Nickel is a chemical element with the symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel is hard and ductile. Pure nickel, powdered to maximize the reactive surface area, shows a significant chemical activity, but larger pieces are slow to react with air under standard conditions because an oxide layer forms on the surface and prevents further corrosion. So, pure native nickel is found in Earth's crust only in tiny amounts in ultramafic rocks, in the interiors of larger nickel–iron meteorites that were not exposed to oxygen when outside Earth's atmosphere. Meteoric nickel is found in combination with iron, a reflection of the origin of those elements as major end products of supernova nucleosynthesis. An iron–nickel mixture is thought to compose Earth's outer and inner cores. Use of nickel has been traced as far back as 3500 BCE. Nickel was first isolated and classified as a chemical element in 1751 by Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, who mistook the ore for a copper mineral, in the cobalt mines of Los, Hälsingland, Sweden.
The element's name comes from a mischievous sprite of German miner mythology, who personified the fact that copper-nickel ores resisted refinement into copper. An economically important source of nickel is the iron ore limonite, which contains 1–2% nickel. Nickel's other important ore minerals include pentlandite and a mixture of Ni-rich natural silicates known as garnierite. Major production sites include the Sudbury region in Canada, New Caledonia in the Pacific, Norilsk in Russia. Nickel is oxidized by air at room temperature and is considered corrosion-resistant, it has been used for plating iron and brass, coating chemistry equipment, manufacturing certain alloys that retain a high silvery polish, such as German silver. About 9% of world nickel production is still used for corrosion-resistant nickel plating. Nickel-plated objects sometimes provoke nickel allergy. Nickel has been used in coins, though its rising price has led to some replacement with cheaper metals in recent years. Nickel is one of four elements that are ferromagnetic at room temperature.
Alnico permanent magnets based on nickel are of intermediate strength between iron-based permanent magnets and rare-earth magnets. The metal is valuable in modern times chiefly in alloys. A further 10% is used for nickel-based and copper-based alloys, 7% for alloy steels, 3% in foundries, 9% in plating and 4% in other applications, including the fast-growing battery sector; as a compound, nickel has a number of niche chemical manufacturing uses, such as a catalyst for hydrogenation, cathodes for batteries and metal surface treatments. Nickel is an essential nutrient for some microorganisms and plants that have enzymes with nickel as an active site. Nickel is a silvery-white metal with a slight golden tinge, it is one of only four elements that are magnetic at or near room temperature, the others being iron and gadolinium. Its Curie temperature is 355 °C; the unit cell of nickel is a face-centered cube with the lattice parameter of 0.352 nm, giving an atomic radius of 0.124 nm. This crystal structure is stable to pressures of at least 70 GPa.
Nickel belongs to the transition metals. It is hard and ductile, has a high for transition metals electrical and thermal conductivity; the high compressive strength of 34 GPa, predicted for ideal crystals, is never obtained in the real bulk material due to the formation and movement of dislocations. The nickel atom has two electron configurations, 3d8 4s2 and 3d9 4s1, which are close in energy – the symbol refers to the argon-like core structure. There is some disagreement. Chemistry textbooks quote the electron configuration of nickel as 4s2 3d8, which can be written 3d8 4s2; this configuration agrees with the Madelung energy ordering rule, which predicts that 4s is filled before 3d. It is supported by the experimental fact that the lowest energy state of the nickel atom is a 3d8 4s2 energy level the 3d8 4s2 3F, J = 4 level. However, each of these two configurations splits into several energy levels due to fine structure, the two sets of energy levels overlap; the average energy of states with configuration 3d9 4s1 is lower than the average energy of states with configuration 3d8 4s2.
For this reason, the research literature on atomic calculations quotes the ground state configuration of nickel as 3d9 4s1. The isotopes of nickel range in atomic weight from 48 u to 78 u. Occurring nickel is composed of five stable isotopes. Isotopes heavier than 62Ni cannot be formed by nuclear fusion without losing energy. Nickel-62 has the highest mean nuclear binding energy per nucleon of any nuclide, at 8.7946 MeV/nucleon. Its binding energy is greater than both 56Fe and 58Fe, more abundant elements incorrectly cited as having the most tightly-bound nuclides. Although this would seem to predict nickel-62 as the most abundant heavy element in the universe, the high rate of photodisintegration of nickel in stellar interiors causes iron to be by far the most abundant; the stable isotope nickel-60 is the daughter product of the extinct radionuclide 6
Girl in the Headlines is a 1963 British detective film directed by Michael Truman and starring Ian Hendry, Ronald Fraser, Jeremy Brett, Jane Asher. It is based on the novel The Nose on my Face by actor Laurence Payne. Inspector Birkett and Sergeant Saunders are called in to investigate the murder of a glamorous model, it becomes apparent that the girl had led a chequered life and her acquaintances included drug dealers. Jordan and Hammond Barker are reluctant to help but when the police make an arrest, another murder occurs in a seedy Soho jazz café, but are the two murders connected? Ian Hendry – Inspector Birkett Ronald Fraser – Sergeant Saunders Margaret Johnston – Mrs Gray Natasha Parry – Perlita Barker Jeremy Brett – Jordan Barker Kieron Moore – Herter Peter Arne – Hammond Barker Jane Asher – Lindy Birkett Rosalie Crutchley – Maude Klein Robert Harris – William Lamotte Duncan Macrae – Barney Zena Walker – Mildred Birkett James Villiers – David Dane Alan White – Inspector Blackwell Martin Boddey – Inspector Marie Burke – Madame Lavalle Patrick Holt – Walbrook Douglas Muir – Fingerprint Expert'Britmovie' called the film a "cleverly plotted thriller directed by ex-Ealing editor/producer Michael Truman... Hendry's committed performance and Fraser's underplayed support dominate the film as the two policemen on the case."
Girl in the Headlines on IMDb
Andreas M. Schmidt was a German screen actor and theatre director. During his thirty-year career, he appeared in over 130 television productions. Born in Heggen, Schmidt grew up in the Märkisches Viertel in West Berlin, he was a guitarist in the rock band Lillies große Liebe in the 1980s. His first acting role was in the 1987 film Peng! Du bist tot!. Schmidt received three nominations at the Deutscher Filmpreis, winning once in 2009. Notable film appearances by Schmidt include Sommer vorm Balkon, The Counterfeiters, The Moon and Other Lovers and Henri 4, he had roles in television programs such as Tatort, Der Kriminalist and Polizeiruf 110. In addition, he directed theatre. Schmidt lived in Berlin with his family, he died of cancer on 28 September 2017, at the age of 53. He was survived by his American wife and their son. Andreas Schmidt on IMDb