Richard Ewing Powell was an American singer, film producer, film director and studio head. Though he came to stardom as a musical comedy performer, he showed versatility and transformed into a hardboiled leading man starring in projects of a more dramatic nature, he was the first actor to portray the private detective Philip Marlowe on screen. Powell was born in the seat of Stone County in northern Arkansas; the family moved to Little Rock in 1914, where Powell sang in church choirs and with local orchestras, started his own band. Powell attended the former Little Rock College, before he started his entertainment career as a singer with the Royal Peacock Band which toured throughout the Midwest. During this time, he married Mildred Maund, a model, but she found being married to an entertainer not to her liking. After a final trip to Cuba together, Mildred moved to Hemphill and the couple divorced in 1932. Powell joined the Charlie Davis Orchestra, based in Indianapolis, he recorded a number of records for the Vocalion label in the late 1920s.
Powell moved to Pittsburgh, where he found great local success as the Master of Ceremonies at the Enright Theater and the Stanley Theater. In April 1930, Warner Bros. bought Brunswick Records. Warner Bros. was sufficiently impressed by Powell's singing and stage presence to offer him a film contract in 1932. He made his film debut as a singing bandleader in Blessed Event, he was borrowed by Fox to support Will Rogers in Too Busy to Work. He was the sort of role he specialised in for the next few years. Back at Warners he supported George Arliss in The King's Vacation was in 42nd Street, playing the love interest for Ruby Keeler; the film was a massive hit. Warners got him to repeat the role in Gold Diggers of 1933, another big success. So too was Footlight Parade, with Keeler and James Cagney. Powell was upped to star for College Coach went back to more ensemble pieces like 42nd Street: Convention City, Wonder Bar, Twenty Million Sweethearts, Dames. Happiness Ahead was more of a star vehicle for Powell.
He was top billed both with Joan Blondell. He supported Marion Davies in Page Miss Glory, made for Cosmopolitan Pictures, a production company financed by Davies' lover William Randolph Hearst who released through Warners. Warners gave him a change of pace. More typical was Shipmates Forever with Keeler. 20th Century Fox borrowed him for Thanks a Million back at Warners he did Colleen with Keeler and Blondell. Powell was reunited with Marion Davies in another for Cosmopolitan, Hearts Divided, playing Napoleon's brother, he did two with Blondell, Stage Struck and Gold Diggers of 1937. 20th Century Fox borrowed him again for On the Avenue. Back at Warners: The Singing Marine, Varsity Show, Hollywood Hotel, Cowboy from Brooklyn, Hard to Get, Going Places, Naughty but Nice. Fed up with the repetitive nature of these roles, Powell left Warner Bros and went to work for Paramount. At Paramount he and Blondell were in another musical, I Want a Divorce. Powell got a chance to appear in a non-musical, Christmas in July, a screwball comedy, the second feature directed by Preston Sturges.
Universal borrowed him to support Abbott and Costello in In the Navy, one of the most popular films of 1941. At Paramount he had a cameo in Star Spangled Rhythm and co-starred with Mary Martin in Happy Go Lucky, he supported Dorothy Lamour in Riding High. He was in a fantasy comedy directed by René Clair, It Happened Tomorrow went over to MGM to appear opposite Lucille Ball in Meet the People, a box office flop. During this period, Powell starred in the musical program Campana Serenade, broadcast on NBC radio and CBS radio. By 1944, Powell felt he was too old to play romantic leading men anymore, so he lobbied to play the lead in Double Indemnity, he lost out to another Hollywood nice guy. MacMurray's success, fueled Powell's resolve to pursue projects with greater range. Powell's career changed when he was cast in the first of a series of films noir, as private detective Philip Marlowe in Murder, My Sweet, directed by Edward Dmytryk at RKO; the film was a big hit, Powell had reinvented himself as a dramatic actor.
He was the first actor to play Marlowe – by name – in motion pictures. Powell was the first actor to play Marlowe on radio, in 1944 and 1945, on television, in a 1954 episode of Climax! Powell played the less hard-boiled detective Richard Rogue in the radio series Rogue's Gallery beginning in 1945. In 1945, Dmytryk and Powell reteamed to make the film Cornered, a gripping, post-World War II thriller that helped define the film noir style. For Columbia, he made To the Ends of the Earth. In 1948, he stepped out of the brutish type when he starred in Pitfall, a film noir in which a bored insurance company worker falls for an innocent but dangerous woman, played by Lizabeth Scott, he broadened his range appearing in a Western, Station West, a French Foreign Legion tale, Rogues' Regiment. He was a Mountie in Mrs. Mike. From 1949–1953, Powell played the lead role in the N
Tiny Tim (musician)
Herbert Buckingham Khaury, known professionally as Tiny Tim, was an American singer and ukulele player, a musical archivist. He is best remembered for his cover hits "Tiptoe Through the Tulips" and "Livin' in the Sunlight, Lovin' in the Moonlight", which he sang in a high falsetto voice. Herbert was born in Manhattan, New York City, on April 12, 1932, his mother Tillie, a garment worker, was the daughter of a rabbi. She had immigrated from Brest-Litovsk, present-day Poland as a teen in 1914. Herbert's father, Butros Khaury, was a textile worker from Beirut, present-day Lebanon, a Maronite Catholic priest. Herbert displayed musical talent at a young age. At the age of five, his father gave him a vintage wind-up Gramophone and a 78-RPM record of "Beautiful Ohio" by Henry Burr, he would sit for hours listening to the record. At the age of six, he began teaching himself guitar. By his pre-teen years, he developed a passion for records those from the 1900s through the 1930s, he began spending most of his free time at the New York Public Library, reading about the history of the phonograph industry and its first recording artists.
He would research sheet music making photographic copies to take home to learn, a hobby he continued for his entire life. At eleven years of age, Khaury began learning to play the violin, picked up the mandolin, what would be considered his signature instrument, the ukulele, enjoyed performing at home for his parents. During his recovery from having his appendix removed in 1945, he read the Bible, listened to music on the radio and sang along, after that left his room, except to go to school, where he was a mediocre student. After repeating his sophomore year of high school, he dropped out taking a series of menial jobs. In a 1968 interview on The Tonight Show, he described the discovery of his ability to sing in an upper register: "I was listening to the radio and singing along. I can go up high as well.'" In a 1969 interview he said he was listening to Rudy Vallee sing in a falsetto, "had something of a revelation—I never knew that I had another top register," describing it as a religious experience.
By the early 1950s, he had landed a job as a messenger at the New York office of MGM Studios, where he became more fascinated with the entertainment industry. He entered a local talent show and sang "You Are My Sunshine" in his newly discovered falsetto, he started performing at dance club amateur nights under different names, such as Texarkana Tex, Judas K. Foxglove, Vernon Castle, Emmett Swink. To stand out from the crowd of performers he wore wild clothing and, after seeing an old poster of a long-haired Rudolph Valentino, grew his own hair out to shoulder length, wore pasty white facial makeup, his mother did not understand Herbert's change in appearance and was intending to take her son, now in his twenties, to see a psychiatrist at Bellevue Hospital, until his father stepped in. In 1959, he dropped all his other stage names, performed as "Larry Love, the Singing Canary" at Hubert's Museum and Live Flea Circus in New York City's Times Square. While performing there, he signed with a manager who sent him on auditions throughout the Greenwich Village section of New York, where he played the ukulele and sang in his falsetto voice the song which would become his signature, "Tiptoe Through the Tulips", performed unpaid amateur gigs.
Film critic Roger Ebert wrote: I first saw Tiny Tim early in his career, in Greenwich Village in the winter of 1962–63. There was a convention of college newspaper editors, a few of us – I remember Jeff Greenfield coming along – went to the Black Pussycat and found ourselves being entertained by a man the likes of whom we'd not seen before, he was locally popular. In 1963 he landed his first paying gig at Page 3, a gay and lesbian club in Greenwich Village, playing 6 hours a night, 6 nights a week, for $96 per month, he performed for the next two years as "Dary Dover", after that, "Sir Timothy Timms". After being booked to follow a "midget" act, his manager, George King, billed the 6'1" Khaury using the ironic stage name "Tiny Tim". Tiny Tim appeared in Jack Smith's Normal Love, as well as the independent feature film You Are What You Eat in which he sang the Ronettes song "Be My Baby" in his falsetto range; these tracks were recorded with musicians. The "I Got You Babe" performance led to a booking on the Rowan and Martin's Laugh-In, an American television comedy-variety show.
Co-host Dan Rowan announced that Laugh-In believed in showcasing new talent, introduced Tiny Tim. The singer entered carrying a shopping bag, pulled his Martin soprano ukulele from it, sang a medley of "A Tisket A Tasket" and "On The Good Ship Lollipop" as an dumbfounded co-host Dick Martin watched. For his third number on Laugh-In, Tiny Tim entered blowing kisses, preceded by an elaborate procession of the cast and, after a short interview, he sang "Tiptoe Through the Tulips". In 1968, his first album God Bless Tiny Tim was released, it contained an orchestrated version of "Tiptoe Through the Tulips", which became a hit after being released as a single. For All My Little Friends was nominated for a Grammy Award. On October 7, 1969, Tiny Tim was able to take the ice before a charity hockey event at the hockey shrine Maple Leaf Gardens, with his beloved Toronto Maple Leafs, his favorite pro sports team. Wearing the skates and jersey of future h
Pathé Records was a France-based international record company and label and producer of phonographs, active from the 1890s through the 1930s. The Pathé record business was founded by brothers Charles and Émile Pathé owners of a successful bistro in Paris. In the mid-1890s they began selling Edison and Columbia phonographs and accompanying cylinder records. Shortly thereafter, the brothers sold their own phonographs; these incorporated elements of other brands. Soon after, they started marketing pre-recorded cylinder records. By 1896 the Pathé brothers had offices and recording studios not only in Paris, but in London, St. Petersburg. In 1894, the Pathé brothers started selling their own phonographs; the earliest Pathé offerings were phonograph cylinders. Pathé manufactured cylinder records until 1914. In addition to standard size cylinder records, Pathé produced several larger styles; the "Salon" records measured 3½ inches in diameter and the larger "Stentor" records measured 5 inches in diameter.
The "Le Céleste" records, the largest commercial cylinder records manufactured by any phonograph company, measured 5 inches in diameter by 9 inches long. In 1905 the Pathé brothers entered the growing field of disc records, they needed to employ several unusual technologies as preventive measures against patent infringement. At first they sold single-sided discs with a recording in wax on top of a cement base. In October 1906 they started producing discs in the more usual manner with shellac. With this less eccentric material, the early Pathé discs were unlike any others; the sound was recorded vertically in the groove, rather than side-to-side, the groove was wider than in other companies' records, requiring a special ball-shaped.005-inch-radius stylus for playing. The discs rotated at 90 rpm, rather than the usual 75 to 80 rpm; the groove started on the inside, near the center of the disc, spiraled out to the edge. In 1916, Pathé changed over to the customary rim-start format, a more nearly normal 80 rpm speed, paper labels instead of the stamped-in, paint-filled text used.
Pathé discs were produced in 10 inch, 10 1⁄2 inch, 11 1⁄2 inch sizes. 6 1⁄2, 8 inch, 14 inch discs were made, as were large 20 inch discs that played at 120 rpm. Due to their fragility and much higher price, the largest sizes were a commercial failure and were not produced for long. In France, Pathé became the largest and most successful distributor of cylinder records and phonographs. These, failed to make significant headway in foreign markets such as the United Kingdom and the United States where other brands were in widespread use. Although Pathé cylinder records were never popular outside France, their disc records sold in many foreign countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, Germany and Russia. Pathé was the first company to make master recordings in a different medium than the final commercial product. In the Pathé recording studios, masters were cut on spinning wax cylinders that measured about 13 inches long and 4 ½ inches in diameter. Beginning in 1913, special "Paradis" cylinders about 8 inches in diameter and 8 ½ inches long were used.
The large, fast-spinning cylinders allowed for a greater level of audio fidelity. The various types of commercial Pathé cylinders and discs were dubbed from these masters; this dubbing process enabled copies of the same master recording to be made available on multiple formats. The process sometimes resulted in uneven results on the final commercial record, causing a pronounced rumble or other audio artifacts; the vertically-cut Pathé discs required a special Pathé phonograph equipped with a sapphire ball stylus. The advantage of the sapphire ball stylus was its permanence. There was no need to change a needle after every record side. Since most records and phonographs used a different playback method, various attachments were marketed that allowed one to equip a Pathé phonograph to play standard, laterally-cut records. Attachments were sold to equip a standard phonograph to play Pathé records. In 1920 Pathé introduced a line of "needle-cut" records, at first only for the US market; the needle-cut records were laterally-cut discs designed to be compatible with standard phonographs, they were labelled Pathé Actuelle.
In the following year, these "needle-cut" records were introduced in the United Kingdom and within a few more years they were selling more than the vertical Pathés on the continent. Attempts to market the Pathé vertical-cut discs abroad were abandoned in 1925, though they continued to sell in France until 1932. In mid-1922 Pathé introduced a lower priced label called Perfect; this label became one of the most popular and successful "dime store" labels of the 1920s, survived beyond the end of the US Pathé label - discontinued in 1930 - right up to 1938. In January 1927, Pathé began recording using the new electronic microphone technology, as opposed to the acoustical-mechanical method of recording they used until then. In December 1928, the French and British Pathé phonograph assets were sold to the British Columbia Graphophone Company. In July 1929, the assets of the American Pathé record company were merged into the newly formed American Record Corporation; the Pathé and Pathé-Marconi labels and catalogue still survive, first as imprints of EMI and now EMI's successor Parlophone Records.
The film division of Pathé Frères still survives in France. List of record labels P
Gibson Brands, Inc. is an American manufacturer of guitars, other musical instruments, consumer and professional electronics from Kalamazoo and now based in Nashville, Tennessee. The company was known as Gibson Guitar Corporation and renamed Gibson Brands, Inc. on June 11, 2013. Orville Gibson founded the company in 1902 as the "Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Mfg. Co. Ltd." in Kalamazoo, Michigan, to make mandolin-family instruments. Gibson invented archtop guitars by constructing the same type of carved, arched tops used on violins. By the 1930s, the company was making flattop acoustic guitars, as well as one of the first commercially available hollow-body electric guitars and popularized by Charlie Christian. In 1944, Gibson was bought by Chicago Musical Instruments, acquired in 1969 by Panama-based conglomerate Ecuadorian Company Limited, that changed its name in the same year to Norlin Corporation. Gibson was owned by Norlin Corporation from 1969 to 1986. In 1986, the company was acquired by a group led by David H. Berryman.
Gibson sells guitars under a variety of brand names and builds one of the world's most iconic guitars, the Gibson Les Paul. Gibson was at the forefront of innovation in acoustic guitars in the big band era of the 1930s. In 1952, Gibson introduced its first solid-body electric guitar, the Les Paul, which became its most popular guitar to date— designed by a team led by Ted McCarty. In addition to guitars, Gibson offers consumer electronics through its subsidiaries Onkyo Corporation, Cerwin Vega, Stanton, as well as professional audio equipment from KRK Systems, pianos from their wholly owned subsidiary Baldwin Piano, music software from Cakewalk. On May 1, 2018, the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, announced a restructuring deal to return to profitability by closing down unprofitable consumer electronics divisions such as Gibson Innovations. Orville Gibson patented a single-piece mandolin design in 1898, more durable than other mandolins and could be manufactured in volume.
Orville Gibson began to sell his instruments in 1894 out of a one-room workshop in Kalamazoo, Michigan. In 1902, the Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Mfg. Co. Ltd. was incorporated to market the instruments. The company produced only Orville Gibson's original designs. Orville died in 1918 of endocarditis; the following year, the company hired designer Lloyd Loar to create newer instruments. Loar designed the flagship L-5 archtop guitar and the Gibson F-5 mandolin, introduced in 1922, before leaving the company in 1924. In 1936, Gibson introduced their first "Electric Spanish" model, the ES-150, followed by other electric instruments like steel guitars and mandolins. During World War II, instrument manufacturing at Gibson slowed due to shortages of wood and metal, Gibson began manufacturing wood and metal parts for the military. Between 1942-1945, Gibson employed women to manufacture guitars. "Women produced nearly 25,000 guitars during World War II yet Gibson denied building instruments over this period," according to a 2013 history of the company.
Gibson folklore has claimed its guitars were made by "seasoned craftsmen" who were "too old for war." In 1944 Gibson was purchased by Chicago Musical Instruments. The ES-175 was introduced in 1949. Gibson hired Ted McCarty in 1948, who became President in 1950, he led an expansion of the guitar line with new guitars such as the "Les Paul" guitar introduced in 1952, endorsed by Les Paul, a popular musician in the 1950s. The guitar was offered in Custom, Standard and Junior models. In the mid-1950s, the Thinline series was produced, which included a line of thinner guitars like the Byrdland; the first Byrdlands were slim, custom built, L-5 models for guitarists Billy Hank Garland. A shorter neck was added. Other models such as the ES-350T and the ES-225T were introduced as less costly alternatives. In 1958, Gibson introduced the ES-335T model. Similar in size to the hollow-body Thinlines, the ES-335 family had a solid center, giving the string tone a longer sustain. In the 1950s, Gibson produced the Tune-o-matic bridge system and its version of the humbucking pickup, the PAF, first released in 1957 and still sought after for its sound.
In 1958, Gibson produced two new designs: the eccentrically shaped Explorer and Flying V. These "modernistic" guitars did not sell initially, it was only in the late 1960s and early 70s when the two guitars were reintroduced to the market that they sold well. The Firebird, in the early 60s, was a reprise of the modernistic idea. In the late 50s, McCarty knew that Gibson was seen as a traditional company and began an effort to create more modern guitars. In 1961 the body design of the Les Paul was changed due to the demand for a double-cutaway body design; the new body design became known as the SG, due to disapproval from Les Paul himself. The original Les Paul design returned to the Gibson catalog in 1968. On December 22, 1969, Gibson parent company Chicago Musical Instruments was taken over by the South American brewing conglomerate ECL. Gibson remained under the control of CMI until 1974 when it became a subsidiary of Norlin Musical Instruments. Norlin Musical Instruments was a member of Norlin Industries, named for ECL president Norton Stevens and CMI president Arnold Berlin.
This began an era characterized by decreasing product quality. Between 1974 and 1984, production of Gibson guitars was shifted from Kalamazoo to Nashville, Tennessee; the Kalamazoo plant kept going for a few years a
The Great Gatsby (1974 film)
The Great Gatsby is a 1974 American romantic drama film based on F. Scott Fitzgerald's 1925 novel of the same name, it was directed by Jack Clayton and produced by David Merrick from a screenplay by Francis Ford Coppola. The film stars Robert Redford in the title role of Jay Gatsby, along with Mia Farrow, Sam Waterston, Bruce Dern, Karen Black, Scott Wilson and Lois Chiles, with Howard Da Silva, Roberts Blossom and Edward Herrmann. A third film, starring Tobey Maguire and Leonardo DiCaprio, was released in 2013; the rights to the novel were purchased in 1971 by Robert Evans so that his wife Ali MacGraw could play Daisy. After MacGraw left Evans for Steve McQueen, he considered other actresses for the role, including Faye Dunaway, Candice Bergen, Natalie Wood, Katharine Ross, Lois Chiles and Cybill Shepherd. However, Mia Farrow was cast as Chiles was given the role of Jordan. Warren Beatty, Jack Nicholson and Steve McQueen declined the role of Jay Gatsby, which went to Robert Redford. Beatty wanted to direct producer Evans as Gatsby and Nicholson did not think that MacGraw was right for the role of Daisy, still attached when he was approached.
Farrow was pregnant during production, the movie was filmed with her wearing loose, flowing dresses and in tight close-ups. Truman Capote was the original screenwriter but he was replaced by Francis Ford Coppola. Coppola had just finished directing The Godfather but was unsure of its commercial reception and he needed the money, he believes he got the job on the recommendation of Robert Redford, who had liked a rewrite Coppola did on The Way We Were. Coppola "had read Gatsby but wasn't familiar with it." He started. He recalled: I was shocked to find that there was no dialogue between Daisy and Gatsby in the book, was terrified that I'd have to make it all up. So I did a quick review of Fitzgerald's short stories and, as many of them were similar in that they were about a poor boy and a rich girl, I helped myself to much of the authentic Fitzgerald dialogue from them. I decided that an interesting idea would be to do one of those scenes that lovers have, where they get to be together after much longing, have a "talk all night" scene, which I'd never seen in a film.
So I did that -- I think a six-page scene in which Gatsby stay up all night and talk. And I remember my wife telling me that she and the kids were in New York when The Godfather opened, it was a big hit and there were lines around the block at five theaters in the city, unheard of at the time. I said, "Yeah, but I've got to finish the Gatsby script." And I sent the script in, just in time. It had taken me three weeks to complete. On his commentary track for the DVD release of The Godfather, Coppola refers to writing the Gatsby script, adding "Not that the director paid any attention to it; the script that I wrote did not get made." William Goldman, who loved the novel, said in 2000 that he campaigned for the job of adapting the script, but was astonished by the quality of Coppola's work: I still believe it to be one of the great adaptations... I told him what a wonderful thing he had done. If you see the movie, you will find all this hard to believe... The director, hired, Jack Clayton, is a Brit... he had one thing all of them have in their blood: a murderous sense of class...
Well, Clayton decided this: that Gatsby's parties were shabby and tacky, given by a man of no elevation and taste. There went the ball game; as shot, they were foul and stupid and the people who attended them were foul and silly, Robert Redford and Mia Farrow, who would have been so perfect as Gatsby and Daisy, were left hung out to dry. Because Gatsby was a tasteless fool and why should we care about their love? It was not as if Coppola's glory had been jettisoned though it was tampered with plenty; the Rosecliff and Marble House mansions in Newport, Rhode Island, were used for Gatsby's house while scenes at the Buchanans' home were filmed at Pinewood Studios in Buckinghamshire, England. One driving scene was shot in Windsor Great Park, UK. Other scenes were filmed in Uxbridge, Massachusetts; the film received mixed reviews. The film was praised for its interpretation and staying true to the novel, but was criticized for lacking any true emotion or feelings towards the Jazz Age. Based on 34 total reviews collected by Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an overall approval rating of 41%, with an average rating of 5/10.
Despite this, the film was a financial success. Tennessee Williams, in his book Memoirs', wrote: "It seems to me that quite a few of my stories, as well as my one acts, would provide interesting and profitable material for the contemporary cinema, if committed to... such cinematic masters of direction as Jack Clayton, who made of The Great Gatsby a film that surpassed, I think, the novel by Scott Fitzgerald."Vincent Canby's 1974 review in The New York Times typifies the critical ambivalence: "The sets and costumes and most of the performances are exceptionally good, but the movie itself is as lifeless as a body that's been too long at the bottom of a swimming pool," Canby wrote at the time. "As Fitzgerald wrote it, "The Great Gatsby" is a good deal more than an ill-fated love story about the cruelties of the idle rich.... The movie can't see this through all its giant closeups of pretty knees and dancing feet. It's frivolous without being much fun."Variety's review was split: "Paramount's third pass at The Great Gatsby is by far the most concerted attempt to probe the peculiar et
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012