Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times. All of this is open to the public, much of it has been digitized and is available on their website; the main goal of the bureau is to collect and make art research available, most notably in the field of Dutch Masters. Via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries; the library owns 450,000 titles, of which ca. 150,000 are auction catalogs. There are ca. 3,000 magazines, of which 600 are running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the standard record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works, which include English as well as Dutch titles; the RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, a thesaurus of terms for management of information on art and architecture.
The original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in California. The collection was started through bequests by Frits Lugt, art historian and owner of a massive collection of drawings and prints, Cornelis Hofstede de Groot, a collector, art historian and museum curator, their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Though not all of the library's holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online; the website itself is available in both an English user interface. In the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/ followed by the artist's record number. For example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number.
To reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artwork's record number. For example, the artwork record number for The Night Watch is 3063, so its RKD artwork page can be referenced; the Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, but these can not be referenced online by record number. Rather, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called "The Night Watch" is a militia painting, all records fitting this keyword can be seen by selecting this from the image screen; the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is filled with biblical references. This is the iconclass database. To see all images that depict Miriam's dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a special search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Gentilly is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France. It is the closest commune to Paris, located 4.1 km from the city center. The name Gentilly was recorded for the first time in the 6th century as Gentilly, a royal estate of some importance where coinage was minted; the etymology of the name seems to be a Gallo-Roman landowner. However, some other researchers think that the name is connected with Latin gentilis in reference to foreign goldsmiths who may have settled in Gentilly in the Early Middle Ages. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighboring communes. On that occasion, about half of the commune of Gentilly was annexed to Paris, forms now the neighborhoods of Maison-Blanche and Glacière, in the 13th arrondissement of Paris. On 13 December 1896, about half of the remaining territory of Gentilly was detached and became the commune of Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, leaving Gentilly with about a quarter of its pre-1860 area; the famous photographer Robert Doisneau was born in Gentilly.
There is a Maison de la photographie Robert Doisneau an international cultural center for humanist photography. Gentilly is served by Gentilly station on Paris RER line. Gentilly is served by: Four preschools: Jean Lurcat, Henri Barbusse, Victor Hugo, Marie et Pierre Curie Four elementary schools: Lamartine, Henri Barbusse, Victor Hugo, Gustave Courbet One junior high school: Collège Rosa Parks Two senior high schools:Lycée professionnel du Val-de-Bièvre Lycée intercommunal Darius Milhaud, in Le Kremlin-Bicêtre St. Eligius known as Éloi de Noyon or Saint Éloi is the patron saint of goldsmiths, coin collectors and those who work with them. Saint Martial, third-century monk and first bishop of Limoges. Pepin the Short, eighth-century king of the Franks, son of Charles Martel, father of Charlemagne. Blanche of Castile is said to have owned a castle in Gentilly, the remains of which, chiefly underground vaults, still exist. Isaac de Benserade and playwright of the seventeenth century, lived in Gentilly and died there in 1691.
Jacques Chapelle chemist and potter, director of the pottery works at Sceaux from 1748 to 1763, was born at Gentilly in 1721. Robert Doisneau, the photographer, was born at Gentilly in 1912. Sophie Marceau, the movie actress, born in 1966, lived in Gentilly. Raymond Souplex is buried at Gentilly. Communes of the Val-de-Marne department Georges Saupique. Église du Sacré-Coeur sculptor INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association Official website
The Musée Carnavalet in Paris is dedicated to the history of the city. The museum occupies two neighboring mansions: the Hôtel Carnavalet and the former Hôtel Le Peletier de Saint Fargeau. On the advice of Baron Haussmann, the civil servant who transformed Paris in the latter half of the 19th century, the Hôtel Carnavalet was purchased by the Municipal Council of Paris in 1866. By the latter part of the 20th century, the museum was full to capacity; the Hôtel Le Peletier de Saint Fargeau was annexed to the Carnavalet and opened to the public in 1989. Carnavalet Museum is one of the 14 City of Paris' Museums that have been incorporated since January 1, 2013 in the public institution Paris Musées. It's closed for renovation till the end of 2019. In the courtyard, a magnificent sculpture of Louis XIV, the Sun King, greets the visitor. Inside the museum, the exhibits show the transformation of the village of Lutèce, inhabited by the Parisii tribes, to the grand city of today with a population of 2,201,578.
The Carnavalet houses the following: about 2,600 paintings, 20,000 drawings, 300,000 engravings and 150,000 photographs, 2,000 modern sculptures and 800 pieces of furniture, thousands of ceramics, many decorations and reliefs, thousands of coins, countless items, many of them souvenirs of famous characters, thousands of archeological fragments.... The period called Modern Time, which spans from the Renaissance until today, is known by the vast amount of images of the city.... There are many views of the streets and monuments of Paris from the sixteenth to the twentieth century, but there are many portraits of characters who played a role in the history of the capital and works showing events which took place in Paris the many revolutions which stirred the capital, as well as many scenes of the daily life in all the social classes. Long narrow canoes made from a single tree trunk, dating back long before the first written description of the village in A. D. 52 in Julius Caesar's De bello Gallico A beautiful fourth-century bottle used for perfume, wine, or honey An ornate chest from the 13th century, which came from the royal Abbey of Saint Denis A well-preserved 14th-century sculpture of the head of the Virgin Mary and contemplative, despite the tumultuous events that decimated the city at that time: the Hundred Years' War and the Great Plague of 1348 Paintings from the 16th century depicting famous men and women of the time, including Francis I, Catherine de' Medici, Henry IV.
A painting of the Pont Neuf in about 1660 showing Parisians on foot. A vendor is showing his wares to a crowd of interested on-lookers, a man is walking hunched over with a bundle on his back. Several paintings of Madame de Sévigné, considered the most beautiful woman in Paris The famous uncompleted painting by Jacques-Louis David, The Tennis Court Oath, portraying a pivotal event in French history when members of the National Assembly swore an emotional oath that they would not disband until they had passed a "solid and equitable Constitution." This event is regarded as the beginning of the French Revolution. Paintings showing the people's revenge on the Bastille, a dungeon that had become "a symbol of the arbitrariness of royal power." Paintings or sculptures of the famous actors in the drama of the Revolution, including Mirabeau, Danton and the royal family A painting of death by guillotine at the Place de la Révolution, by Pierre-Antoine Demauchy: the fate that struck King Louis XVI, Queen Marie Antoinette, the Royalists, the Girondins, the Hébertists, the Dantonists and his followers, many others Personal effects belonging to Marie-Antoinette.
A paper on which Robespierre had written his signature when he was seized by soldiers of the National Convention. Napoleon's favorite case of toiletries Paintings of early-19th-century Paris A painting depicting one of the most important moments of the July Revolution: The Seizing of the Louvre, 29 July 1830, by Jean-Louis Bézard Marvelous sculptures of Parisians of the time, some realistic portrayals, others caricatures, by Jean-Pierre Dantan The ornate cradle of the imperial prince, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, son of the Emperor Napoleon III and the Empress Eugénie Illustrated posters from the Belle Epoque Realistic paintings of late 19th-century Paris. A gold watch-chronometer that belonged to Émile Zola A painting of the construction of the Statue of Liberty, shipped to the United States in pieces Paintings of the Exposition Universelle, including one of the Eiffel Tower, built for this event, it was used in the 1970 Walt Disney animated film "Aristocats". A reconstruction, with original furniture, of the room where Marcel Proust wrote In search of lost time Photographs of 20th-century Paris by Eugène Atget and Henri Cartier-Bresson A stylized painting of a crowded bistro of the mid-1900s, by the naturalized Japanese artist, Leonard Foujita A photograph in daguerreotype, The Forum of the Halles, taken by two American photographers in 1989 for an exhibit at the Carnavalet celebrating the 150th anniversary of the invention of photography Hôtel de CarnavaletIn 1548, Jacques des Ligneris, President of the Parliament of Paris, ordered the construction of the mansion that came to be known as the Hôtel Carnavalet.
In 1578, the widow of Francois de Kernevenoy, a Breton whose name was rendered in French as Carnavalet, purchased the building. In 1654, the mansion was bought by Claude Boislève, who commissioned the well-known architect, François Mansart, to make extensive renovations. Madame de Sévigné, famous for her letter-writing, lived in the Hôtel Carnavalet from 1677 un