Nickelodeon is an American pay television network, launched on December 1, 1977, as the first cable channel for children. It is based in New York City; the network's programming is aimed at children and adolescents aged 2–17, while some of its program blocks target a broader family audience. The channel was first tested as Pinwheel on December 1, 1977. Pinwheel was at the time only available on QUBE, the first two-way major market interactive cable television system, owned by Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment. Pinwheel relaunched as "Nick" on April 1, 1979, expanded to other cable providers nationwide, it was commercial-free and remained without advertising until 1984. Warner-Amex sold Nickelodeon, along with its sister networks MTV and VH1, to Viacom in 1986; as of September 2018, the channel is available to about 87.167 million households in the United States. The channel's name comes from the first five-cent movie theaters called nickelodeons, its history dates back to December 1, 1977, when Warner Cable Communications launched the first two-way interactive cable system, QUBE, in Columbus, Ohio.
Under the name Pinwheel Network, the C-3 cable channel carried Pinwheel daily from 7:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m. Eastern Time. Scheduled for a February 1979 launch, Nickelodeon launched on April 1, 1979 distributed to Warner Cable systems via satellite on the RCA Satcom-1 transponder. Commercial-free, advertising was introduced in January 1984. Programming seen on Nickelodeon includes animated series, live-action, scripted series, original made-for-TV movies, while the network's daytime schedule is dedicated to shows targeting preschoolers. A re-occurring program was bi-monthly special editions of Nick News with Linda Ellerbee, a news magazine series aimed at children that debuted in 1992 as a weekly series and ended in 2015. Nicktoons is the branding for Nickelodeon's original animated television series; until 1991, the animated series that aired on Nickelodeon were imported from foreign countries, with some original animated specials that were featured on the channel up to that point. Though the Nicktoons branding has been used by the network itself since the 2002 launch of the channel of the same name, original animated series continue to make up a substantial portion of Nickelodeon's lineup.
6 to 7 hours of these programs are seen on the weekday schedule, around nine hours on weekends, including a dedicated weekend morning animation block. In 2006, the channel struck a deal with DreamWorks Animation to develop the studio's animated films into television series. Since the early 2010s, Nickelodeon Animation Studio has produced series based on preexisting IP purchased by ViacomCBS, such as Winx Club and Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. Nickelodeon does not air direct-to-video movies on a regular basis; the channel airs feature films produced by the network's Nickelodeon Movies film production division. Although the film division bears the Nickelodeon brand name, the channel does not have access to most of the movies produced by its film unit. Nickelodeon does have broadcast rights to most feature films based on or that served as the basis for original series produced by it. Nickelodeon advertises hour-long episodes of its original series as movies. Nickelodeon periodically acquires theatrically released feature films for broadcast on the channel including Universal's Barbie: A Fashion Fairytale, several Monster High films, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles Forever, with the Barbie and Monster High films aired under a brokered format in which Mattel purchases the time in order to promote the release of their films on DVD within a few days of the Nickelodeon premiere, an arrangement possible as Nickelodeon does not have to meet the Federal Communications Commission rules which disallow that arrangement for broadcast channels due to regulations disallowing paid programming to children.
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Eosipterus is an extinct genus of pterosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Liaoning, China. The genus was named in 1997 by Ji Qiang; the type species is Eosipterus yangi. The genus name is derived from "dawn" and Greek pteron, "wing" with a Latin ending; the "dawn" element refers to its age but to China being "in the east". The specific name honours paleontologist Yang Daihuan; the genus is based on holotype GMV2117, found near Jinggangshan in western Liaoning Province, in the Yixian Formation. It was the first pterosaur discovered in that region, it consists of a partial crushed skeleton of a subadult individual on a slab, lacking skull and neck. Most vertebrae have been damaged and their number cannot be determined; the authors state. The wings are elongated; the wing finger has the standard four phalanges, a difference from the related Beipiaopterus which has lost the fourth phalanx. Total wingspan was about 1,2 metres; the pelvis is not well preserved. The femur has a length of six centimetres; the fibula is reduced.
The foot claws are curved. The authors placed Eosipterus in a general Pterodactyloidea incertae sedis. A cladistic study in 2006 found that it was a member of the Ctenochasmatidae — David Unwin thought it more belonged to the Ctenochasmatinae — but a study showed that it was basal to the Germanodactylidae. Ji, S. & Ji Q. 1997, "Discovery of a new pterosaur in western Liaoning, China", Acta Geologica Sinica, 71 pp.115-121 Ji, S. A. Ji, Q. and Padian, K. 1999, "Biostratigraphy of new pterosaurs from China", Nature, 398: 573 Lü Junchang, Gao Chunling, Meng Qingjin, Liu Jinyuan, Ji Qiang, 2006, "On the Systematic Position of Eosipterus yangi Ji et Ji, 1997 among Pterodactyloids", Acta Geologica Sinica 80 Wang Xiaolin, Kellner, A. W. A. Zhou Zhonghe, Campos, D. A. 2007, "A new pterosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of China", Cretaceous Research, 28: 245-260 List of pterosaur genera Timeline of pterosaur research Eosipterus in The Pterosauria
The A4085 is a 20-mile road between Caernarfon and Penrhyndeudraeth in North Wales that runs through the scenic Aberglaslyn Pass. There are several locations; the road begins at the southern apex of a triangular one-way system in Caernarfon on the A487. It heads south, signposted for Beddgelert; as it leaves Caernarfon it passes the site of the Roman legionary fort Segontium and crosses the Afon Seiont and the course of the Caernarfon-to-Llanberis railway. After 1.5 miles it crosses a roundabout at Caeathro. The road as far as Waunfawr is reputed to be a Roman road and is straight. After Waunfawr the road joins the Gwyrfai Valley, a glaciated U-shaped valley along the west side of Snowdon. At various places along the valley it recrosses the Welsh Highland Railway; the road passes along the east shore of Llyn Cwellyn, before climbing to a summit just south of Rhyd Ddu. The summit of the pass is at Pitt's Head and the road and railway drop to Beddgelert and the Aberglaslyn Pass, where the road is concurrent with the A498.
The A4085 is the major road at the junction. The railway can be seen again in the Aberglaslyn Pass on the east bank of the Afon Glaslyn, while the road continues along the west bank; the A4085 road diverges to the left at Pont Aberglaslyn before taking a curvaceous route following old sea cliffs of the Afon Glaslyn estuary. It passes under the Welsh Highland Railway again at Nantmor. After Garreg, the road crosses the Ffestiniog Railway by level crossing, it takes a narrow curvaceous descent through Penrhyndeudraeth to rejoin the A487 at the crossroads in the middle of the village. The road was created from early toll roads; the toll road between Pont Cae'r Gors and a point a mile to the south followed an easier 1 in 20 gradient than the steep farm track to the west that preceded it. There was some improvement in the 1960s and 1970s halfway between Pont Aberglaslyn and Garreg and in 2005 nearer to Garreg. Just south of the Goat Hotel in Beddgelert is an arched railway overbridge built by the Portmadoc and South Snowdon Railway but never used