click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Nickel–cadmium battery

The nickel–cadmium battery is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes. The abbreviation NiCd is derived from the chemical symbols of nickel and cadmium: the abbreviation NiCad is a registered trademark of SAFT Corporation, although this brand name is used to describe all Ni–Cd batteries. Wet-cell nickel-cadmium batteries were invented in 1899. Among rechargeable battery technologies, NiCd lost market share in the 1990s, to NiMH and Li-ion batteries. A NiCd battery has a terminal voltage during discharge of around 1.2 volts which decreases little until nearly the end of discharge. NiCd batteries are made in a wide range of sizes and capacities, from portable sealed types interchangeable with carbon-zinc dry cells, to large ventilated cells used for standby power and motive power. Compared with other types of rechargeable cells they offer good cycle life and performance at low temperatures with a fair capacity but their significant advantage is the ability to deliver their full rated capacity at high discharge rates.

However, the materials are more costly than that of the lead–acid battery, the cells have high self-discharge rates. Sealed NiCd cells were at one time used in portable power tools, photography equipment, emergency lighting, hobby R/C, portable electronic devices; the superior capacity of the Nickel-metal hydride batteries, more their lower cost, has supplanted their use. Further, the environmental impact of the disposal of the toxic metal cadmium has contributed to the reduction in their use. Within the European Union, NiCd batteries can now only be supplied for replacement purposes or for certain types of new equipment such as medical devices. Larger ventilated wet cell NiCd batteries are used in emergency lighting, standby power, uninterruptible power supplies and other applications; the first Ni–Cd battery was created by Waldemar Jungner of Sweden in 1899. At that time, the only direct competitor was the lead–acid battery, less physically and chemically robust. With minor improvements to the first prototypes, energy density increased to about half of that of primary batteries, greater than lead–acid batteries.

Jungner experimented with substituting iron for the cadmium in varying quantities, but found the iron formulations to be wanting. Jungner's work was unknown in the United States. Thomas Edison patented a nickel– or cobalt–cadmium battery in 1902, adapted the battery design when he introduced the nickel–iron battery to the US two years after Jungner had built one. In 1906, Jungner established a factory close to Oskarshamn, Sweden to produce flooded design Ni–Cd batteries. In 1932 active materials were deposited inside a porous nickel-plated electrode and fifteen years began on a sealed nickel-cadmium battery; the first production in the United States began in 1946. Up to this point, the batteries were "pocket type," constructed of nickel-plated steel pockets containing nickel and cadmium active materials. Around the middle of the twentieth century, sintered-plate Ni–Cd batteries became popular. Fusing nickel powder at a temperature well below its melting point using high pressures creates sintered plates.

The plates thus formed are porous, about 80 percent by volume. Positive and negative plates are produced by soaking the nickel plates in nickel- and cadmium-active materials, respectively. Sintered plates are much thinner than the pocket type, resulting in greater surface area per volume and higher currents. In general, the greater amount of reactive material surface area in a battery, the lower its internal resistance. Today, all consumer Ni -- Cd batteries use "jelly-roll" configuration; this design incorporates several layers of positive and negative material rolled into a cylindrical shape. This design reduces internal resistance as there is a greater amount of electrode in contact with the active material in each cell; the maximum discharge rate for a Ni–Cd battery varies by size. For a common AA-size cell, the maximum discharge rate is 1.8 amperes. Model-aircraft or -boat builders take much larger currents of up to a hundred amps or so from specially constructed Ni–Cd batteries, which are used to drive main motors.

5–6 minutes of model operation is achievable from quite small batteries, so a reasonably high power-to-weight figure is achieved, comparable to internal combustion motors, though of lesser duration. In this, they have been superseded by lithium polymer and lithium iron phosphate batteries, which can provide higher energy densities. Ni–Cd cells have a nominal cell potential of 1.2 volts. This is lower than the 1.5 V of alkaline and zinc–carbon primary cells, they are not appropriate as a replacement in all applications. However, the 1.5 V of a primary alkaline cell refers to its initial, rather than average, voltage. Unlike alkaline and zinc–carbon primary cells, a Ni–Cd cell's terminal voltage only changes a little as it discharges; because many electronic devices are designed to work with primary cells that may discharge to as low as 0.90 to 1.0 V per cell, the steady 1.2 V of a Ni–Cd cell is enough to allow operation. Some would consider the near-constant voltage a drawback as it makes it difficult to detect when the battery charge is low.

Ni–Cd batteries used to replace 9 V batteries only have six cells, for a terminal voltage of 7.2 volts. While most pocket radios will operate satisfactorily at this voltage, some manufacturers su

Well-being contributing factors

Well-being is a much-studied topic in psychology positive psychology. Related concepts are eudaimonia, flourishing, quality of life and meaningful life. Central theories are Diener's tripartite model of subjective well-being, Ryff's Six-factor Model of Psychological Well-being, Corey Keyes' work on flourishing, Seligman's contributions to positive psychology and his theories on authentic happiness and P. E. R. M. A. Positive psychology is concerned with eudaimonia, "the good life" or flourishing, living according to what holds the greatest value in life – the factors that contribute the most to a well-lived and fulfilling life. While not attempting a strict definition of the good life, positive psychologists agree that one must live a happy and meaningful life in order to experience "the good life". Martin Seligman referred to "the good life" as "using your signature strengths every day to produce authentic happiness and abundant gratification". According to Christopher Peterson, "eudaimonia trumps hedonism".

Research on positive psychology, well-being and happiness, the theories of Diener, Ryff and Seligmann cover a broad range of levels and topics, including "the biological, relational, institutional and global dimensions of life."The pursuit of happiness predicts both positive emotions and less depressive symptoms. People who prioritize happiness are more psychologically able, all else held equal. Different ways of measuring well-being reveal different contributing factors; the correlation between two of these, life satisfaction and happiness, in the World Values Survey is only 0.47. These related concepts which are used interchangeably outside of academia. Life satisfaction, or evaluative wellbeing is measured with Cantril's self-anchoring ladder, a questionnaire where wellbeing is rated on a scale from 1–10. Happiness or hedonic/Affective well-being measurement is measured with the positive and negative affect schedule, a more complex scale; the UK Government's Department of Health compiled a factsheet in 2014, in which it is stated that the key limitations to well-being, quality of life and life satisfaction research are that: There are numerous associations and correlations in the body of evidence, but few causal relationships, since existing longitudinal datasets "do not use consistent wellbeing and predictor measures at different time points".

Mental health is the strongest individual predictor of life satisfaction. Mental illness is associated with poorer well-being. In fact, mental health is the strongest determinant of quality of life at a age. Studies have documented the relationship between quality of life; the VOXEU analysis of happiness showed the principal determinants of an adult's life satisfaction to be income, family break up, mother's mental health and schooling. The factors that explain life satisfaction map to those factors that explain misery, they are first and foremost diagnosed depression/anxiety, which explains twice as much as the next factor, physical health, that explains just as much variance in subjective well-being between people, as income and whether someone is partnered. These factors count twice as much as each of whether someone is employed and whether they are a non-criminal, which in turn are 3 times as important as years of education. Overall, the best predictor of an adult's life satisfaction is their emotional health as a child as reported by the mother and child.

It trumps factors like the qualifications that someone gets and their behaviour at 16 as reported by the mother. A child and therefore an adult's emotional health is most affected itself by a mother's mental health, just over twice as important as family income. 2/3 as important as family income is parent's involvement, 0.1 partial correlation coefficients more important than aggressive parenting, father's unemployment, family conflict and whether the mother worked in the subject's 1st year of life. Whether the mother worked thereafter has 0 correlation with well-being, however. In terms of non-family factors, the place where someone goes to secondary school matters a fair bit more than observed family background altogether, which in turn is more important than the place where someone went to primary school; the main determinants of affective well-being, by correlation and effect size are: Corruption index Public service quality GDP per capita Economic freedom Human rights violations Political and economic violence Life expectancy at birth Unemployment Are you married Determinants that correlate with one another, for instance, alternative ways of measuring corruption, are excluded from this list.

Over the last 33 years, a significant decrease in women's happiness leads researchers to believe that men are happier than women. In contrast, a Pew Research Centre survey found that more women are satisfied with their lives than men, overall. Other research has found no gender gap in happiness. Part of these findings could be due to the way women differ in calculating their happiness. Women calculate closeness in their relationships and religion. Men calculate active leisure and mental control. Therefore, neither men nor women are at greater risk for being less happy than the other. Earlier in life, women are more likely

Baldwin, Georgia

Baldwin is a city in Banks and Habersham counties in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 3,279, up from 2,425 at the 2000 census. Baldwin is located on U. S. Route 441 just south of Georgia State Route 365. Baldwin sits astride the Eastern Continental Divide, which separates waters flowing southeastward toward the Savannah River and the Atlantic Ocean from waters flowing southwestward toward the Chattahoochee River and the Gulf of Mexico. City Hall sits in Habersham County. Baldwin borders the larger city of Cornelia, which houses the Habersham Chamber of Commerce. Nearby in Demorest is Piedmont College. Nearby is Lake Russell, a recreation area in Chattahoochee National Forest; the Habersham County airport is in Baldwin. The largest employer is a chicken processing company. Baldwin is located in northeastern Georgia at 34.490757°N 83.552643°W / 34.490757. It is located along two major arterial routes: U. S. Highway 441 and U. S. Highway 23/Georgia State Highway 365.

Highway 23/365 becomes Interstate 985 in 17 miles southwest of the Baldwin limits. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.9 square miles, all land. Baldwin is home to the Habersham County Airport, located on the north side of town; the airport offers a 5,500-foot paved runway at 1,447 feet above sea level. It serves as the gateway airport to the Georgia mountains with its central location in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains. According to the 2010 census, the population of Baldwin was 3,279, representing a population growth in the previous decade of 35.2%. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,425 people, 845 households, 583 families residing in the city; the population density was 674.9 people per square mile. There were 912 housing units at an average density of 253.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 83.22% White, 3.71% African American, 0.33% Native American, 2.43% Asian, 0.82% Pacific Islander, 6.89% from other races, 2.60% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 25.86% of the population. There were 845 households out of which 36.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.2% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.9% were non-families. 26.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.26. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 13.5% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 16.3% from 45 to 64, 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,299, the median income for a family was $33,011. Males had a median income of $25,409 versus $21,823 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,059. About 20.0% of families and 26.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.5% of those under age 18 and 33.8% of those age 65 or over.

Just over sixty percent of Baldwin's population is higher. Twelve and half percent have a bachelor's degree or higher.21.3% of Baldwin's workforce are in management and related occupations, 15.7% are in service occupations, 19.2% are in sales and office occupations, 1.5% are in agricultural occupations, 12.1% are in construction and maintenance occupations, 30.2% are in production and material moving occupations. Baldwin has a cost of living index of 82.9 against a U. S. average of 100.0. Crime rates in Baldwin have decreased 53% since 2003, with zero violent crimes in 2009. Baldwin's crime index for 2009 was 77.0 against the U. S. average of 319.1. Baldwin was incorporated by an act of the Georgia General Assembly on December 17, 1896; the city was named in honor of a railroad official. The closest hospital is Habersham County Medical Center in Demorest. Stephens County Hospital is to the northeast in Toccoa, Northeast Georgia Medical Center is to the southwest in Gainesville. Colleges and universities in the region include: University of Georgia, 41 miles to the south University of North Georgia Brenau University Athens Technical College Georgia Gwinnett College Piedmont College North Georgia Technical College In 2007, the city of Baldwin began efforts to develop its Comprehensive Plan Update.

This document provides three key planning elements: a Community Assessment with supporting data, a Community Participation Plan and a Community Agenda. The Assessment provides an overview of current conditions in the city and identifies key challenges being faced by our community; the Community Participation Plan establishes a process for ensuring active public participation and involvement in developing a community vision, setting goals for the future and establishing the community's agenda for the next decade. The Community Agenda serves as the city's action plan for carrying out this new vision, achieving the goals and objectives as defined in the plan and it serves as a tool for measuring our success during the implementation phase. City of Baldwin official website

Hugo Friend

Hugo Morris Friend was an American jurist who, in his youth, competed as an athlete in the long jump and hurdles. He is best remembered as the judge who presided over the criminal trial of the Chicago Black Sox, which ended in an acquittal. Eight players were banned from professional baseball for life. Friend came to the United States at an early age, he attended the University of Chicago beginning in 1901. He was selected for the United States team for the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens and won a bronze medal, he became a lawyer in a judge twelve years later. He presided over the Black Sox trial in 1921, when the defendants were acquitted, he responded to the jubilation in the courtroom with a smile. At the time of his 1966 death, he was the oldest active member of the Cook County Circuit Court bench. Hugo Morris Friend, Jewish, was born on July 21, 1882, in the city of Prague, in what was the Austrian province of Bohemia. At an early age, he emigrated to the United States, he graduated from South Division High School in Chicago in 1901.

Friend attended the University of Chicago. He twice won the Big Ten long jump championship. Friend was the captain of Chicago's Big Ten champion track team, the first time one of the university's teams had won the Big Ten Championship, he was selected for the United States team for the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens and won a bronze medal in the long jump, finishing fourth in the 100 metre hurdles. He played football in college, though never at the varsity level. Friend received his undergraduate degree in 1906. Friend joined the Illinois Bar in 1908, began the practice of law in Chicago. In 1916, he was appointed a Master in Chancery of the Superior Court of Cook County by Judge Albert C. Barnes. On September 18, 1920, Republican Governor Frank Lowden appointed him to the Cook County Circuit Court. In 1921, Judge Friend was assigned the Chicago "Black Sox" case; the case had been marked by theft of the incriminating statements made by some of the players to the grand jury. At the conclusion of the evidence, Judge Friend said of the cases against two of the players, Buck Weaver and Happy Felsch, that they were so weak that he doubted if he could let the convictions stand.

He was not called upon to do so. The following day, Baseball Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis issued a statement stating that no player who had agreed to throw a baseball game, or sat in on meetings to that end, would play professional baseball thereafter. In 1928, Friend presided over the case against Chicago Mayor William Hale Thompson and three codefendants, ordering them to repay to the city over $2 million, paid to real estate experts, he was reversed in his judgment against Mayor Thompson and one of the co-defendants by the Illinois Supreme Court. In 1957, he cleared the way for the movie The Miracle to be shown in Chicago, ruling it was not obscene, he died on April 29, 1966, at age 83 the oldest active Cook County Circuit Court judge, while listening to the broadcast of a Chicago White Sox–Cleveland Indians game. He was elected in 2006 into the University of Chicago Athletic Hall of Fame, his listing cites his 1906 "Olympic" accomplishments and his Big Ten feats, including his track team captaincy.

In 1920, Friend married Sadie Cohn of Chicago. List of select Jewish track and field athletes Carney, Gene. Burying the Black Sox: How Baseball's Cover-Up of the 1919 World Series Fix Almost Succeeded. Washington: Potomac Books, Inc. 2007. ISBN 978-1-59797-108-9. Cottrell, Robert C. Blackball, the Black Sox, the Babe. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co. Inc. 2002. ISBN 978-7-86411-643-6

Baldissero d'Alba

Baldissero d'Alba is a comune in the Province of Cuneo in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 35 kilometres southeast of Turin and about 50 kilometres northeast of Cuneo. As of 31 December 2004, it had an area of 15.0 square kilometres. Baldissero d'Alba borders the following municipalities: Ceresole Alba, Corneliano d'Alba, Montaldo Roero, Sommariva del Bosco, Sommariva Perno; the Colonna Castlem including a frescoed Gothic chapel Parish Church of St. Catherine Church of Sant'Antonino

Husain Dalwai

Husain Dalwai, a politician from Indian National Congress party, is a Member of the Parliament of India representing Maharashtra in the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Parliament for the term. He was elected for second term from Maharashtra from 03/04/2014 to 02/04/2020, he was born on 16 February 1943 and is Trade Unionist and Writer by profession. In June 2010 he was elected to Maharashtra Legislative Council from Indian National Congress. In Parliament, Mr. Dalwai served on the following committees: Member, Committee on Rural Development Member, Central Advisory Committee for the National Cadet Corps Member, Committee on Railways Member, Committee on Petitions April 2014 Member, Committee on Urban Development Member, Committee on Government Assurances His brother was Hamid Dalwai. Profile on Rajya Sabha website