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Nicaraguan Armed Forces

The Nicaraguan Armed Forces are the military forces of Nicaragua. The long years of strife between the peasant and land-owning political factions and the existence of private armies led the United States to sponsor the National Guard as an apolitical institution to assume all military and police functions in Nicaragua; the marines provided the training, but their efforts were complicated by a guerrilla movement led by Augusto César Sandino that continued to resist the marines and the fledgling National Guard from a stronghold in the mountainous areas of northern Nicaragua. Upon the advent of the United States Good Neighbor Policy in 1933, the marines withdrew. Having reached a strength of about 3,000 by the mid-1930s, the guard was organized into company units, although the Presidential Guard component approached battalion size. Expanded to no more than 9,000 during the civil war of 1978-79, the guard consisted of a reinforced battalion as its primary tactical unit, a Presidential Guard battalion, a mechanized company, an engineer battalion and antiaircraft batteries, one security company in each of the country's sixteen departments.

The National Guard's main arms were M1 Garands and Israeli Galils augmented by antiaircraft guns and mortars. Nicaragua declared war on the Axis powers in 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Although Nicaragua was not involved in World War II, it qualified for United States Lend-Lease military aid in exchange for U. S. base facilities at Corinto. Additional shipments of small arms and transportation and communication equipment followed, as well as some training and light transport aircraft. United States military aid to the National Guard continued under the Rio de Janeiro Treaty of Mutual Defense, but stopped in 1976 after relations with the administration of Anastasio Somoza Debayle worsened; some United States equipment of World War II vintage was purchased from other countries—Staghound armored cars and M4 Sherman medium tanks from Israel and F-51 Mustang fighter aircraft from Sweden. Except for minor frontier skirmishes with Honduras in 1957 over a border dispute, the National Guard was not involved in any conflict with its neighbors.

The guard's domestic power, however broadened to embrace not only its original internal security and police functions but control over customs, telecommunications, port facilities, radio broadcasting, the merchant marine, civil aviation. To replace the National Guard, the Sandinistas established a new national army, the Sandinista Popular Army, a police force, the Sandinista Police; these two groups, contrary to the original Puntarenas Pact were controlled by the Sandinistas and trained by personnel from Cuba, Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union. Opposition to the overwhelming FSLN influence in the security forces did not surface until 1980. Meanwhile, the EPS developed, with support from Cuba and the Soviet Union, into the largest and best equipped military force in Central America. With the introduction of Patriotic Military Service, a conscription system, EPS forces reached 80,000 active-duty members by 1990. Patriotic Military Service required males, ranging in age from seventeen to twenty-six, to serve four years in the military.

This conscription system did not require women to enlist. The Patriotic Military Service system was an unpopular initiative taken by the Sandinista government. Draft dodging was rampant. Additionally, massive demonstrations and antidraft protests plagued the country. In 1990, the Patriotic Military Service system would be abolished after the Sandinista's lost power during the presidential elections. Under an agreement between President-elect Chamorro of the National Opposition Union and the defeated FSLN party, General Humberto Ortega, former defense minister and commander in chief of the EPS under the Sandinistas, remained at the head of the armed forces. By a law that took effect in April 1990, the EPS became subordinate to President Chamorro as commander in chief. Chamorro retained the Ministry of Defense portfolio. Chamorro's authority over the EPS was limited. There were no Ministry of Defense offices and no vice ministers to shape national defense policies or exercise civilian control over the armed forces.

Under the Law of Military Organization of the Sandinista Popular Army enacted just before Chamorro's election victory, Humberto Ortega retained authority over promotions, military construction, force deployments. He drafted the military budget presented to the government. Only an overall budget had to be submitted to the legislature, thus avoiding a line-item review by the National Assembly. Sandinista officers remained at the head of all military regions; the chief of the army, Major General Joaquín Cuadra Lacayo, continued in his pre-Chamorro position. Facing domestic pressure to remove Humberto Ortega and the risk of curtailment of United States aid as long as Sandinistas remained in control of the armed forces, Chamorro announced that Ortega would be replaced in 1994. Ortega challenged her authority to relieve him and reiterated his intention to remain at the head of the EPS until the army reform program was completed in 1997; the army reform measures were launched with deep cuts in personnel strengths, the abolition of conscription, disbanding of the militia.

The size of the army declined from a peak strength of 97,000 troops to an estimated 15,200 in 1993, accomplished by voluntary discharges and for

Golygon

A golygon is any polygon with all right angles whose sides are consecutive integer lengths. Golygons were invented and named by Lee Sallows, popularized by A. K. Dewdney in a 1990 Scientific American column. Variations on the definition of golygons involve allowing edges to cross, using sequences of edge lengths other than the consecutive integers, considering turn angles other than 90°. In any golygon, all horizontal edges have the same parity as each other. Therefore, the number n of sides must allow the solution of the system of equations ± 1 ± 3 ⋯ ± = 0 ± 2 ± 4 ⋯ ± n = 0, it follows from this that n must be a multiple of 8. The number of golygons for a given permissible value of n may be computed efficiently using generating functions; the number of golygons for permissible values of n is 112, 8432, 909288, etc.. Finding the number of solutions that correspond to non-crossing golygons seems to be more difficult. There is a unique eight-sided golygon. A serial-sided isogon of order n is a closed polygon with a constant angle at each vertex and having consecutive sides of length 1, 2...

N units. The polygon may be self-crossing. Golygons are a special case of serial-sided isogons; the three-dimensional generalization of a golygon is called a golyhedron–a closed simply-connected solid figure confined to the faces of a cubical lattice and having face areas in the sequence 1, 2... n, for some integer n, first introduced in a MathOverflow question. Golyhedrons have been found with values of n equal to 32, 15, 12, 11. Golygons at the On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences

Bradfield, Zimbabwe

Bradfield is a neighbourhood in the city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Bradfield is located in Bulawayo District, Matabeleland North Province, in the city of Bulawayo, the second-largest business and industrial center in Zimbabwe, after the capital, located 460 kilometres, by road, to the northeast. Bradfield is bordered by 16th Street to the north, Bulawayo Golf Club and Lions Golf Club to the east, 23rd Avenue and Burns Drive to the south and by Angus Road to the west. Matopos Road runs from 16th Street to 23rd Avenue, in a north to south direction in the neighbourhood. Hillside Road runs in a north to south direction through the Bradfield; the geographic coordinates of the neighbourhood are:20° 10' 40.00"S, 28° 35' 6.00"E. Bradfield, Zimbabwe is an upscale residential and commercial neighbourhood in Bulawayo. Commercial enterprises like banks, doctors' and dentists' offices and a shopping mall are located on Hillside Road. Upscale single-family homes occupy the rest of the neighbourhood; the suburb was named after Edwin Eugene Bradfield, one of the first Europeans to settle in the neighbourhood.

The exact population of Bradfield, Zimbabwe is not known as of August 2011. The points of interest within Bradfield or close to its borders, include the following: Hellenic Community Hall A branch of Ecobank Zimbabwe Mater Dei Hospital – A private hospital, located to the immediate south of Bradfield on Burns Drive Bradfield Shopping Center – At the corner of Hillside Road and Burns Drive Bulawayo Golf Club – Located to the immediate east of Bradfield Bulawayo Golf Club – Located to the immediate east of Bradfield Bulawayo Matabeleland North Location of Bradfield, Zimbabwe At Google Maps Photos of Bradfield, Zimbabwe Polling Station in Bradford, Zimbabwe