trade.

On the east side of the town is a large military reserve. About half a mile up the river are the ruins of Fort George, where the remains of General Brock were interred. A new town-hall and court-house are intended to be erected by the town. There is a fire brigade with a hook and ladder company. Churches and chapels total five. Two newspapers are published weekly.... Steamboats run daily, as long as the weather will allow of it, from Toronto.... The Niagara Harbour and Dock Company were incorporated in the year 1830.... The vessels turned out by the Company the steamboat "London," which commenced running in the spring of 1845, the fastest boat on the upper lakes... The Company employ about 150 hands. There is on the premises a marine railway, large enough for hauling up vessels of the first class. Post Office, post every day. Professions and Trades.—Three physicians and surgeons, nine lawyers, twelve stores, two chemists and druggists, three booksellers and stationers, two saddlers, four wagon makers, two watchmakers, two tallow-chandlers, marble works, two printers, two cabinet makers, one hatter, four bakers, two livery stables, two tinsmiths, three blacksmiths, six tailors, seven shoemakers, one tobacconist, one bank agency....

Large quantities of apples and cider are shipped annually." In 1859 the town built Niagara Public School. The town's present name of Niagara-on-the-Lake was adopted around 1880 as a Postal Address to distinguish the town from Niagara Falls; the name was not adopted until 1970, when the Town of Niagara and the Township of Niagara merged. Most of the former military sites, such as Fort George, Navy Hall, Butler's Barracks, have been restored. Fort George's restoration was done as a "Make Work Project," guided by plans from the Royal Engineers during the Great Depression of the 1930s, an early example of historic preservation. Fort George National Historic Site is a focal point in a collection of War of 1812 sites which, are managed by Parks Canada under the name Niagara National Historic Sites; that administrative name includes several national historic sites: Fort Mississauga, Mississauga Point Lighthouse, Navy Hall, Butler's Barracks, Queenston Heights. Niagara-on-the-Lake features historical plaques.

Critical battles in the defence of Upper Canada took place here, at nearby at Quee

Pierre de BĂ©rulle

Pierre de Bérulle, was a French Catholic priest and statesman, one of the most important mystics of the 17th century in France. He was the founder of the French school of spirituality, who could count among his friends and disciples Vincent de Paul and Francis de Sales. Bérulle was born in the Château of Cérilly, near Troyes in Champagne, into two families of distinguished magistrates on 4 February 1575; the château de Cérilly is situated in the modern department of Yonne, while the village adjacent to it, Bérulle, is in Aube. He was educated by the Jesuits at the Sorbonne in Paris, he published his first work, his Bref Discours de l'abnegation interieure, in 1597. Soon after his ordination as a priest in 1599, he assisted Cardinal Duperron in his public controversy with the Protestant Philippe de Mornay, made numerous converts. With the co-operation of his cousin, Madame Acarie in 1604 he introduced the Discalced Carmelite nuns of the reform of Teresa of Avila into France. In 1608, Vincent de Paul moved to Paris, where he came under the influence of Abbé Pierre de Bérulle, whom he took as his spiritual director.

De Bérulle was responsible for De Paul taking up an appointment to the parish of Clichy. A mainstay of the Counter-Reformation in France, in 1611 Bérulle founded in Paris the Congregation of the French Oratory, on the model of the one founded in 1556 by Philip Neri at Rome. Owing to the differences of time and place the French congregation varied in some important respects from the Italian Oratory. Whereas in the Italian congregation the houses were independent of one another, de Bérulle placed the government of all the houses in the hands of the superior-general. Bérulle was a chaplain to King Henry IV of France, several times declined his offers to be made a bishop, he obtained the necessary dispensations from Rome for Henrietta Maria's marriage to Charles I, acted as her chaplain during the first year of her stay in England. In 1626, as French ambassador to Spain, he concluded the favourable Treaty of Monzón, to which his enemy Cardinal Richelieu found objections. After the reconciliation of King Louis XIII with his mother, Marie de Medici, through his agency, he was appointed a councillor of state, but had to resign this office, owing to his pro-Habsburg policy, opposed by Richelieu.

For religious reasons, Cardinal Bérulle favored the allegiance of France with Austria and Spain, the other Catholic powers, while Cardinal Richelieu wanted to undermine their influence in Europe. He was made cardinal by Pope Urban VIII on 30 August 1627, but never received the red hat. Pierre de Bérulle died October 2, 1629 in Paris, while celebrating Mass, was buried in the chapel of the Oratorian College of Juilly. In the early part of his career, Bérulle was confident of the ability of the individual to both remake society and reform the church. Relying on human reason and diligent effort, he worked to convert the Huguenots through theological treatises and conferences; when his efforts seemed to have little effect, he came to the realization that everything depended on God, that one should attempt to live in accordance with the will of God without concern for success or failure. Bérulle is regarded as being an initiator of the French School of Spirituality, a powerful spiritual and reform movement that animated the church in France in the early seventeenth century.

The movement was characterized by: a deep sense of God's grandeur and of the Church as the Body of Christ, a certain pessimistic Augustinian view of man that nonetheless stresses positive potential through God, a strong apostolic and missionary commitment. Bérulle's depiction of the mystical journey through Mary to Christ, through Christ to the Trinity is a hallmark of the French School of spirituality; the term'School' is problematic, because the other cited members of this'School', such as Jean Eudes, Jean-Jacques Olier, Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort, Jean-Baptiste de la Salle, do not develop the thought of Bérulle, but all have their own significant insights. The'School' does not therefore have one founder. However, the many common elements among these writers, means that it can be considered as a distinct tradition of spirituality. Substantial Calvinist influences on Berulle were discovered, which caused his theology of the priesthood to overemphasize the priest's losing his own personality and gaining Christ's, thus preparing the 19th century culture of Catholic clericalism.

Bérulle encouraged Descartes' philosophical studies, it was through him that the Samaritan Pentateuch brought over from Constantinople, was inserted in Lejay's Bible Polyglotte. Bérulle was an opponent of the abstract school of mysticism. Influenced by Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century deference to monarchs, Berulle applied the same principles in the spiritual realm. In his Discours de l'état et des grandeurs de Jésus Bérulle emphasized Jesus as the Incarnate Word of God, the abasement, self-surrender and humiliation— all Bérulle's words— of his Incarnation, he took the Incarnation as the defining characteristic of his spirituality and his Oratory, when he asked Christ "that, in this piety and special servitude to the mystery of Your Incarnation and of Your humanized divinity and deified humanity, be our life and our state, our spirit and our particular difference."The

William Stevenson Jaffray

Rev Dr William Stevenson Jaffray LLD was one of the most decorated and high ranking military chaplains in the British Army. He was Chaplain to King George V, he was born on 30 March 1867 the son of Col William Stevenson Jaffray of Greystones House in Aberdeenshire, his wife Ann Callins, daughter of Canon Callins. He studied Divinity at the University of Edinburgh and was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of the Church of Scotland of Stirling in 1891. In January 1897 he was appointed chaplain to the British Army, he received military training at Shorncliffe and Salisbury Plain. He began an extraordinary military career, accompanying troops in South Africa, Malta, Salonika and on the Black Sea. In the Second Boer War he saw action on at least seven occasions, he received the Queen's South Africa Medal with six clasps. He was promoted to Principal Chaplain for England and Ireland and Deputy Chaplain to the War Office, his duties in the field included overseeing multiple mass burials after major battles and comforting countless of the dying.

In the First World War he went to France with the British Expeditionary Force and was Principal Chaplain to the 7th Division and Assistant Head Chaplain to the 5th Army. He was promoted to Principal Chaplain to the army at the rank of Brigadier General, he was awarded an honorary doctorate by Edinburgh University in 1921. In May of the same year he was made Chaplain to the King, he retired from the army in 1925 and lived in London from 1928. Mentioned In Dispatches at least twelve times Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George 1915 Commander of the Order of the British Empire 1919 Knight Commander of the Order of St Sava warded by the King of Serbia 1914 Star with clasp British War Medal Victory Medal 1919 In 1901 he married Ethel Annie Duncan Law, daughter of Major James Law RE of Aberdeenshire

All Fall Down (Against All Authority album)

All Fall Down is an album by the ska-punk band Against All Authority. The album was released in 1998. "All Fall Down" – 2:11 "12:00 AM" – 2:38 "Justification" – 2:16 "Keep Trying" – 1:47 "At Our Expense" – 2:15 "Stand in Line" – 2:03 "Toby" – 1:16 "We Don't Need You" – 1:33 "The Mayhem & the Pain" – 1:51 "Louder Than Words" – 2:02 "What the Fuck'd You Expect?" – 2:15 "Daddy's Little Girl" – 1:21 "Sk8 Rock" – 1:39 "Watered Down & Passive" – 1:59 "When the Rain Begins to Fall" – 1:50Artwork by Omar Angulo In the inlay of this CD, there is a scanned letter from the American Automobile Association. Their trademark consists of three As in an oval, they complained to Hopeless Records that the logo Against All Authority uses is the same as theirs, they threatened to sue the label. After this, Against All Authority's logo was changed and previous CDs with the offending logo were replaced with the new one. However, in response to this argument their next album was entitled 24 Hour Roadside Resistance, making fun of the American Automobile Association's slogan "24 Hour Roadside Assistance"

Summer pudding

Summer pudding or summer fruit pudding is a British dessert made of sliced white bread, layered in a deep bowl with fruit and fruit juice. It turned out onto a plate; the dessert was most popular from the late 19th to the early 20th century. It first appears in print with its current name in 1904, but identical recipes for'hydropathic pudding' and'Malvern pudding' from as far back as 1868 have been found. Making summer pudding is much easier if the bread is somewhat stale; this helps the fruit juices soak through the bread. Summer pudding can be served with cream; the fruits used in summer pudding are raspberries, blackcurrants, redcurrants and blackberries. Less used are tayberries, loganberries and blueberries. List of fruit dishes Recipe from Delia online

Mutton busting

Mutton busting is an event held at rodeos similar to bull riding or bronc riding, in which children ride or race sheep. In the event, a sheep is held still, either in a small chute or by an adult handler while a child is placed on top in a riding position. Once the child is seated atop the sheep, the sheep is released and starts to run in an attempt to get the child off. Small prizes or ribbons are given out to the children who can stay on the longest. There are no set rules for mutton busting, no national organization, most events are organized at the local level; the vast majority of children participating in the event fall off in less than 8 seconds. Age and weight restrictions on participants prevent injuries to the sheep, implements such as spurs are banned from use. In most cases, children are required to wear helmets and parents are asked to sign waivers to protect the rodeo from legal action in the event of injury; the practice has been documented as having been introduced to the National Western Stock Show at least by the 1980s when an event was sponsored by Nancy Stockdale Cervi, a former rodeo queen.

At that event, children ages five to seven who weighed less than 55 pounds could apply, seven contestants were selected to each ride a sheep for six seconds. There are no statistics about the popularity of the sport, but anecdotal reports suggest thousands of children participate in such events every year in the U. S. Supporters consider the event both entertaining and a way to introduce young children to the adult rodeo "rough stock" riding events of bull riding, saddle bronc and bareback riding, may liken its rough-and-tumble nature to the way youth sports such as football are played. Organizations such as the ASPCA discourage the practice on the grounds that it does not promote kindness to, or respect of, animals; the practice was banned in New York City in 2012, in Alameda County, California in 2019. Steer riding Miniature bull riding Goat tying