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Nicosia

Nicosia is the largest city and seat of government of Cyprus. It is located on the banks of the River Pedieos. Nicosia is the southeasternmost of all EU member states' capitals, it has been continuously inhabited for over 4,500 years and has been the capital of Cyprus since the 10th century. The Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities of Nicosia segregated into the south and north of the city in early 1964, following the fighting of the Cyprus crisis of 1963–64 that broke out in the city; this separation became a militarised border between the Republic of Cyprus and Northern Cyprus after Turkey invaded the island of Cyprus in 1974, occupying the north of the island, including northern Nicosia. Today North Nicosia is the capital of Northern Cyprus, a state recognized only by Turkey, considered to be occupied Cypriot territory by the international community. Apart from its legislative and administrative functions, Nicosia has established itself as the island's financial capital and its main international business centre.

In 2018, Nicosia was the 32nd richest city in the world in relative purchasing power. The earliest mention of Nicosia is in the clay prism of the Assyrian king Esarhaddon in 672 BC; this is a mention to the city-state of Ledra located on the site of Nicosia, the city is named "Lidir". The name Ledra and variations remained in use as late as 392 AD, when it was used in writing by Saint Jerome. However, that text refers the city as "Leucotheon", early Christian sources of this period are the first to use similar variations of the name Lefkosia; the origin of the name "Lefkosia" is considered by scholars to be a "toponymic puzzle". The name is recorded in the majority of Byzantine sources as "Leukousia", it is accepted in literature that the name "most probably" derives from the Greek phrase "leuke ousia". Nicosia has been in continuous habitation since the beginning of the Bronze Age 2500 years BC, when the first inhabitants settled in the fertile plain of Mesaoria. Nicosia became a city-state known as Ledra or Ledrae, one of the twelve kingdoms of ancient Cyprus built by Achaeans after the end of the Trojan War.

Remains of old Ledra today can be found in the Ayia Paraskevi hill in the south east of the city. Only one king of Ledra is known: Onasagoras; the kingdom of Ledra was destroyed early. Under Assyrian rule of Cyprus, Onasagoras was recorded as paying tribute to Esarhaddon of Assyria in 672 BC. By 330 BC, Ledra was recorded to be a small unimportant town, it is thought that the settlement was economically and politically dependent on the nearby town of Chytri. The main activity of the town inhabitants was farming. During this era, Ledra did not have the huge growth that the other Cypriot coastal towns had, based on trade. In Byzantine times, the town was referred to as Λευκωσία or as Καλληνίκησις. In the 4th century AD, the town became the seat of bishopric, with bishop Saint Tryphillius, a student of Saint Spyridon. Archaeological evidence indicates that the town regained much of its earlier significance in the early Christian period, the presence of two or three basilicas with opus sectile decorations, along with marbles decorated with high relief indicate the presence of a prosperous and sophisticated Christian society.

After the destruction of Salamis, the existing capital of Cyprus, by Arab raids in 647, along with extensive damage to other coastal settlements, the economy of the island became much more inward-looking and inland towns gained relative significance. Nicosia benefited from this and functioned as an outlet of the agricultural products from its hinterland, the Mesaoria plain, it further was at an advantageous position due to its ample water supply. As such, the town developed enough for the Byzantine Empire to choose Nicosia as the capital of the island around 965, when Cyprus rejoined the Byzantine Empire; the Byzantines moved the island's administration seat to Nicosia for security reasons as coastal towns were suffering from raids. From that point on it has remained as the capital of Cyprus. Nicosia was the seat of the Byzantine governor of Cyprus. Testimony as late as 1211 indicates that Nicosia was not a walled city at that point and thus that the Byzantines did not build a city wall, thinking that the city's inland location would be sufficient for defense purposes.

The Byzantines did, build a weak fort within the city. The economy under Byzantine rule consisted of the trading of agricultural goods, but the town produced luxury items and metalware due to the presence of the imperial administration. On his way to the Holy Land during the Third Crusade in 1187, Richard I of England's fleet was plagued by storms, he himself stopped first at Crete and at Rhodes. Three ships continued on, one of, carrying Joan of England, Queen of Sicily and Berengaria of Navarre, Richard's bride-to-be. Two of the ships were wrecked off Cyprus, but the ship bearing Joan and Berengaria made it safely to Limassol. Joan refused to come ashore, fearing she would be captured and held hostage by Isaac Komnenos of Cyprus, who hated all Franks, her ship sat at anchor for a full week before Richard arrived on 8 May. Outraged at the treatment of his sister and his future bride, Richard invaded. Richard laid siege to Nicosia met and defeated Isaac Komnenos at Tremetousia and became ruler of the island, but sold it to the Knights Templar.

The Frankish rule o

Arnold Naimark

Arnold Naimark, is a Canadian physician and former President of the University of Manitoba. Born in Winnipeg, Manitoba, he received a B. Sc. Med. Degree in 1957, a Doctor of Medicine degree in 1957, a Master of Science degree in 1959 from the University of Manitoba. In 1963, he joined the faculty of the University of Manitoba as an Assistant Professor of Medicine and Physiology, he was appointed Associate Professor in 1965 and Professor in 1967. He was Acting Head of the Faculty from 1966 to 1967 and Head from 1967 to 1971, he was Dean of Faculty of Medicine from 1971 to 1981. From 1981 to 1996, he was the Vice-Chancellor. In 1996, he was appointed Centre for the Advancement of Medicine. In 1991, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada "as one of Canada's most distinguished university presidents and an education administrator of international repute". In 2003, he was awarded the Order of Manitoba. In 1987, he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, he has received honorary degrees from Mount Allison University of Toronto.

In 2013, he was inducted into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame. The Naimark Fellow Award in his honour recognizes professional excellence among Canada's health services leaders, is awarded annually by the Canadian Foundation for Healthcare Improvement. "Canadian Who's Who 1997 entry". Retrieved April 25, 2006. "University of Manitoba web page". Retrieved April 25, 2006

Harvest Auto Racing Classic

The Harvest Auto Racing Classic was a series of three automobile races, held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Saturday September 9, 1916, four months after the 1916 Indianapolis 500. The Harvest Classic was a unique event in the history of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. During 1909 and 1910, the track had held auto race weekends which consisted of from 16 to 24 races, involving several different classes of cars. Starting with 1911, a different promotional strategy was initiated, the track held only one race annually, the Indianapolis 500; the track adhered to this plan of one race per year with one exception. In 1916, with the United States on the verge of entering World War I, track management foresaw the possibility that the track may have to shut down the following year. In an effort to generate some additional profits, to get through the down time, the track held an additional event in September; this consisted of three races, all for the same class of cars. The event was sanctioned by AAA, the 100 miles feature race counted toward the 1916 National Championship.

The two preliminary races each paid separate prize money, neither served as a "heat" race, or qualifying race, for the longer, 100-mile feature, nor did they pay points towards the national championship. Johnny Aitken swept all three races. Dill, Mark. Scott, D. Bruce. Galpin, Darren. Champ Car Stats