An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft. Although reserved for professional space travelers, the terms are sometimes applied to anyone who travels into space, including scientists, politicians and tourists; until 2002, astronauts were sponsored and trained by governments, either by the military or by civilian space agencies. With the suborbital flight of the funded SpaceShipOne in 2004, a new category of astronaut was created: the commercial astronaut; the criteria for what constitutes human spaceflight vary. The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale Sporting Code for astronautics recognizes only flights that exceed an altitude of 100 kilometers. In the United States, professional and commercial astronauts who travel above an altitude of 50 miles are awarded astronaut wings; as of 17 November 2016, a total of 552 people from 36 countries have reached 100 km or more in altitude, of which 549 reached low Earth orbit or beyond.
Of these, 24 people have traveled beyond low Earth orbit, either to lunar orbit, the lunar surface, or, in one case, a loop around the Moon. Three of the 24–Jim Lovell, John Young and Eugene Cernan–did so twice; the three current astronauts who have flown without reaching low Earth orbit are spaceplane pilots Joe Walker, Mike Melvill, Brian Binnie, who participated in suborbital missions. As of 17 November 2016, under the U. S. definition, 558 people qualify as having reached space, above 50 miles altitude. Of eight X-15 pilots who exceeded 50 miles in altitude, only one exceeded 100 kilometers. Space travelers have spent over 41,790 man-days in space, including over 100 astronaut-days of spacewalks; as of 2016, the man with the longest cumulative time in space is Gennady Padalka, who has spent 879 days in space. Peggy A. Whitson holds the record for the most time in space by 377 days. In 1959, when both the United States and Soviet Union were planning, but had yet to launch humans into space, NASA Administrator T. Keith Glennan and his Deputy Administrator, Dr. Hugh Dryden, discussed whether spacecraft crew members should be called astronauts or cosmonauts.
Dryden preferred "cosmonaut", on the grounds that flights would occur in the cosmos, while the "astro" prefix suggested flight to the stars. Most NASA Space Task Group members preferred "astronaut", which survived by common usage as the preferred American term; when the Soviet Union launched the first man into space, Yuri Gagarin in 1961, they chose a term which anglicizes to "cosmonaut". In English-speaking nations, a professional space traveler is called an astronaut; the term derives from the Greek words ástron, meaning "star", nautes, meaning "sailor". The first known use of the term "astronaut" in the modern sense was by Neil R. Jones in his 1930 short story "The Death's Head Meteor"; the word itself had been known earlier. In Les Navigateurs de l'Infini by J.-H. Rosny aîné, the word astronautique was used; the word may have been inspired by "aeronaut", an older term for an air traveler first applied in 1784 to balloonists. An early use of "astronaut" in a non-fiction publication is Eric Frank Russell's poem "The Astronaut", appearing in the November 1934 Bulletin of the British Interplanetary Society.
The first known formal use of the term astronautics in the scientific community was the establishment of the annual International Astronautical Congress in 1950, the subsequent founding of the International Astronautical Federation the following year. NASA applies the term astronaut to any crew member aboard NASA spacecraft bound for Earth orbit or beyond. NASA uses the term as a title for those selected to join its Astronaut Corps; the European Space Agency uses the term astronaut for members of its Astronaut Corps. By convention, an astronaut employed by the Russian Federal Space Agency is called a cosmonaut in English texts; the word is an anglicisation of the Russian word kosmonavt, one who works in space outside the Earth's atmosphere, a space traveler, which derives from the Greek words kosmos, meaning "universe", nautes, meaning "sailor". Other countries of the former Eastern Bloc use variations of the Russian word kosmonavt, such as the Polish kosmonauta. Coinage of the term kosmonavt has been credited to Soviet aeronautics pioneer Mikhail Tikhonravov.
The first cosmonaut was Soviet Air Force pilot Yuri Gagarin the first person in space. Valentina Tereshkova, a Russian factory worker, was the first woman in space, as well as the first civilian among the Soviet cosmonaut or NASA astronaut corps to make a spaceflight. On March 14, 1995, Norman Thagard became the first American to ride to space on board a Russian launch vehicle, thus became the first "American cosmonaut". "Yǔ háng yuán" is used for astronauts and cosmonauts in general, while "Hángtiān yuán" is used for Chinese astronauts. Here, "Hángtiān" is defined as the navigation of outer space within the local star system, i.e. solar system. The phrase "tài kōng rén" is used in Hong Kong and Taiwan; the term taikonaut is used by some English-language news media organizations for professional space travelers from China. The word has featured in the Longman and Oxford English dictionaries, the latter of which desc
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
Seattle is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of Washington. With an estimated 730,000 residents as of 2018, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. According to U. S. Census data released in 2018, the Seattle metropolitan area’s population stands at 3.87 million, ranks as the 15th largest in the United States. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the Top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. In July 2016, Seattle was again the fastest-growing major U. S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate. Seattle is the northernmost large city in the United States; the city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound and Lake Washington, about 100 miles south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015; the Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers.
Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, Oregon, on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851; the settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named "Seattle" in 1852, in honor of Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Today, Seattle has high populations of Native, Scandinavian and Asian Americans, as well as a thriving LGBT community that ranks 6th in the United States for population. Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century, the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. Growth after World War II was due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing; the Seattle area developed into a technology center from the 1980s onwards with companies like Microsoft becoming established in the region. Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle in 1994, major airline Alaska Airlines is based in SeaTac, serving Seattle's international airport, Seattle–Tacoma International Airport.
The stream of new software and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Owing to its increasing population in the 21st century and the state of Washington have some of the highest minimum wages in the country, at $15 per hour for smaller businesses and $16 for the city's largest employers. Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District; the jazz scene nurtured the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, others. Seattle is the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix, as well as the origin of the bands Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains, Foo Fighters and the alternative rock movement grunge. Archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay.
The first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest. In 1851, a large party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River. Thirteen days members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party. Members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851; the rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851. After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and claimed land a second time at the site of present-day Pioneer Square, naming this new settlement Duwamps. Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and reestablished their old land claim and called it "New York", but renamed "New York Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning "by and by" or "someday". For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.
David Swinson "Doc" Maynard, one of the founders of Duwamps, was the primary advocate to name the settlement after Chief Seattle of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. The name "Seattle" appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of trustees managing the city; the Town of Seattle was disincorporated on January 18, 1867, remained a mere precinct of King County until late 1869, when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated December 2, 1869, with a mayor–council government. The corporate seal of the City of Seattle carries the date "1869" and a likeness of Chief Sealth in left profile. Seattle has a history of boom-and-bust cycles, like many other cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle has risen several times economically gone into precipitous decline, but it has used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure
Rye, New York
Rye is a city in Westchester County, New York, United States. It is separate from the town of Rye. Rye city the village of Rye, was part of the town until it received its charter as a city in 1942; the population was 15,720 at the 2010 census. Rye is the youngest city in New York state. No other city has been chartered anywhere in New York state since 1942. Located in the city are two National Historic Landmarks: the Boston Post Road Historic District was designated a National Historic Landmark by the National Park Service in 1993. Playland, a historic amusement park designated a National Historic Landmark in 1987, is located in Rye. Playland features one of the oldest wooden roller coasters in the Dragon Coaster. Of note are two 200-plus-year-old milestones labeled 24 and 25 on the Boston Post Road, oldest thoroughfare in the United States; the concept of mile markers to measure the distance from New York City was originated in 1763 by Benjamin Franklin during his term as Postmaster General. These sandstone markers date from 1802 when the Westchester Turnpike was configured.
Rye is home to a rare 1938 WPA mural by realist Guy Pene du Bois, located within the city's Post Office lobby and titled "John Jay at His Home." Rye was at one time a part of Fairfield County, a belonging of the Sachem Ponus, of the Ponus Wekuwuhm, Canaan Parish, and, named for that chieftain, "Peningoe Neck". The oldest house in the city, the Timothy Knapp House, is owned by the Rye Historical Society and dates in its original version to around 1667, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. The Historical Society owns a former inn/tavern built in 1730, known today as the Square House, which it operates as a museum. George Washington stayed at the inn on two separate occasions, remarking favorably on his experience in his diaries. Rye is where American Founding Father John Jay grew up and where he is buried; the Jay Estate at 210 Boston Post Road is now the home of the not-for-profit organization the Jay Heritage Center. The Center's mission is to restore and preserve the entire 23-acre property—buildings and landscape—together with the 1838 Peter Augustus Jay House, which occupies the original site of the Jay family farm, "The Locusts."
Restoration of the Jay mansion overlooking Long Island Sound is an official project of the Save America's Treasures Program. With its ornate composite Egyptian and Corinthian columns, pedimented facade, the house is a textbook example of American Greek Revival architecture popularized before the Civil War and is noted for its many design elements influenced by Minard Lafever; the Jay Mansion is the oldest National Historic Landmark structure in New York State with a geothermal heating and cooling system and the first in Westchester County to have such an energy efficient system. The Jay Heritage Center was designated a member site of the Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area, it is listed on Westchester County's African American Heritage Trail. John Jay was well known for advocating emancipation, serving as President of the New York Manumission Society and establishing the first African Free School. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places are The Square House known as Widow Haviland's Tavern, listed in 1974, the United States Post Office - Rye, listed in 1989, the Rye Town Park-Bathing Complex and Oakland Beach, listed in 2003, the African Cemetery, listed in 2003, the Bird Homestead, listed in 2010, The Rye Meeting House, listed in 2011.
Rye is known for Rye Playland. This 279-acre theme park is owned and operated by Westchester County and includes rides, games, an indoor skating rink or Ice Casino, beach, a boardwalk, concession stands, it is one of only two amusement parks in the country with National Historic Landmark status, the other one being Kennywood in Pennsylvania. It has been a popular destination since it first opened in 1928, its wooden roller coaster, the Dragon Coaster, built in 1929, is one of the last roller coaster rides built by engineer Frederick Church, still operating. The Derby Racer built by Church, is one of only three rides of its kind remaining in the world. Glenn Close's and Ellen Latzen's characters ride the roller coaster in the 1980s thriller film, Fatal Attraction. Airplane Coaster, Church's most acclaimed coaster, was removed in 1957. Playland is the setting for several key scenes in the 1988 comedy film Big, starring Tom Hanks; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 15,720 people residing in the city.
The racial makeup of the city was 84.8% White, 1.3% Black, <0.1% Native American, 5.9% Asian, <0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.2% from some other race and 1.3% from two or more races. 6.5 % were Latino of any race. According to The Washington Post, Rye is among the top 1% of Super Zips based on percentage of residents with college degrees and average household income. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20.0 square miles, of which 5.9 sq mi is land and 14.2 sq mi is water. Rye is home to one Fortune Jarden, it is home to The American Yacht Club, Westchester Country Club, Rye Golf Club, Rye Playland, The Apawamis Country Club, Manursing Island Club, Shenorock Shore Club, the Coveleigh Club. GAMCO Investors, Inc. is based in Rye. In 2010, Coldwell Banker reported that Rye was the third-most expensive city in the country in which to buy a home; the city of Rye was ranked ninth in the list of the top 10
Northrop T-38 Talon
The Northrop T-38 Talon is a two-seat, twinjet supersonic jet trainer. It was the world's first supersonic trainer and is the most produced; the T-38 remains in service as of 2018 in several air forces. The United States Air Force operates the most T-38s. In addition to training USAF pilots, the T-38 is used by NASA; the U. S. Naval Test Pilot School is the principal US Navy operator. Pilots of other NATO nations fly the T-38 in joint training programs with USAF pilots; as of 2018, the T-38 has been in service for over 50 years with its original operator, the United States Air Force. In 1952 Northrop began work on a fighter project, the Fang, with shoulder-mounted delta wing and a single engine; the proposed General Electric J79 engine, weighing nearly two tons, meant the resulting aircraft would be large and expensive. In 1953, representatives from General Electric Aviation's newly created Small Aircraft Engine Department showed Northrop a tiny engine capable of 2,500 lb of thrust, Northrop VP-Engineering Edgar Schmued saw the possibility of reversing the trend toward the large fighters.
Schmued and chief engineer Welko Gasich decided on a small twin-engine "hot-rod" fighter, the N-156. Northrop began its N-156 project in 1954, aiming for a small supersonic fighter jet capable of operating from the US Navy's escort carriers. However, when the Navy chose not to pursue equipping its fleets in that fashion, Northrop continued the N-156 design using in-house funding, recasting it as a lightweight fighter and aimed at the export market. In the mid-1950s the USAF issued a General Operating Requirement for a supersonic trainer, planning to retire its 1940s-era Lockheed T-33s. Northrop officials decided to adapt the N-156 to this competition; the only other candidate was the two-seat version of the North American F-100 Super Sabre. Although the F-100 was not considered the ideal candidate for a training aircraft, NAA was still considered the favorite in the competition due to that company's favored-contractor status with the Air Force. However, Northrop officials convincingly presented life-cycle cost comparisons which could not be ignored, they were awarded the contract, receiving an order for three prototypes.
The first flew on 10 April 1959. The type was adopted and the first production examples were delivered in 1961 entering service on 17 March that year, complementing the T-37 primary jet trainer; when production ended in 1972, 1,187 T-38s had been built. Since its introduction, it is estimated that some 50,000 military pilots have trained on this aircraft; the USAF remains one of the few armed flying forces using dedicated supersonic final trainers, as most, such as the US Navy, use high subsonic trainers. The T-38 is of conventional configuration, with a small, long-chord wing, a single vertical stabilizer, tricycle undercarriage; the aircraft seats a student pilot and instructor in tandem, has intakes for its two turbojet engines at the wing roots. Its nimble performance has earned it the nickname white rocket. In 1962 the T-38 set absolute time-to-climb records for 3,000, 6,000, 9,000 and 12,000 meters, beating the records for those altitudes set by the F-104 in December 1958; the F-5B and F can be distinguished from the T-38 by the wings.
The wings of both the T-38 and the F-5 family use conventional skin over spar-rib structure. Most T-38s built were of the T-38A variant, but the USAF had a small number of aircraft converted for weapons training, which were fitted with a gunsight and could carry a gunpod, rockets, or bombs on a centerline pylon. In 2015, 504 T-38s were still operational with the USAF, with many more in operation around the world. Most of the USAF variant aircraft have been converted to the T-38C through an avionics upgrade program. Improvements include the addition of a HUD, GPS, INS, TCAS. Most jets have received PMP. A third of the fleet are undergoing structural replacements and upgrades, as well as receiving new wings, to extend their service life to 2029; the fighter version of the N-156 was selected for the US Military Assistance Program and produced as the F-5 Freedom Fighter. Many of these have since reverted to a weapons training role as various air forces have introduced newer types into service; the F-5G was an advanced single-engined variant renamed the F-20 Tigershark.
In 2018, the Iranian Air Force announced that an outwardly-similar aircraft, named the Kowsar, had been constructed within Iran. The USAF Strategic Air Command had T-38s in service from 1978 until SAC's 1991 inactivation; these aircraft were used to enhance the career development of bomber copilots through the "Accelerated Copilot Enrichment Program." They were used as proficiency aircraft for all B-52, B-1, Lockheed SR-71, U-2, Boeing KC-135, KC-10 pilots. SAC's successors, the Air Combat Command and the Air Force Global Strike Command, continue to retain T-38s as proficiency aircraft for U-2 pilots and B-2 pilots, respectively; the Air Training Command's successor, the Air Education and Training Command, uses the T-38C to prepare pilots for
STS-130 was a NASA Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station. Space Shuttle Endeavour's primary payloads were the Tranquility module and the Cupola, a robotic control station with six windows around its sides and another in the center, providing a 360-degree view around the station. Endeavour launched at 04:14 EST on 8 February 2010 and landed at 22:22 EST on 21 February 2010 on runway 15 at the Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. STS-130 carried the Cupola to the International Space Station. Tranquility was shipped from the Thales Alenia Space facility in Italy, it arrived at Kennedy Space Center on 21 May 2009. It was known as Node 3, was named by a NASA poll. Space Shuttle Endeavour was moved from her hangar in the Orbiter Processing Facility 2 to the Vehicle Assembly Building High bay 1 on 11 December 2009. Roll over began at 13:00 EST and was completed 1 hour and 5 minutes at 14:05 EST. Endeavour moved from the Vehicle Assembly Building to launch pad 39A; the process started at 04:13 EST on 6 January 2010.
Before rolling out to the launch pad, engineers at Kennedy Space Center had an extended preparation time to get Endeavour ready to move to the launch pad due to the unusually cold weather. The 3.4 miles was completed at 10:37 EST. The trip took 6hrs 24min; the first launch attempt was scheduled for 04:39:00 EST 7 February 2010, with forecasters predicting a 70% chance of favorable launch weather conditions at the Kennedy Space Center, but that degraded to 30% hours before the planned launch due to low clouds. The launch was scrubbed; the second launch attempt was successful at 04:14:08 EST 8 February 2010. The mission marked: 161st NASA manned space flight 130th shuttle mission since STS-1 24th flight of Endeavour 32nd shuttle mission to the ISS 10th flight of Endeavour to the ISS 1st shuttle flight in 2010 105th post-Challenger mission 17th post-Columbia mission 34th night launch of a shuttle, 21st night launch from launch pad 39A Endeavour launched at 4:14:08 EST; when Endeavour lifted off, the space station was traveling about 212 miles over western Romania.
Once in orbit the crew opened the payload bay doors, activated the radiators and deployed the Ku band antenna. Nick Patrick and Kay Hire proceeded to activate, did a check out of the Shuttle Robotic Arm and conducted a survey of the payload bay; the crew was successful in down-linking imagery and video of the external tank to the ground. Most of the crew day was spent on conducting the standard inspection of the thermal protection system. All six of the crew members participated at one point during this task. Once the inspection process had moved to the port wing, astronauts Bob Behnken and Nick Patrick began working on checking out and preparing the spacesuits that will be used during the mission's three spacewalks. Once the survey of the TPS was complete, Stephen Robinson and Kay Hire, with Bob Behnken joining once his spacesuit tasks were complete, began checking out and preparing the tools that will be used during the rendezvous with the International Space Station; these tools include a hand-held LIDAR gun used for finding out the closing rate of the shuttle and distance from the ISS, the Orbiter Docking System, the part of the shuttle that connects to the space station and a centerline camera in the ODS to assist the commander George Zamka during docking.
During the first part of the crew's workday, they performed a series of burns to catch up and dock with the International Space Station. Once the shuttle was 600 feet below the ISS, commander George Zamka began what is known as the Rendezvous Pitch Maneuver. During the maneuver, ISS commander Jeff Williams and flight engineer Oleg Kotov took photos of the shuttle's thermal protection system. Space shuttle Endeavour docked with the ISS at 5:26 UTC. After completing leak checks the hatches between both vehicles were opened at 6:26 UTC; the joint Expedition 22/STS-130 crew conducted the standard welcome ceremony and conducted their safety brief. Once, complete commander George Zamka, Bob Behnken and Steve Robinson began transferring the spacesuits Behnken and Nick Patrick will use for the three spacewalks. During this time Nick Patrick and ISS flight engineer T. J. Creamer picked up the OBSS boom and handed it off to the space shuttle robot arm using the station's SSRMS or Canadarm2; the shuttle arm was operated by pilot Terry Virts.
Flight day 4 saw Nick Patrick and Bob Behnken get all the tools they need ready for their spacewalk on flight day 5. While Patrick and Behnken were getting the tools ready, commander George Zamka and ISS flight engineer Soichi Noguchi swapped out the Hard Upper Torso on Bob Behnken's suit, since the original HUT had developed a problem with a wire harness and was not powering the Wireless Video System or the heaters in his gloves and boots. Once the swap was complete and Noguchi tested the suit successfully; the crew performed a number of transfer related activities during the morning of their work day. After a joint meal together, the crew of STS-130 and ISS commander Jeff Williams and flight engineer T. J. Creamer conducted a PAO event with T. V. stations in Sacramento, Mobile, Alabama and a radio station in St. Louis, Missouri. Once the PAO event was finished, the joint crews had some off duty time for the rest of the day. Before the two crews went to bed they conducted a spacewalk procedures review got Nick Patrick and Bob Behnken into the Quest Airlock.
Behnken and Patrick spent the night there at 10.2 psi instead of at the station's 14.6 psi, breathing pure oxygen for an hour before and after the