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Nicholas Aylward Vigors

Nicholas Aylward Vigors was an Irish zoologist and politician. He popularized the classification of birds on the basis of the quinarian system. Vigors was born at County Carlow, he studied at Trinity College, Oxford. He served in the army during the Peninsular War from 1809 to 1811, he returned to Oxford, graduating in 1815. He practiced as a barrister and became a Doctor of Civil Law in 1832. Vigors was a co-founder of the Zoological Society of London in 1826, its first secretary until 1833. In that year, he founded, he was a fellow of the Royal Society. He was the author of 40 papers on ornithology, he described 110 species of birds. He provided the text for John Gould's A Century of Birds from the Himalaya Mountains. One bird that he described was "Sabine's snipe"; this was treated as a common snipe by Barrett-Hamilton in 1895 and by Meinertzhagen in 1926, but was thought to be a Wilson's snipe in 1945. Vigors lent a skin for editions of Thomas Bewick's History of British Birds. Vigors succeeded to his father's estate in 1828.

He was MP for the borough of Carlow from 1832 until 1835. He represented the constituency of County Carlow in 1835. Vigors had been elected in a by-election in June after the Conservative MPs returned at the 1835 United Kingdom general election were unseated on petition and a new writ issued. On 19 August 1835 Vigors and his running mate, in the two member county constituency, were unseated on petition; the same two Conservatives, unseated were awarded the seats. On the death of one of them, Vigors won the subsequent by-election in 1837 and retained the seat until his own death. Webb, Alfred. "Vigors, Nicholas Aylward". A Compendium of Irish Biography. Dublin: M. H. Gill & son – via Wikisource. Kavanagh, P. J.. "Nicholas Aylward Vigors, MP, 1786-1840". Carloviana:. 30: 15–19. Parliamentary Election Results in Ireland, 1801-1922, edited by B. M. Walker Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Nicholas Aylward Vigors Art UK: Toucan by Vigors

Enone‚Äďalkene cycloadditions

In organic chemistry, enone–alkene cycloadditions are a version of the cycloaddition This reaction involves an enone and alkene as substrates. Although the concerted photochemical cycloaddition is allowed, the reaction between enones and alkenes is stepwise and involves discrete diradical intermediates. In 1908, it was reported. Subsequent investigations demonstrated the utility of the photochemical cycloaddition of enones to alkenes. In spite of the stepwise, radical mechanism, both stereoselective intra- and intermolecular variants have emerged. Cyclic enones are employed, otherwise competitive cis-trans isomerization ensues; the mechanism of photocyclization is proposed to begin with photoexcitation of the enone to a singlet excited state. The singlet state is very short lived, decays by intersystem crossing to the triplet state. At this point, the enone forms an exciplex with the ground state alkene giving the triplet diradical. Spin inversion to the singlet diradical allows closure to the cyclobutane.

As an alternative a pericyclic reaction mechanism is proposed, in which after intersystem crossing a radical cation and a radical anion are formed, which recombine to the cyclobutane. Enone–alkene cycloadditions can produce two isomers, depending on the orientation of substituents on the alkene and the enone carbonyl group; when the enone carbonyl and substituent of highest priority are proximal, the isomer is termed "head-to-head." When the enone carbonyl and substituent are distal, the isomer is called "head-to-tail." Selectivity for one of these isomers depends on both electronic factors. The regiochemistry of the reaction is controlled by two factors: steric interactions and electrostatic interactions between the excited enone and alkene. In their excited state, the polarity of enones is reversed so that the β carbon possesses a partial negative charge. In the transition state for the first bond formation, the alkene tends to align itself so that the negative end of its dipole points away from the β carbon of the enone.

Steric interactions encourage the placement of large substituents on opposite sides of the new cyclobutane ring. If the enone and alkene are contained in rings of five atoms or fewer, double-bond configuration is preserved. However, when larger rings are used, double bond isomerization during the reaction becomes a possibility; this energy-wasting process competes with cycloaddition and is evident in reactions that yield mixtures of cis- and trans-fused products. Diastereofacial selectivity is predictable in most cases; the less hindered faces of the enone and alkene react. Intramolecular enone–alkene cycloaddition may give either "bent" or "straight" products depending on the reaction regioselectivity; when the tether between the enone and alkene is two atoms long, bent products predominate due to the rapid formation of five-membered rings. Longer tethers tend to give straight products; the tether can be attached at the 2 position of the enone. When the alkene is tethered here, bulky substituents at the 4 position of the enone enforce moderate diastereoselectivity.

Enone–alkene cycloaddition has been applied to the synthesis of a cubane. The Favorskii rearrangement established the carbon skeleton of cubane, further synthetic manipulations provided the desired unfunctionalized target. Enone–alkene cycloadditions suffer from side reactions, e.g. those associated with the diradical intermediate. These side reactions can be minimized by a judicious choice of reaction conditions. Dissolved oxygen is avoided. A variety of solvents can be used. Acetone is a useful solvent. Alkane-based solvents are selected to be free of alkenes. Excitation wavelength is important. For intermolecular reactions, excess of the alkene can be employed to avoid competitive dimerization of the enone. Reverse photocycloaddition, decomposition of 1,2-dioxetanedione, is stated as the mechanism that produces light in glow sticks


Massongex is a municipality in the district of Saint-Maurice, in the canton of Valais, Switzerland. Massongex is first mentioned in 1226 as Bernardus de Massunge. Massongex has an area, as of 2009, of 6.6 square kilometers. Of this area, 2.23 km2 or 33.6% is used for agricultural purposes, while 3.12 km2 or 47.1% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 1 km2 or 15.1% is settled, 0.2 km2 or 3.0% is either rivers or lakes and 0.04 km2 or 0.6% is unproductive land. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 1.1% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 6.3% and transportation infrastructure made up 4.8%. Power and water infrastructure as well as other special developed areas made up 2.4% of the area Out of the forested land, 42.5% of the total land area is forested and 4.2% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 20.8% is used for growing crops and 10.4% is pastures and 2.0% is used for alpine pastures. All the water in the municipality is flowing water.

The municipality is located on the left side of the Rhone river. It consists of eight hamlets including Daviaz; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Gules, three Towers Argent masoned and doored Sable. Massongex has a population of 1,788; as of 2008, 16.4% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 2.6%. It has changed at a rate of 4.8 % due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks French as their first language, German is the second most common and Italian is the third; as of 2008, the population was 49.8 % female. The population was made up of 125 non-Swiss men. There were 116 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality, 434 or about 32.9% were born in Massongex and lived there in 2000. There were 377 or 28.6% who were born in the same canton, while 291 or 22.1% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 186 or 14.1% were born outside of Switzerland. As of 2000, children and teenagers make up 27.7% of the population, while adults make up 61% and seniors make up 11.2%.

As of 2000, there were 557 people who never married in the municipality. There were 51 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 522 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.5 persons per household. There were 157 households that consist of only one person and 39 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 490 apartments were permanently occupied, while 130 apartments were seasonally occupied and 20 apartments were empty; as of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 9.8 new units per 1000 residents. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 1.79%. The historical population is given in the following chart: The Tarnaiae, a Celtic and Gallo-Roman vicus is listed as a Swiss heritage site of national significance. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the CVP; the next three most popular parties were the FDP, the SVP and the SP. In the federal election, a total of 535 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 53.7%. In the 2009 Conseil d'Etat/Staatsrat election a total of 484 votes were cast, of which 20 or about 4.1% were invalid.

The voter participation was 47.8%, much less than the cantonal average of 54.67%. In the 2007 Swiss Council of States election a total of 522 votes were cast, of which 30 or about 5.7% were invalid. The voter participation was 53.4%, much less than the cantonal average of 59.88%. As of 2010, Massongex had an unemployment rate of 4.6%. As of 2008, there were 27 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 12 businesses involved in this sector. 102 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 21 businesses in this sector. 120 people were employed with 22 businesses in this sector. There were 628 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 39.2% of the workforce. In 2008 the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 221; the number of jobs in the primary sector was 20, of which 19 were in agriculture and 1 was in fishing or fisheries. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 97 of which 23 or were in manufacturing and 63 were in construction.

The number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 104. In the tertiary sector. In 2000, there were 139 workers who commuted into the municipality and 528 workers who commuted away; the municipality is a net exporter of workers, with about 3.8 workers leaving the municipality for every one entering. About 3.6% of the workforce coming into Massongex are coming from outside Switzerland. Of the working population, 8.8% used public transportation to get to work, 73.7% used a private car. From the 2000 census, 1,010 or 76.6% were Roman Catholic, while 140 or 10.6% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there were 5 members of an Orthodox church (or abou

Kohl Children's Museum

Kohl Children’s Museum of Greater Chicago is a children's museum in Glenview, Illinois that provides a hands-on learning laboratory for children ages birth to 8. Located on an 8.8-acre site, including a 46,700-square-foot museum building and a 2-acre outdoor exhibit space, the museum features exhibits and programs aligned to the Illinois State Learning Standards and designed to make learning fun and interesting for young children. The museum is available to guests with any level of physical, auditory, or cognitive challenge. All public areas are 100% ADA-compliant; the facility and all exhibits have been designed using the principles of universal design, which go beyond accessibility with an approach that uses multi-sensory experiences as educational tools. These experiences allow all guests with any level of physical, visual and cognitive ability to experience the Museum and its offerings. Kohl Children’s Museum has created an environmentally friendly, energy-efficient facility that has earned Silver-level certification as a LEED building from the U.

S. Green Building Council. Signage and activities provide children and families with hands-on learning opportunities about environmental concerns in both the indoor and outdoor exhibit spaces, accessible year-round. Kohl Children's Museum houses 17 interactive exhibits. Around 350,000 people visit Kohl Children’s Museum each year; the museum has over 7,500 member families. For many years, the museum has reached out to underserved and at-risk communities through its Early Childhood Connections program, working with Chicago Public Schools; the museum is now able to offer its programs to families in the nearby village and city of Wheeling and Waukegan and has developed outreach programs on anti-bias initiatives and healthy lifestyles in 2007 and 2008. Kohl Children's Museum

Piccadilly line extension to Cockfosters

The Piccadilly line extension to Cockfosters added eight new stations to the northern end of London Underground's Piccadilly line. The extension through north London from Finsbury Park to Cockfosters was opened in three stages between 19 September 1932 and 31 July 1933; when the Great Northern and Brompton Railway opened in December 1906, its northern terminus was at Finsbury Park where it had an interchange with the Great Northern Railway and the Great Northern & City Railway. To obtain approval for the railway's construction, the GNP&BR had, like the GN&CR before it, had to accept a GNR veto over further extensions north in competition with the latter's suburban passenger services from King's Cross. Soon after the GNP&BR opened it was clear that the termination of the line in urban Finsbury Park rather than further out of central London in more suburban Wood Green, Southgate or Tottenham had been a mistake. Passengers leaving the GNP&BR and the GN&CR at Finsbury Park preferred to transfer on to trams and buses for the continuation of their journeys, rather than use the GNR as it had hoped.

This caused much congestion in and around the station at Finsbury Park. Calls for a solution to the congestion at Finsbury Park were frequent from the GNP&BR's opening and after the First World War the campaign for extending the line gathered strength. In 1921, the Municipal Borough of Tottenham, sent a resolution to the Government, suggesting the desirability of extending one of the two lines terminating at Finsbury Park to Seven Sisters Corner. In the face of mounting pressure the London and North Eastern Railway continued the opposition of its predecessor, the GNR, to a northward extension of the Piccadilly line although it did begin developing plans for the electrification of its own suburban services; when the LNER cancelled the electrification of its routes due to lack of money, a petition from the Middlesex Federation of Ratepayers in 1923 spurred the government to act and, in 1925, "The North and North-East London Traffic Inquiry" was set up to examine options. When the Inquiry reported, it recommended an extension only one station to Manor House.

The LNER was placed in the position of either carrying out the electrification of its own services or withdrawing its veto to an extension of the Piccadilly line. To make the extension financially worthwhile, the Underground Group needed to maximise the number of passengers using it by extending the new route as far as possible to the north and by building as much of it as possible on the surface for which construction is cheaper than in tunnel. A route was proposed out to rural Oakwood and Cockfosters although the Underground Group did not have the money to construct the limited extension to Manor House; the recession of the late 1920s provided the economic imperative for the construction of the extension. The government introduced the Development Act in 1930 which provided government guarantees on loans raised for construction; the aim was to increase employment through a stimulation of public works projects and, with guarantees available on the money needed for the construction, the Underground Group was able to start work on the Cockfosters extension, the Piccadilly line western extension as well as many other projects throughout the Underground network.

All the stations were designed by Charles Holden and colleagues in a modern European style, assembling the buildings from a collection of basic geometric shapes. Despite the Underground Group's wish to construct most of the extension on the surface, the first four stations are underground; the line surfaces at Arnos Grove before going back into tunnel to pass through a hill at Southgate. North of Southgate, the line is on the surface for the rest of the route to Cockfosters, thus five of the eight stations on the extension are underground. The extension passes directly underneath Harringay Green Lanes railway station, but no provision for an interchange was made since at the time the Tottenham and Hampstead Junction Railway it lay on was a freight line with few passenger services. Earlier versions of the extension had included a station to the north at St Ann's Road, but this was dropped from plans as the growing tramway network in the area was considered adequate. Opened on 19 September 1932Manor House Harringay, proposed in 1902 plans but omitted from the plans Turnpike Lane, other proposed names.

Other proposed names. The Subterranean Railway: How the London Underground Was Built and How It Changed the City Forever. Atlantic Books. Pp. 227–231. ISBN 1-84354-023-1

The Marian Conspiracy

The Marian Conspiracy is a Big Finish Productions audio drama based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. The Sixth Doctor meets Evelyn Smythe and attempts to find out why she is disappearing by travelling back in time to the era of Queen Mary; this episode addresses issues of freedom of religious expression. The Doctor — Colin Baker Evelyn Smythe — Maggie Stables George CrowSean Jackson John Wilson — Gary Russell William LeafJez Fielder Lady Sarah — Jo Castleton The Queen — Anah Ruddin Reverend Thomas — Nicholas Pegg Francois de Noailles — Barnaby Edwards Royal GuardAlistair Lock This story features the first appearance of the first made-for-Big Finish companion, Evelyn. How she parted company with the Doctor is revealed in Thicker Than Water; the Doctor mentions being in the Tower of London in The Mind of Evil. The Sixth Doctor and Evelyn return to it in Jubilee. Big Finish Productions – The Marian Conspiracy