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Nicéphore Niépce

Joseph Nicéphore Niépce known or referred to as Nicéphore Niépce, was a French inventor credited as the inventor of photography and a pioneer in that field. Niépce developed heliography, a technique he used to create the world's oldest surviving product of a photographic process: a print made from a photoengraved printing plate in 1825. In 1826 or 1827, he used a primitive camera to produce the oldest surviving photograph of a real-world scene. Among Niépce's other inventions was the Pyréolophore, the world's first internal combustion engine, which he conceived and developed with his older brother Claude Niépce. Niépce was born in Saône-et-Loire, where his father was a wealthy lawyer, his older brother Claude was his collaborator in research and invention, but died half-mad and destitute in England, having squandered the family wealth in pursuit of non-opportunities for the Pyréolophore. Niépce had a sister and a younger brother, Bernard. Nicéphore was baptized Joseph but adopted the name Nicéphore, in honour of Saint Nicephorus the ninth-century Patriarch of Constantinople, while studying at the Oratorian college in Angers.

At the college he learned science and the experimental method achieving success and graduating to work as a professor of the college. Niépce served as a staff officer in the French army under Napoleon, spending a number of years in Italy and on the island of Sardinia, but ill health forced him to resign, whereupon he married Agnes Romero and became the Administrator of the district of Nice in post-revolutionary France. In 1795, Niépce resigned as administrator of Nice to pursue scientific research with his brother Claude. One source reports his resignation to have been forced due to his unpopularity. In 1801 the brothers returned to the family's estates in Chalon to continue their scientific research, where they were united with their mother, their sister and their younger brother Bernard. Here they managed the family estate as independently wealthy gentlemen-farmers, raising beets and producing sugar. In 1827 Niépce journeyed to England to visit his ill elder brother Claude Niépce, now living in Kew, near London.

Claude had descended into delirium and squandered much of the family fortune chasing inappropriate business opportunities for the Pyréolophore. Nicéphore Niépce died of a stroke on 5 July 1833, financially ruined such that his grave in the cemetery of Saint-Loup de Varennes was financed by the municipality; the cemetery is near the family house where he had experimented and had made the world's first photographic image. His son Isidore formed a partnership with Daguerre after his father's death and was granted a government pension in 1839 in return for disclosing the technical details of Nicéphore's heliogravure process. A cousin, Claude Félix Abel Niépce de Saint-Victor, was a chemist and was the first to use albumen in photography, he produced photographic engravings on steel. During 1857–1861, he discovered that uranium salts emit a form of radiation, invisible to the human eye; the date of Niépce's first photographic experiments is uncertain. He was led to them by his interest in the new art of lithography, for which he realized he lacked the necessary skill and artistic ability, by his acquaintance with the camera obscura, a drawing aid, popular among affluent dilettantes in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

The camera obscura's beautiful but fleeting little "light paintings" inspired a number of people, including Thomas Wedgwood and Henry Fox Talbot, to seek some way of capturing them more and than could be done by tracing over them with a pencil. Letters to his sister-in-law around 1816 indicate that Niépce had managed to capture small camera images on paper coated with silver chloride, making him the first to have any success at all in such an attempt, but the results were negatives, dark where they should be light and vice versa, he could find no way to stop them from darkening all over when brought into the light for viewing. Niépce turned his attention to other substances that were affected by light concentrating on Bitumen of Judea, a occurring asphalt, used for various purposes since ancient times. In Niépce's time, it was used by artists as an acid-resistant coating on copper plates for making etchings; the artist scratched a drawing through the coating bathed the plate in acid to etch the exposed areas removed the coating with a solvent and used the plate to print ink copies of the drawing onto paper.

What interested Niépce was the fact that the bitumen coating became less soluble after it had been left exposed to light. Niépce dissolved bitumen in lavender oil, a solvent used in varnishes, thinly coated it onto a lithographic stone or a sheet of metal or glass. After the coating had dried, a test subject an engraving printed on paper, was laid over the surface in close contact and the two were put out in direct sunlight. After sufficient exposure, the solvent could be used to rinse away only the unhardened bitumen, shielded from light by lines or dark areas in the test subject; the parts of the surface thus laid bare could be etched with acid, or the remaining bitumen could serve as the water-repellent material in lithographic printing. Niépce called his process heliography, which means "sun drawing". In 1822, he used it to create what is believed to have been the world's first permanent photographic image, a contact-exposed copy of an engraving of Pope Pius VII, but it was destroyed when Niépce attempted to make prints from it.

The earliest surviving photographic artifacts by Niépce, made in 1825, are

Minotaur II

Minotaur II rockets consist of the M55A1 first stage and SR19AJ1 second stage of a decommissioned Minuteman missile. The third stage varies depending on the configuration required for the payload. A Minuteman II M57A1 stage is used on the baseline configuration, whilst the Minotaur II+ uses an SR-73-AJ; the Minotaur II Lite is a two-stage configuration, without a third stage. A heavy configuration is available, with an Orion 50XL third stage, as used on the Minotaur I; the baseline configuration can propel a 400 kilograms payload into a 4,000 kilometres downrange, whilst the heavy configuration can place 1,400 kilograms onto a 8,000-kilometre trajectory. Eight Minotaur II have been launched as of May 2009, with six flights using the baseline configuration and two using the Minotaur II+ configuration. Launches are conducted from Launch Facility 06

Tana Oy

Tana Oy is a Finnish waste management company located in Jyväskylä, Finland. Tana is the leading supplier of landfill compaction vehicles in Finland and one of the leading manufacturers of mobile machines for waste management in the world; the company's history dates back to the 1970s. The company has been known as Kone-Jyrä Ltd, Oy Tanacorp Ltd until in 2003 the current owner renamed the company Tana Ltd. Kone-Jyrä Ltd was known for the cancelled Iraq deal. In the late 1980s, the Iraqi government wanted to buy 16 motorboats from the company but due to the Gulf War, the deal was cancelled. A few of the boats were used by the Finnish Society for the Saving of Shipwrecked Persons; the word'Tana' comes from the Finnish word'tanakka', used in the sense of something being robust and durable. It refers to the modular structure of their longevity. A Finnish word for compacting,'tanata', comes from the Tana landfill compactors and is nowadays used to describe crushing and compacting waste. Tana Oy is a global waste management company.

Tana is a manufacturer of landfill compaction vehicles in Europe and North America. The company markets waste shredders, mobile wood chippers and information management systems; the company exports most of its products. The products are purchased through a worldwide dealer network. Tana products are established in over 70 countries. Throughout its history, the company has had its headquarters in Finland. In 2015, the company headquarters was moved to the old Schauman castle, built in 1924; the castle was built for a head of Schauman plywood factory owner Bruno Krook and his family. The castle was designed by Gunnar Wahlroos. Tana products are landfill compactors, waste shredders, drum screens, mobile wood chippers and TANA SMART SITE™ intelligent service concept. Tana products are known for their yellow coloring. Kari Kangas is the CEO. Municipal waste management companies, such as Pirkanmaan Jätehuolto Lassila & Tikanoja Ekopartnerit Turku Oy BIMU Oy https://www.tana.fi/ | Tana's website | tana.fi |Viitattu 10.4.2017 http://www.hs.fi/autot/art-2000002719806.html%7C Kaatopaikkajyrä on vaikuttava hirviö | Taskinen, Kimmo | hs.fi Helsingin Sanomat | 27.3.2014 | Viitattu 10.4.2017 | http://www.uusiouutiset.fi/tana-oy-kokoaa-tyomaatiedot/ | Tana Oy kokoaa työmaatiedot | uusiouutiset.fi |Uusiouutiset 16.6.2015 | Viitattu 10.4.2017 Keski-Suomen maakunnan yhteistyöryhmän tiedotuslehti | http://www.keskisuomi.fi/vipuvoimaa/article.php?id=&selArticle=119 | "Tana jyräsi vanhat ajatukset" | keskisuomi.fi |Keski-Suomen maakunnan yhteistyöryhmän tiedotuslehti 2/2011 | Viitattu 10.4.2017

Word Juggler

Word Juggler was a word processor application by Quark, Inc. for the Apple IIe, IIc, III computers. Until the release of AppleWorks, Word Juggler was the leading word processor on the IIe and IIc, beating out Apple Writer; the software was copy protected with a hardware dongle. It was one of the first software titles to use ProDOS; the software was considered easy to learn and master. The software came with a dictionary/spell checker called Lexicheck, well received; the software was the first commercially available word processor for the Apple III and featured formatting commands such as margin settings, justification, underlined, superscripts, titles and page numbers. The program was able to use the Apple III redefinable keyboard to provide single-stroke editor commands; the Apple III version made use of the full 80 column display, could support 1210 lines with 128K memory, or 806 lines with 96k memory. The Apple III version supported printing with Qume and Xerox printers. For the Apple III version which came on a single diskette with a backup copy and instruction manual, the MSRP was US$295

List of Oenothera species

Subdivisions of the genus Oenothera in the Onagraceae family: Oenothera sect. Angora W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 – western North America in dry, sandy soils in deserts and forest openings, up to 2000 m. elevation. Oenothera arizonica W. L. Wagner 1998 – California evening primrose Oenothera californica S. Watson 1876 – California evening primrose O. californica ssp. avita W. M. Klein 1962 O. californica ssp. californica O. californica ssp. eurekensis W. M. Klein 1962 – Eureka Dunes evening primrose Oenothera deltoides Torr. & Frém. 1845 – birdcage evening primrose O. deltoides ssp. ambigua W. M. Klein 1962 O. deltoides ssp. cognata W. M. Klein 1962 O. deltoides ssp. deltoides O. deltoides ssp. howellii W. M. Klein 1962 - Antioch Dunes evening primrose O. deltoides ssp. piperi W. M. Klein 1962 Oenothera engelmannii Munz 1931 – Engelmann's evening primrose Oenothera neomexicana Munz 1931 – New Mexico evening primrose Oenothera nuttallii Sweet 1830 – Nuttall's evening primrose Oenothera pallida Lindl. 1828 – pale evening primrose, white buttercup O. pallida ssp. gypsophila Munz & W.

M. Klein 1965 – whitepole evening primrose O. pallida ssp. pallida O. pallida ssp. runcinata Munz & W. M. Klein 1965 O. pallida ssp. trichocalyx Munz & W. M. Klein 1965 Oenothera wigginsii W. M. Klein 1962 – Oenothera sect. Calylophus W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 – in North American Great Plains and south to central Mexico. Oenothera berlandieri Steud. 1843 – Mexican evening primroseO. Berlandieri ssp. berlandieri O. berlandieri ssp. pinifolia W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 Oenothera serrulata Nutt. 1818 – yellow sundrops Oenothera hartwegii Benth. 1839 – Hartweg's sundropsO. Hartwegii ssp. fendleri W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 O. hartwegii ssp. filifolia W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 O. hartwegii ssp. hartwegii O. hartwegii ssp. maccartii W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 O. hartwegii ssp. pubescens W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 Oenothera lavandulifolia Torr. & A. Gray 1840 – lavenderleaf sundrops Oenothera toumeyi Tidestr. 1935 – Toumey's sundrops Oenothera tubicula A. Gray 1852 – Texas sundropsO. Tubicula ssp. strigulosa W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 O. tubicula ssp. tubicula Oenothera sect.

Contortae W. L. Wagner 1987 – Sierra Nevadas of California, extending just into western Nevada. Oenothera xylocarpa Coville 1893 – woodyfruit evening primrose Oenothera sect. Eremia W. L. Wagner 1986 – western North America, with a distribution in the Chihuahuan and Sonoran deserts. Oenothera primiveris A. Gray 1853 – desert evening primrose O. primiveris ssp. bufonis Munz 1965 – large yellow desert primrose O. primiveris ssp. primiveris Oenothera sect. Gaura W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 – beeblossom Oenothera boquillensis W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 – Rio Grande beeblossom Oenothera suffrutescens W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 – scarlet beeblossom Oenothera coloradensis W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 O. coloradensis ssp. coloradensis – Colorado beeblossom or butterfly plant O. coloradensis ssp. neomexicana W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 – New Mexico beeblossom Oenothera demareei W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 – Demaree's beeblossom Oenothera filiformis W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 – biennial gaura Oenothera gaura W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 – Oenothera hexandra W.

L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 O. hexandra ssp. gracilis W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 O. hexandra ssp. hexandra Oenothera lindheimeri W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 Oenothera patriciae W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 Oenothera simulans W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 Oenothera suffulta W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007O. Suffulta ssp. suffulta O. suffulta ssp. nealleyi W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 Oenothera triangulata W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 Oenothera anomala Curtis 1797 – anomalous Oenothera Oenothera curtiflora W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 – lizard tail Oenothera glaucifolia W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 – false gaura Oenothera calcicola W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 Oenothera cinerea W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 – gaura-pilosaO. Cinerea ssp. cinerea O. cinerea ssp. parksii W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 Oenothera filipes W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 Oenothera mckelveyae W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 Oenothera sinuosa W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 – wavy-leaf gaura Oenothera xenogaura W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 – Oenothera arida W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 – Oenothera sect. Gauropsis W. L. Wagner 1985 – Wyoming, western Nebraska, eastern Colorado, New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle in the U.

S. High Plains. Oenothera canescens Torr. & Frém. 1845 – spotted evening primrose Oenothera sect. Hartmannia W. L. Wagner & Hoch 2007 – Generally in Mexico and Texas, but O. speciosa extends into the U. S. Central Plains, O. rosea extends to the Caribbean, northern South America. Oenothera deserticola Munz 1932 – Oenothera platanorum P. H. Raven & D. R. Parn. 1970 – Fort Huachuca evening primrose Oenothera rosea L’Hér. Ex Aiton 1789 – pink evening primrose, Rose of Mexico Oenothera speciosa Nutt. 1821 – showy evening primrose, Mexican primrose, amapola Oenothera texensis P. H. Raven & D. R. Parn. 1970 – Texas evening primrose Oenothera sect. Kleinia Munz 1965 – distributed over the Chihuahuan and southern

Acer eonegundo

Acer eonegundo is an extinct maple species in the family Sapindaceae described from a single partial fossil leaf. The species is known from Eocene sediments exposed in the US state of Nevada, it is placed into the living Acer section Negundo. A. eonegundo is represented by a solitary fossil specimen from the northeastern part of Nevada. The specimen was recovered from an outcrop of the "Bull Run" flora, University of California Museum of Paleontology location P562, which preserves lacustrine sedimentation associated with extensive intermittent volcanism between 43 to 38 million years ago. Radiometric dating of volcanic ash layers above and below the flora reported in 1966 indicated an age of 41 million years ago; the Bull Run, Copper Basin, Elko floras were formed during the same time frame as a result of the volcanic activity. The three floras are tied to the Salmon and Cow Creek floras of Central Idaho, possibly with the John Day Formations Sheep rock flora in Oregon; the holotype for A. eonegundo is a part specimen numbered UCMP 9043, which at the time of description was preserved in the University of California Museum of Paleontology in Berkeley, California.

The specimen was studied by paleobotanists Jack A. Wolfe of the United States Geological Survey, Denver office and Toshimasa Tanai of Hokkaido University, with Wolfe and Tanai publishing their 1987 type description for A. taurocursum in the Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. The etymology of the chosen specific name eonegundo is a combination of negundo for Acer section Negundo and "eo" for Eocene, alluding to the species being an Eocene member of the section. A. Eonegundo is one of six Acer species to be described by Wolfe and Tanai in 1987 from the "Bull Run" flora, with the others being A. axelrodi, A. cadaver, A. elkoanum, A. eomediunum, A. taurocursum. While A. eonegundo is only described form foliage, A. taurocursum and A. cadaver are described only from fruits. A. axelrodi, A. elkoanum, A. eomediunum are known from both leaves and fruits. When described and Tanai noted A. eonegundo to be the oldest leaf fossil record for the A. sect. Negundo, with relationships between A. eonegundo the younger members of the section unclear.

A. eonegundo has compound leaves divided into at least three leaflets, with the leaflets pinnately veined and ranging up to 4.8 cm in length. The leaflets have small petiolules and asymmetric bases flaring out on the basal side while remaining narrow on the apical side; each lateral leaflet has 7 secondary veins that fork near the leaf margin with the inner branch curving upwards to join the next secondary vein up, while the outer fork extends to the leaf margin. The outer forks brace the sinuses between the teeth on the blade margins. Overall the teeth of the leaflets compound, each of the large teeth having 1 to 2 smaller teeth on the basal side; the leaves have tertiary veins that form acute angle-right angle structuring with the veins spaced 0.7–1.3 cm apart. The quaternary veins form a network of areoles that are irregular polygons