Nicholas Mystikos

Nicholas I Mystikos or Nicholas I Mysticus was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from March 901 to February 907 and from May 912 to his death in 925. His feast day in the Eastern Orthodox Church is 16 May. Nicholas had become a friend of the Patriarch Photios, he retired to a monastery. Emperor Leo VI the Wise retrieved him from the monastery and made him mystikos, a dignity designating either the imperial secretary or a judicial official. On 1 March 901, Nicholas was appointed patriarch. However, he fell out with Leo VI over the latter's fourth marriage to his mistress Zoe Karbonopsina. Although he reluctantly baptized the fruit of this relationship, the future Constantine VII, Nicholas forbade the emperor from entering the church and may have become involved in the revolt of Andronikos Doukas, he was replaced by Euthymios. Exiled to his own monastery, Nicholas regarded his deposition as unjustified and involved Pope Sergius III in the dispute. About the time of the accession of Leo VI's brother Alexander to the throne in May 912, Nicholas was restored to the patriarchate.

A protracted struggle with the supporters of Euthymios followed, which did not end until the new Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos promulgated the Tomos of Union in 920. In the meantime Alexander had died in 913 after provoking a war with Bulgaria, the underage Constantine VII succeeded to the throne. Nicholas Mystikos became the leading member of the seven-man regency for the young emperor, as such had to face the advance of Simeon I of Bulgaria on Constantinople. Nicholas negotiated a peaceful settlement, crowned Simeon emperor of the Bulgarians in a makeshift ceremony outside Constantinople, arranged for the marriage of Simeon's daughter to Constantine VII; this unpopular concession undermined his position, by March 914, with the support of the magistros John Eladas, Zoe Karbonopsina overthrew Nicholas and replaced him as foremost regent. She revoked the agreement with Simeon. With her main supporter Leo Phokas crushingly defeated by the Bulgarians at the Battle of Acheloos in 917, Zoe started to lose ground.

Embarrassed by further failures and her supporters were supplanted in 919 by the admiral Romanos Lekapenos, who married his daughter Helena Lekapene to Constantine VII and advanced to the imperial throne in 920. The Patriarch Nicholas came to be one of the strongest supporters of the new emperor, took the brunt of renewed negotiations with the Bulgarians until his death in 925. In addition to his numerous letters to various notables and foreign rulers, Nicholas Mystikos wrote a homily on the sack of Thessalonica by the Arabs in 904, he was a critical thinker who went as far as to question the authority of Old Testament quotations and the notion that the emperor's command was unwritten law. Nicholas I, Patriarch of Constantinople, Letters. Greek Text and English Tr. by R. J. H. Jenkins and L. G. Westerink; the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Cam switch

Cam switches are used within the low voltage range. On a shaft, switching cams are made of abrasion-resistant conductive material. By rotating the shaft, the contacts are closed by the cams. A plurality of cams are seated on a shaft, which switch or switch several pairs of contacts. Friedrich Natalis, working for the Schuckert-Werke since 1897, had developed the cam-switching principle in Germany before 1900. In 1895, Johann Sigmund Schuckert founder of the electrical engineering company Schuckert & Co supplied cam switches with cam rollers and spring-loaded individual switches, thus the term cam switch has been used for similar devices over the years. Schuckert supplied the "carbon control switch" designed by Natalis since 1901 with copper-carbon switching devices with spark-blowers; the main current cam switch retained some significance when the rifle control pushed it where it was more economical. In miniature machine construction, the cam switch did not appear until the early 1930s. In 1931 the American company General Electric GE released their switch SBl, a 20A auxiliary current control switch a miniaturized image of the large main current control switches.

The devices had simple interruption and silver crossover, in some cases they were equipped with a snap mechanism. In Europe around 1940, the first cam switch from Ghielmetti, Solothurn / Switzerland, began to replace conventional roller switches. Switches could be supplied as auxiliary current control switches with corresponding circuits, they were marketed under the trade name Ghielmetti-Clavier. In September 1948, Kraus & Naimer produced the first company-owned cam switch. In 1949, the company presented the world's first cam-designed cam switch. At the beginning of 1950, Kraus & Naimer cam switches C30 were followed with the same design; the Kraus & Naimer cam switches C16 to C200, which came into the market in the spring of 1951, had a decisive influence on the advancement of the cam switch and the introduction of the roller switch in electrical engineering. They had a motor switching capacity appropriate to the rated current; the large number of possible combinations and the extensive additional equipment as characteristic features were responsible for the development of cam switches as an industrial standard.

Kraus & Naimer developed the world's smallest cam switch, in the market since 1994

Kingdom of heaven (Gospel of Matthew)

Kingdom of heaven is a phrase used in the Gospel of Matthew. It is seen as equivalent to the phrase "kingdom of God" in the Gospel of Mark and the Gospel of Luke. Thought to be the main content of Jesus's preaching in the Gospel of Matthew, the "kingdom of heaven" described "a process, a course of events, whereby God begins to govern or to act as king or Lord, an action, therefore, by which God manifests his being-God in the world of men." Howard Clarke notes that Matthew 3:2 is the first of twenty-nine references to the "kingdom of heaven" in the Gospel of Matthew. The gospels of Luke and Mark tend to prefer the term "kingdom of God." That Matthew uses the word "heaven" is seen as a reflection of the sensibilities of the Jewish audience this gospel was directed to, thus tried to avoid the word "God." Most scholars feel. Robert Foster rejects this view, he finds the standard explanation hard to believe as Matthew uses the word "God" many other times and uses the phrase "kingdom of God" four times.

Foster argues. For Foster, the word "heaven" had an important role in Matthew's theology and links the phrase to "Father in heaven," which Matthew uses to refer to God. Foster argues that the "kingdom of God" represents the earthly domain that Jesus' opponents such as Pharisees thought they resided in, while the "kingdom of heaven" represents the truer spiritual domain of Jesus and his disciples; some scholars believe that when the phrase was first used, it was intended to be eschatological with the kingdom of heaven referring to the end times. However, when the last judgment failed to occur within the era of the early Church, Christian scholars came to understand the term in reference to a spiritual state within, or a much delayed end time. There is a difficulty for those believing in a delayed end time, since the phrase "the kingdom of God" is liked with other phrases like "at hand" or "is near," implying an imminent event. To this challenge and Mann suggest a better translation would state that the kingdom is "fast approaching."

R. T. France sees it as more immediate suggesting that the phrase should be read as referring to "a state of affairs, beginning and demands immediate action."In the New Testament the throne of God is talked about in several forms: Heaven as the throne of God, the throne of David, the throne of Glory, the throne of Grace and many more. The New Testament continues Jewish identification of heaven itself as the "throne of God," but locates the throne of God as "in heaven" and having a second subordinate seat at the Right Hand of God for the Session of Christ. Christ the King Son of Man