New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
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Bonnie and Clyde (film)
Bonnie and Clyde is a 1967 American biographical crime film directed by Arthur Penn and starring Warren Beatty and Faye Dunaway as the title characters Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker. Featured were Michael J. Pollard, Gene Hackman, Estelle Parsons; the screenplay was written by Robert Benton. Robert Towne and Beatty provided uncredited contributions to the script; the soundtrack was composed by Charles Strouse. Bonnie and Clyde is considered a landmark film, is regarded as one of the first films of the New Hollywood era, since it broke many cinematic taboos and was popular with the younger generation. For some members of the counterculture, the film was considered to be a "rallying cry." Its success prompted other filmmakers to be more open in presenting violence in their films. The film's ending became iconic as "one of the bloodiest death scenes in cinematic history."The film received Academy Awards for Best Supporting Actress and Best Cinematography. It was among the first 100 films selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry.
In the middle of the Great Depression, Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker of Texas meet when Clyde tries to steal Bonnie's mother's car. Bonnie, bored by her job as a waitress, is intrigued by Clyde, decides to take up with him and become his partner in crime, they pull off some holdups, but their amateur efforts, while exciting, are not lucrative. The duo's crime spree shifts into high gear once they hook up with a dim-witted gas station attendant, C. W. Moss. Clyde's older brother Buck and his wife, Blanche, a preacher's daughter join them; the women dislike each other on first sight, their feud escalates. Blanche has nothing but disdain for Bonnie, Clyde and C. W. while Bonnie sees Blanche's flighty presence as a constant danger to the gang's survival. Bonnie and Clyde turn from pulling small-time heists to robbing banks, their exploits become more violent. When C. W. botches parking for a bank robbery, Clyde shoots the bank manager in the face after he jumps onto the slow-moving car's running board.
The gang is pursued by law enforcement, including Texas Ranger Frank Hamer, whom they capture and humiliate before setting him free. A raid catches the outlaws off guard, mortally wounding Buck with a shot to his head and injuring Blanche. Bonnie, Clyde and C. W. escape alive. With Blanche sightless and in police custody, Hamer tricks her into revealing C. W.'s name, up until now still only an "unidentified suspect." Hamer locates Bonnie, Clyde and C. W. hiding at the house of C. W.'s father Ivan Moss, who thinks the couple—and an ornate tattoo—have corrupted his son. The elder Moss strikes a bargain with Hamer: in exchange for leniency for the boy, he helps set a trap for the outlaws; when Bonnie and Clyde stop on the side of the road to help Mr. Moss fix a flat tire, the police in the bushes open fire and riddle them with bullets. Hamer and his posse come out of hiding, are shown looking pensively at the couple's bodies. Warren Beatty as Clyde Barrow Faye Dunaway as Bonnie Parker Michael J. Pollard as C.
W. Moss Gene Hackman as Buck Barrow Estelle Parsons as Blanche Barrow Denver Pyle as Frank Hamer Dub Taylor as Ivan Moss Gene Wilder as Eugene Grizzard Evans Evans as Velma Davis Mabel Cavitt as Bonnie's mother Denver Pyle, Dub Taylor, Gene Wilder, Evans Evans, Mabel Cavitt were in supporting roles. Actor Gene Wilder in his film debut portrayed one of Bonnie and Clyde's hostages, his girlfriend Velma Davis was played by Evans Evans, the wife of film director John Frankenheimer. The family gathering scene was filmed in Texas. Several local residents gathered to watch the film being shot; when the filmmakers noticed Mabel Cavitt, a local school teacher, among the people gathered, she was cast as Bonnie Parker's mother. The film was intended as a romantic and comic version of the violent gangster films of the 1930s, updated with modern filmmaking techniques. Arthur Penn portrayed some of the violent scenes with a comic tone, sometimes reminiscent of Keystone Kops-style slapstick films shifted disconcertingly into horrific and graphic violence.
The film showed strong influence by the French New Wave directors, both in its rapid shifts of tone, in its choppy editing, noticeable in the film's closing sequence. The first handling of the script was in the early 1960s. Influenced by the French New Wave writers and not yet completed, an early version was sent by its writers David Newman and Robert Benton to Arthur Penn, he was engaged in production decisions for the 1966 film The Chase and could not get involved in the script for Bonnie and Clyde. The writers sent their script to François Truffaut, renowned French director of the New Wave movement, who made contributions, he passed on the project, next directing Fahrenheit 451. At Truffaut's suggestion, the writers, much excited, approached filmmaker Jean-Luc Godard; some sources claim Godard refused. He purportedly took offense when would-be producer Norah Wright objected that that his desire was unreasonable, as the story took place in Texas, which had a warm climate year-round, her partner Elinor Jones claimed the two did not believe Godard was right for the project in the first place.
Godard's retort: « Je vous parle de cinéma, vous me parlez de météo. Au revoir. » After the 1968 Academy Awards, Godard sent Bent
Composition (visual arts)
In the visual arts, composition is the placement or arrangement of visual elements or'ingredients' in a work of art, as distinct from the subject. It can be thought of as the organization of the elements of art according to the principles of art; the composition of a picture is different from its subject, what is depicted, whether a moment from a story, a person or a place. Many subjects, for example Saint George and the Dragon, are portrayed in art, but using a great range of compositions though the two figures are the only ones shown; the term composition means'putting together' and can apply to any work of art, from music to writing to photography, arranged using conscious thought. In the visual arts, composition is used interchangeably with various terms such as design, visual ordering, or formal structure, depending on the context. In graphic design for press and desktop publishing, composition is referred to as page layout; the various visual elements, known as elements of design, formal elements, or elements of art, constitute the vocabulary with which the visual artist composes.
These elements in the overall design relate to each other and to the whole art work. The elements of design are: Line — the visual path that enables the eye to move within the piece Shape — areas defined by edges within the piece, whether geometric or organic Color — hues with their various values and intensities Texture — surface qualities which translate into tactile illusions Value — Shading used to emphasize form Form — 3-D length, width, or depth Space — the space taken up by or in between objects Lines are optical phenomena that allow the artist to direct the eye of the viewer; the optical illusion of lines do exist in nature and visual arts elements can be arranged to create this illusion. The viewer unconsciously reads near continuous arrangement of different elements and subjects at varying distances; such elements can be of dramatic use in the composition of the image. These could rigging on boats. Lines can derive from the borders of areas of differing color or contrast, or sequences of discrete elements.
Movement is a source of lines, where the blurred movement renders as a line. Subject lines contribute to both mood and linear perspective, giving the viewer the illusion of depth. Oblique lines convey a sense of movement and angular lines convey a sense of dynamism and tension. Lines can direct attention towards the main subject of picture, or contribute to organization by dividing it into compartments; the artist may exaggerate or create lines as part of their message to the viewer. Many lines without a clear subject point suggest chaos in the image and may conflict with the mood the artist is trying to evoke. Straight left lines add affection to visual arts. A line's angle and its relationship to the size of the frame influence the mood of the image. Horizontal lines found in landscape photography, can give the impression of calm and space. An image filled with strong vertical lines tends to have the impression of grandeur. Angled convergent lines give a dynamic and active effect to the image.
Angled diagonal lines produce tension in the image. The viewpoint of visual art is important because every different perspective views different angled lines; this change of perspective elicits a different response to the image. By changing the perspective only by some degrees or some centimetres lines in images can change tremendously and a different feeling can be transported. Straight lines are strongly influenced by tone and repetition in relation to the rest of the image. Compared to straight lines, curves provide a greater dynamic influence in a picture, they are generally more aesthetically pleasing, as the viewer associates them with softness. In photography, curved lines can give graduated shadows when paired with soft-directional lighting, which results in a harmonious line structure within the image. There are three properties of color. Hue, brightness or chroma, value. Hue is the name of a color and chroma refer to the intensity and strength of the color. A high chroma color is less greyed than a low chroma color.
The lightness and darkness to a color is the value. Color has the ability to work within our emotions. Given that, we can use color to create mood, it can be used as tone, light, symbol, form and contrast. Texture refers to how it looks like it may feel if it were touched. There are two ways we experience texture and optically. Different techniques can be used to create physical texture, which allows qualities of visual art to be seen and felt; this can include surfaces such as metal and wood. Optical texture is. Photography and drawings use visual texture to create a more realistic appearance. Lightness and darkness are known as value in visual art. Value deals with how we see it; the more light, reflected, the higher the value. White is the lightest value while black is the lowest or darkest value. Colors have value, for example, yellow has a high value while blue and red have a low value. If you take a black and white picture of a colorful scene, all you are left with are the values; this important element of design in painting and drawing, allows the artist to create the illusion of light through value contrast.
The term form can mean different things in visual art. Form sugges
Thornton Niven Wilder was an American playwright and novelist. He won three Pulitzer Prizes—for the novel The Bridge of San Luis Rey, for the plays Our Town and The Skin of Our Teeth — and a U. S. National Book Award for the novel The Eighth Day. Wilder was born in Madison, the son of Amos Parker Wilder, a newspaper editor and U. S. diplomat, Isabella Thornton Niven. All of the Wilder children spent part of their childhood in China, his older brother, Amos Niven Wilder, became Hollis Professor of Divinity at the Harvard Divinity School, was a noted poet, was instrumental in developing the field of theopoetics. His sister, was an accomplished writer. Both of his other sisters, Charlotte Wilder, a poet, Janet Wilder Dakin, a zoologist, attended Mount Holyoke College. Wilder began writing plays while at The Thacher School in Ojai, where he did not fit in and was teased by classmates as overly intellectual. According to a classmate, "We left him alone, just left him alone, and he would retire at the library, his hideaway, learning to distance himself from humiliation and indifference."
His family lived for a time in China, where his sister Janet was born in 1910. He attended the English China Inland Mission Chefoo School at Yantai but returned with his mother and siblings to California in 1912 because of the unstable political conditions in China at the time. Thornton attended Creekside Middle School in Berkeley, graduated from Berkeley High School in 1915. After having served a three-month enlistment in the Army's Coast Artillery Corps at Fort Adams, Rhode Island, in World War I, he attended Oberlin College before earning his Bachelor of Arts degree at Yale University in 1920, where he refined his writing skills as a member of the Alpha Delta Phi fraternity, a literary society, he earned his Master of Arts degree in French literature from Princeton University in 1926. After graduating, Wilder studied archaeology and Italian in Rome, taught French at the Lawrenceville School in Lawrenceville, New Jersey beginning in 1921, his first novel, The Cabala, was published in 1926.
In 1927, The Bridge of San Luis Rey brought him commercial success, his first Pulitzer Prize. He resigned from the Lawrenceville School in 1928. From 1930 to 1937 he taught at the University of Chicago, during which time he published his translation of André Obey's own adaptation of the tale, "Le Viol de Lucrece" under the title "Lucrece". In 1938 he won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama for his play Our Town, he won the prize again in 1943 for his play The Skin of Our Teeth. World War II saw him rise to the rank of lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Army Air Force Intelligence, first in Africa in Italy until 1945, he received several awards for his military service. He went on to be a visiting professor at Harvard University, where he served for a year as the Charles Eliot Norton professor. Though he considered himself a teacher first and a writer second, he continued to write all his life, receiving the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade in 1957 and the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1963. In 1968 he won the National Book Award for his novel The Eighth Day.
Being proficient in four languages, Wilder translated plays by André Obey and Jean-Paul Sartre, wrote the libretti to two operas, The Long Christmas Dinner, composed by Paul Hindemith, The Alcestiad, composed by Louise Talma and based on his own play. Alfred Hitchcock, whom he admired, asked him to write the screenplay to his thriller, Shadow of a Doubt, he completed the first draft of the screenplay for Hitchcock. The Bridge of San Luis Rey tells the story of several unrelated people who happen to be on a bridge in Peru when it collapses, killing them. Philosophically, the book explores the question of why unfortunate events occur to people who seem "innocent" or "undeserving", it won the Pulitzer Prize in 1928, in 1998 it was selected by the editorial board of the American Modern Library as one of the 100 best novels of the twentieth century. The book was quoted by British Prime Minister Tony Blair during the memorial service for victims of the September 11 attacks in 2001. Since its popularity has grown enormously.
The book is the progenitor of the modern disaster epic in literature and film-making, where a single disaster intertwines the victims, whose lives are explored by means of flashbacks to events before the disaster. Wilder wrote a popular play set in fictional Grover's Corners, New Hampshire, it was inspired by his friend Gertrude Stein's novel The Making of Americans, many elements of Stein's modernist style can be found in the play. Wilder suffered from writer's block. Our Town employs a choric narrator called the Stage Manager and a minimalist set to underscore the human experience. Wilder played the Stage Manager on Broadway for two weeks and in summer stock productions. Following the daily lives of the Gibbs and Webb families, as well as the other inhabitants of Grover's Corners, the play illustrates the importance of the universality of the simple, yet meaningful lives of all people in the world in order to demonstrate the value of appreciating life; the play won the 1938 Pulitzer Prize. In 1938, Max Reinhardt directed a Broadway production of The Merchant of Yonkers, which Wilder had adapted from Austrian playwright Johann Nestroy's Einen Jux will er sich machen.
It was a failure. His play The Skin of Our Teeth opened in New York on November 18, 1942, featuring Fredric March and Tallulah Bankhead. Again, the themes are familiar – the timeless human condition.
Broadway theatre known as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world; the Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City. According to The Broadway League, for the 2017–2018 season total attendance was 13,792,614 and Broadway shows had US$1,697,458,795 in grosses, with attendance up 3.9%, grosses up 17.1%, playing weeks up 2.8%. The majority of Broadway shows are musicals. Historian Martin Shefter argues that "'Broadway musicals', culminating in the productions of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, became enormously influential forms of American popular culture" and contributed to making New York City the cultural capital of the Western Hemisphere.
New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare ballad operas such as The Beggar's Opera. In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager, they established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida; the Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street. The Bowery Theatre opened followed by others. By the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in Lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premiere nightspots.
The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo's Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton's Theatre; the Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place: "After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle class."The plays of William Shakespeare were performed on the Broadway stage during the period, most notably by American actor Edwin Booth, internationally known for his performance as Hamlet. Booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, would revive the role at his own Booth's Theatre.
Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, Charles Fechter. Theatre in New York moved from downtown to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate. In the beginning of the 19th century, the area that now comprises the Theater District was owned by a handful of families and comprised a few farms. In 1836, Mayor Cornelius Lawrence opened 42nd Street and invited Manhattanites to "enjoy the pure clean air." Close to 60 years theatrical entrepreneur Oscar Hammerstein I built the iconic Victoria Theater on West 42nd Street. Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Theatres did not arrive in the Times Square area until the early 1900s, the Broadway theatres did not consolidate there until a large number of theatres were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s.
New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D. C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot. The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866; the production was five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy". Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham.
These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of questionable repute who had starred in earlier m
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Gloria Grahame Hallward, known professionally as Gloria Grahame, was an American stage, television actress and singer. She began her acting career in theatre, in 1944 made her first film for MGM. Despite a featured role in It's a Wonderful Life, MGM did not believe she had the potential for major success, sold her contract to RKO Studios. Cast in film noir projects, Grahame was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for Crossfire, would win the award for her work in The Bad and the Beautiful, she achieved her highest profile with Sudden Fear, Human Desire, The Big Heat, Oklahoma!, but her film career began to wane soon afterwards. Grahame returned to work on the stage, but continued to appear in films and television productions in supporting roles. In 1974, she was diagnosed with breast cancer, it went into remission less than a year and Grahame returned to work. In 1980, the cancer returned but Grahame refused to seek treatment. Choosing instead to continue working, she traveled to Britain to appear in a play.
Her health, however and she developed peritonitis after undergoing a procedure to remove fluid from her abdomen in September 1981. She returned to New York City, where she died in October 1981. Grahame was born in California, she was raised a Methodist. Her father, Reginald Michael Bloxam Hallward, was an author; the couple had an actress who married John Mitchum. During Gloria's childhood and adolescence, her mother taught her acting. Grahame attended Hollywood High School before dropping out to pursue acting. Grahame was signed to a contract with MGM Studios under her professional name after Louis B. Mayer saw her performing on Broadway for several years. Grahame made her film debut in Blonde Fever and scored one of her most praised roles as the flirtatious Violet Bick, saved from disgrace by George Bailey in It's a Wonderful Life. MGM was not able to develop her potential as a star and her contract was sold to RKO Studios in 1947. Grahame was featured in film noir pictures as a tarnished beauty with an irresistible sexual allure.
During this time, she made films for several Hollywood studios. She received an Oscar nomination for Best Supporting Actress for Crossfire. Grahame starred with Humphrey Bogart in the film In a Lonely Place for Columbia Pictures, a performance for which she gained praise. Though today it is considered among her finest performances, it wasn't a box-office hit and Howard Hughes, owner of RKO Studios, admitted that he never saw it; when she asked to be loaned out for roles in Born Yesterday and A Place in the Sun, Hughes refused and instead made her do a supporting role in Macao. Despite only appearing for a little over nine minutes on screen, she won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress in MGM's The Bad and the Beautiful. Other memorable roles included the scheming Irene Neves in Sudden Fear, the femme fatale Vicki Buckley in Human Desire, mob moll Debby Marsh in Fritz Lang's The Big Heat in which, in a horrifying off-screen scene, she is scarred by hot coffee thrown in her face by Lee Marvin's character.
Grahame appeared as wealthy seductress Harriet Lang in Stanley Kramer's Not as a Stranger starring Olivia de Havilland, Robert Mitchum, Frank Sinatra. Grahame did her own stunts as Angel the Elephant Girl in Cecil B. DeMille's The Greatest Show on Earth, which won the Oscar for best film of 1952. Grahame's career began to wane after her performance in the musical film Oklahoma!. Grahame, whom audiences were used to seeing as a film noir siren, was viewed by some critics to be miscast as an ignorant country lass in a wholesome musical, the paralysis of her upper lip from plastic surgery altered her speech and appearance. Additionally, Grahame was rumored to have been difficult on the set of Oklahoma!, upstaging some of the cast and alienating her co-stars. She began a slow return to the theater, returned to films to play supporting roles in minor releases, she guest-starred in television series, including the sci-fi series The Outer Limits. In the episode of that series titled "The Guests", Grahame plays a forgotten film star living in the past.
She appears in an episode of The Fugitive and an episode of Burke's Law. Grahame can be seen as well in a 1970 episode of Mannix titled “Duet for Three” and in small roles in the miniseries Rich Man, Poor Man and Seventh Avenue; the play The Time of Your Life was revived in March 17, 1972 at the Huntington Hartford Theater in Los Angeles with Grahame, Henry Fonda, Richard Dreyfuss, Lewis J. Stadlen, Ron Thompson, Jane Alexander, Richard X. Slattery and Pepper Martin among the cast, with Edwin Sherin directing. Over time Grahame became concerned with her physical appearance, she began stuffing tissue under it, which she felt gave her a sexier look. Several co-stars discovered this during kissing scenes. In the mid-1940s, Grahame began undergoing small cosmetic procedures on her lips and face. According to her niece, Vicky Mitchum, Grahame's obsession with her looks l