Nicotine is a stimulant and potent parasympathomimetic alkaloid, produced in the nightshade family of plants. It is used for the treatment of tobacco use disorders as a smoking cessation aid and nicotine dependence for the relief of withdrawal symptoms. Nicotine acts as a receptor agonist at most nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, except at two nicotinic receptor subunits where it acts as a receptor antagonist. Nicotine constitutes 0.6–3.0% of the dry weight of tobacco. Consistent concentrations of nicotine varying from 2–7 µg/kg are found in the edible family Solanaceae, such as potatoes and eggplant; some research indicates that the contribution of nicotine obtained from food is substantial in comparison to inhalation of second-hand smoke. Others consider nicotine obtained from food to be trivial unless exceedingly high amounts of certain vegetables are eaten, it functions as an antiherbivore chemical. Nicotine is addictive, it is one of the most abused drugs. An average cigarette yields about 2 mg of absorbed nicotine.
Nicotine addiction involves drug-reinforced behavior, compulsive use, relapse following abstinence. Nicotine dependence involves tolerance, physical dependence, psychological dependence. Nicotine dependence causes distress. Nicotine withdrawal symptoms include depressed mood, anxiety, difficulty concentrating, sleep disturbances. Mild nicotine withdrawal symptoms are measurable in unrestricted smokers, who experience normal moods only as their blood nicotine levels peak, with each cigarette. On quitting, withdrawal symptoms worsen then improve to a normal state. Nicotine use. Nicotine itself is associated with some health harms. Youth are sensitive to the effects of nicotine. Nicotine is harmful to non-users. At low amounts, it has a mild analgesic effect; the Surgeon General of the United States indicates. Nicotine has been shown to produce birth defects in some animal species, but not others, it is considered a teratogen in humans. Nicotine can harm adolescent brain development; the median lethal dose of nicotine in humans is unknown, but high doses are known to cause nicotine poisoning.
The primary therapeutic use of nicotine is treating nicotine dependence to eliminate smoking and the damage it does to health. Controlled levels of nicotine are given to patients through gums, dermal patches, inhalers, electronic/substitute cigarettes or nasal sprays to wean them off their dependence. A 2018 Cochrane Collaboration review found high quality evidence that all current forms of nicotine replacement therapy therapies increase the chances of quitting smoking by 50–60%, regardless of setting. Combining nicotine patch use with a faster acting nicotine replacement, like gum or spray, improves the odds of treatment success. 4 mg versus 2 mg nicotine gum increase the chances of success. In contrast to recreational nicotine products, which have been designed to maximize the likelihood of addiction, nicotine replacement products are designed to minimize addictiveness; the more a dose of nicotine is delivered and absorbed, the higher the addiction risk. Nicotine has been used in the form of tobacco extracts.
Nicotine pesticides have not been commercially available in the US since 2014, homemade pesticides are banned on organic crops and not recommended for small gardeners. Nicotine pesticides have been banned in the EU since 2009. Foods are imported from countries in which nicotine pesticides are allowed, such as China, but foods may not exceed maximum nicotine levels. Neonicotinoids, which are derived from and structurally similar to nicotine, are used as agricultural and veterinary pesticides as of 2016. In nicotine-producing plants, nicotine functions as an antiherbivory chemical. Nicotine-containing products are sometimes used for the performance-enhancing effects of nicotine on cognition. A meta-analysis of 41 double-blind, placebo-controlled studies concluded that nicotine or smoking had significant positive effects on aspects of fine motor abilities and orienting attention, episodic and working memory. A 2015 review noted that stimulation of the α4β2 nicotinic receptor is responsible for certain improvements in attentional performance.
Nicotine has potential beneficial effects, but it has paradoxical effects, which may be due to the inverted U-shape of the dose-response curve or pharmacokinetic features. Nicotine is used as a recreational drug, it is used because it is addictive and hard to discontinue using it. Nicotine is used compulsively, dependence can develop within days. Recreational drug users use nicotine for its mood-altering effects. Other recreational nicotine products include chewing tobacco, cigarettes, e-cigarettes, pipe tobacco, snus. Nicotine use for tobacco cessation has few contraindications, it is not known whether nicotine replacement therapy is effective for smoking cessation in ad
Crazyhorse is an American magazine that publishes fiction and essays. Since 1960, Crazyhorse has published many of the finest voices in literature, including John Updike, Raymond Carver, Jorie Graham, John Ashbery, Robert Bly, Ha Jin, Lee K. Abbott, Philip F. Deaver, Stacie Cassarino, W. P. Kinsella, Richard Wilbur, James Wright, Carolyn Forché, Charles Simic, Charles Wright, Billy Collins, Galway Kinnell, James Tate, Franz Wright. In 1987, Library Journal ranked Crazyhorse among the top twenty magazines that publish poetry in the United States. In 1990, Writer's Digest named it one of the fifty most influential magazines publishing fiction; the magazine sponsors the Lynda Hull Memorial Poetry Prize and the Crazyhorse Fiction Prize, awarding $2,000 and publication for a single piece of writing in each genre. Past fiction prize judges have included Joyce Carol Oates, Jaimy Gordon, Ann Patchett, Ha Jin, Charles Baxter, past poetry prize judges have included Carl Phillips, Billy Collins, Marvin Bell, Mary Ruefle.
Crazyhorse is published twice yearly by the Department of English and the School of Humanities and Social Sciences at the College of Charleston in Charleston, South Carolina. The current editors are Bret Lott, Emily Rosko, Anthony Varallo, managing editor Jonathan Bohr Heinen. Crazy Horse was founded by poet Thomas McGrath in Los Angeles in 1960, he served as the managing editor for the early years of the journal's publication. During the 1970s, the journal was helmed by several editors, including Deb and Edith Wylder who brought the journal to Murray State University in Kentucky; this was a time of great change for the new, single-named journal, in addition to its original emphasis on poetry, the editors began to publish short fiction and critical essays. By the late 70s, Jorie Graham and James Galvin had become the journal's poetry editors, Joe Ashby Porter the fiction editor, the journal had become known as one of the most respected in the country. In 1981, Crazyhorse moved to the University of Arkansas at Little Rock, where it would stay until 2001.
David Wojahn served as the poetry editor until 1986, when he was replaced by Ralph Burns, but he returned after a two-year absence to work alongside poetry co-editors Lynda Hull and Dean Young. During this time, David Jauss served as Dennis Vannatta as criticism editor. In 2001, after having served as sole editor of the journal for several years, Ralph Burns, through mutual friend Jauss, contacted Bret Lott at the College of Charleston to see if the College would be interested in taking over the journal due to its financial troubles at the University of Arkansas; the journal found a new home in Charleston, where its reputation as a first-class venue of new writing continues to grow. The journal is edited by the College of Charleston Creative Writing faculty, its work has been reprinted in the Best American Poetry, Best American Short Stories, Best American Nonrequired Reading, Pushcart Prize annual anthologies. List of literary magazines "The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture". Retrieved September 5, 2007.
"David Jauss". Retrieved September 5, 2007. Crazyhorse website
St Andrew's Rectory is a heritage-listed detached house at Mangerton Street, Somerset Region, Australia. It was built in 1925, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992. This single-storeyed weatherboard house was constructed in 1925 as the rectory for St Andrew's Anglican Church in Toogoolawah; the Parish of Toogoolawah had been created in 1917, following division of the Esk parish into two, reflected the population expansion which accompanied the success of Nestle's Toogoolawah condensed milk factory during the First World War. In 1920 Mary McConnel of Cressbrook Station, who in 1911 had donated the land on which St Andrews Church was subsequently erected, gave the parish a further two allotments in Mangerton Street, between the Church and the St Andrew's Church Hall, on which to build a rectory. In 1924 the parish asked for plans and specifications for a rectory to be prepared by the local builders contractor AD Menzies, who erected many of the buildings in Toogoolawah until the mid-1920s.
Work began in January 1925, the house was completed in late May that year, at a cost of £1,008. The Anglican parishes of Esk and Toogoolawah were amalgamated as the Brisbane Valley parish in 1928, the rector has resided since at Toogoolawah rather than at Esk; this single-storeyed timber building is set amongst mature trees, including some large palms, the grounds form the southern part of the St Andrew's Church precinct and the northwestern boundary to McConnel Park. The building has verandahs on the north and west elevations and sits on concrete stumps with a semi-enclosed space beneath; the exterior is clad in weatherboard with timber battens between the exterior stumps. The wide verandahs have decorative timber valance and balustrades, with a deep and low railing which forms a seat. Entry is from the west via a quarter-turn stair with landing; the front door has decorative glass sidelights and upper panel and opens into a foyer. A narrow study has a gabled street elevation; this gable is repeated on the eastern elevation over the kitchen.
Internally, walls are single skin VJ boards, French doors with fanlights open onto the verandahs. Ceilings are boarded and a decorative lancet shaped, timber arch valance is located between the foyer and lounge. Window hoods are corrugated iron with timber brackets. A driveway from the north runs behind the church hall to the rectory. St Andrew's Rectory was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992 having satisfied the following criteria; the place is important in demonstrating the pattern of Queensland's history. St Andrew's Rectory, erected in 1925, is significant in illustrating the consolidation of the Anglican Church in Toogoolawah; the place is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a particular class of cultural places. It is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of an intact 1920s weatherboard Queensland house, is a good example of its type; the place is important because of its aesthetic significance. It exhibits aesthetic characteristics valued by the community, including the aesthetic contribution of building and grounds to the Toogoolawah townscape, the aesthetic quality of the timber verandahs.
The place has a strong or special association with a particular community or cultural group for social, cultural or spiritual reasons. St Andrew's Rectory has a strong association with the Toogoolawah community, being an integral part of an historic, visually cohesive and picturesque precinct comprising St Andrew's church, church hall, rectory and adjacent McConnel Park; the place has a special association with the life or work of a particular person, group or organisation of importance in Queensland's history. St Andrew's Rectory has a special association with the McConnel family and their contribution to the development of social and community life in Toogoolawah. St Andrew's Church, Toogoolawah St Andrew's Church Hall, Toogoolawah This Wikipedia article was based on "The Queensland heritage register" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence. The geo-coordinates were computed from the "Queensland heritage register boundaries" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence.
Media related to St Andrew's Rectory, Toogoolawah at Wikimedia Commons
... Meanwhile is the tenth studio album by British rock band 10cc, it was recorded at Bearsville Studios in Woodstock, New York, The Hit Factory, New York, River Sound Studios, New York, Bill Schnee Studio, Los Angeles and Village Recorders, Los Angeles and released in 1992. The album was the band's first in nine years and marked the brief comeback of original 10cc members Kevin Godley and Lol Creme; the background to reuniting the original 10cc members was the success of the 1987 compilation album Changing Faces – The Very Best of 10cc and Godley & Creme: did well and we all met up again for a lunch. It was to be presented with these fabulous platinum discs. Round that time our record company made us a nice offer that we couldn't refuse, the fact that we'd all come together again... we'd sort of resisted working together again and it seemed like a nice thing to do. The project looked promising with Eric Stewart and Graham Gouldman entering the studio with a stockpile of 22 songs: We had some good songs, so we felt confident that we could still do it.
Polydor were pleased with the demos, so we did the album. The band became involved with producer Gary Katz at the request from the band's label Polydor, known for his strong association with Steely Dan, a band with whom 10cc were compared. However, their relationship didn't work out in terms of production and the use of session musicians for which both Gouldman and Stewart expressed their regrets: Our record company wanted an American producer, they thought it would help break the American market, once you start to follow things like that, it’s the slippery slope. We got to the studio, we had problems with our producer. There wasn’t always harmony and I think it created a one dimensional album. It’s got this darkness to it that I don’t like; some of the songs, particularly'Welcome to Paradise', which were brilliant when you hear the demos, didn’t translate into the studio. That and other things combined to make an album. There were two things that were wrong for me, I didn’t like his idea of bringing in session men.
Jeff Porcaro was one of the finest drummers in the universe, Freddie Washington the finest bass player. But anyone could have them and I was against this. Gary wanted to use his people, though. He’d always used them, he was secure with them. I love the Meanwhile wish we hadn't gone to Gary Katz for production. At the time it was thought by Polyglot. I enjoyed working with other musicians though Jeff Porcaro on the drums, but in retrospect the production mess we got into leaves a bad taste in my mouth." The album didn't capture the actual reunion of 10cc: Kevin Godley performed lead vocals on "The Stars Didn't Show" and backing vocals on two songs, while Lol Creme supplied backing vocals on six songs. Neither of them contributed to the recording process of the album. I wasn’t involved with the making of this album at all so I know little about how it was put together. I was asked to sing lead vocal on one song and was flown to New York to record it; the three of us had a lovely reunion breakfast on day one.
As I recall all the basic tracks had been recorded so it was myself, Graham and producer Gary Katz for two vocal heavy days. In a 2006 interview Kevin Godley recalled the tension in the studio as he participated in the recording of the album: I do recall a strange atmosphere in the studio. An intangible awkwardness. Everything sounded'great', everyone got on'great', but there was an essential ingredient missing. I sensed G and E growing apart. Gary Katz was acting as a political as well as creative buffer keeping personalities as well as music on course. I’ve never heard the complete album, although I did enjoy singing "The Stars Didn’t Show". Both Gouldman and Stewart point to the experience of making... Meanwhile as the beginning of the end of their partnership and 10cc. Apart from Kevin Godley's vocals on "The Stars Didn't Show" and a b-side "Lost in Love" with Gouldman singing lead, all of the album's lead vocals were sung by Stewart. Session musicians Jeff Porcaro and Freddie Washington, who were hired by Gary Katz, were featured on all tracks on drums and bass respectively.
Notable appearances on the album include Andrew Gold, who collaborated with 10cc and Graham Gouldman in the past, blues pianist Dr. John; the album's closing song, "Don't Break the Promises", was co-written by Eric Stewart and Paul McCartney during the sessions to McCartney's album Press to Play and finished by 10cc for the album. The album's liner notes included the line: "In memory of Hyme "The Rhyme" Gouldman". Gouldman, an amateur playwright, was the father of Graham Gouldman; the cover photography was supplied by the Prefecture de Paris. By the time the album was completed and ready to release there had been changes at Polydor and the new regime didn't believe it would be a hit, spent little to promote it. In a hospital radio interview in 1993, Graham Gouldman said: "Polydor spent £750,000 to make it and £7,500 to promote it." The album narrowly missed the Top 75 album chart in the UK. Two singles were picked up from the album; the first was "Woman in Love" backed with the non-album track "Man with a Mission".
The single included the album version of the track rather than the single edit, issued to radio. The second single, "Welcome to Paradise", a favourite of both Eric and Graham's followed, included the album version of the title track, with two further non-album tracks: "Don't" and "Lost in Love". Bo
Cox & Kings Ltd. set up in 1758, is one of the longest established travel companies. Headquartered in India and the UK, the holiday and education travel group has subsidiaries in the United States, the United Kingdom, the United Arab Emirates, Singapore and New Zealand. Cox & Kings Ltd. has operations spread across 4 continents. Cox and Kings Ltd. has been an army agent, a travel agent, a printer and publisher. It has worked as a news agent, cargo agent, ship-owner, insurance agent, dealer of several travel-related activities, its core activities now include the sale of packaged holidays. Cox was born in Yorkshire in 1718, his father had made a good living as a lawyer and had moved from his birthplace in Clent in Worcestershire to Yorkshire. He bought an estate near Quarley in Hampshire. Richard Cox came into the service of Lord Ligonier, as a clerk in the early 1740s. In 1747 he married Caroline Codrington, daughter of Sir William Codrington, an established military figure. Cox's career took off when Lord Ligonier led the Flanders campaigns of the War of the Austrian Succession.
In one letter sent back to London, Richard Cox made a demand that "suitable winter provisions and housing should be made available for the three English companies" and he became entwined with logistics and the general welfare of the troops. Ligonier made Cox his private secretary in the late 1740s, went on to become the colonel of the First Foot Guards in 1757, rewarded Cox with the post of "military agent" after the incumbent died in May 1758, thus was born Co.. There were about a dozen main agents working for the army at that time and each regimental colonel chose one to serve their troops; these agents arranged the payment of officers and men, organized the provision of clothing, acted as intermediaries for the buying and selling of officers' commissions and acted on any special requests from the regimental adjutant. Duties ranged from the shipment of personal effects to the requisition of supplies. Cox had taken on the most prestigious infantry regiment, the 63rd Regiment and the Royal Artillery soon followed.
In 1765 Cox went into partnership with Henry Drummond. Cox & Drummond moved from Cox's house in Albemarle Street to Craig's Court, just off what is now Whitehall. By the mid-1760s Cox & Drummond had blossomed to become agents for the Dragoons and eight more Infantry regiments. Success was built on the company's reputation for keen attention to the welfare of its regiments. In 1763, for instance, when Robert Clive stormed the fortress of Gheria in India, Cox negotiated with the East India Company who had "borrowed" stores from Cox's clients, the Royal Artillery, he arranged to receive repayment from the East India Company by way of plunder from Gheria. He had this converted into silver in India and shipped back to London where the funds were returned to the Royal Artillery. Back home, Cox's house on Albemarle Street was known for its parties. In addition, he was a patron of the arts, being acquainted with David Garrick and other notable actors of the time, was a founding financial investor in the rebuilding of the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane.
He was a generous benefactor to St George's Hospital on Hyde Park Corner. The records of the family estate at Quarley show that Cox spent over £3,000 per annum running it, much of it lavished on his wife. By 1768, Cox & Drummond were flourishing, with a turnover of £345,000 per annum. During the 1770s the company continued to grow, aided by war in the American Colonies and the threat of invasion from France. Cox repeated his good fortune with business partners, taking in Mr Mair upon Drummond's death in 1772, followed by his own son Richard Bethell Cox in 1779 and Mr Greenwood in 1783, it was during this time that the company expanded its banking interests, offering loans and accounts to exclusive members of London's elite. Frederick, Duke of York, introduced Cox's business partner Greenwood to his father George III, as "Mr Greenwood, the gentlemen who keep my money". Greenwood replied rather cheekily that, "I think it is rather his Royal Highness who keeps my money", to which George III burst out in laughter and said, "Do you hear that Frederick?
Do you hear that? You are the gentleman who keeps Mr Greenwood's money!" The company was thriving by the time of the outbreak of war with France in 1793, employing some 35 clerks. In 1795 they served 14 regiments of cavalry, 64 infantry regiments, 17 militia regiments, becoming the largest military agent for the army. Richard Cox died in August 1803, leaving his grandson Richard Henry Cox established, with Greenwood as a controlling partner. Cox & Co grew through the 19th centuries. Timely alliances with the great banking families such as the Hammerlseys and Greenwoods secured an established position in London, by the end of the 19th century, most regiments used Cox & Co as their agents; as the empire grew, Cox & Co met the demand for officers to be looked after. The company set up five branches in India between 1905 and 1911. At the start of World War I, Cox & Co employed some 180 staff. During the war some 250,000 men were on their books, 50,000 cheques were cleared a day and a special department was set up to deal with the influx of American soldiers in 1917.
By the end of the war, some 4,500 people worked for the firm. Cox & Co suffered a downturn in business as a result of the end of the war in 1918. After the war, Cox & Co. expanded to Egypt and Rangoon. In October 1922, Cox & Co bought Henry S. King Bank, who had a large network of branches in
The Shawangunk Kill is a 47.2-mile-long stream that flows northward through Orange and Ulster counties, New York, in the United States. It is the largest tributary of the Wallkill River, it takes its name from the neighboring Shawangunk Ridge, where it rises in the town of Greenville flowing down into the valley. For part of its length, it forms the northwestern boundary of Orange County, with first Sullivan and Ulster County along the other side. From its source in Greenville, the Shawangunk flows northeastward to Mill Pond, near Mount Hope, by which point it has lost half its original elevation, it passes through woods east of Otisville. At the hamlet of New Vernon, it becomes the Orange-Sullivan county line and shortly thereafter receives its first named tributary, the Little Shawangunk Kill, it begins to widen a bit at Bloomingburg, north of that community it is crossed by NY 17, the busiest road along the kill. Several miles to the north, the confluence of another tributary, the Platte Kill, marks the point where Orange and Ulster counties come together as the stream bends towards a more eastern heading.
Pine Bush rises on the east, a few more miles north of that hamlet the kill becomes the exclusive property of Ulster County when the boundary returns to land at Orange County's northernmost point. The Shawangunk continues to meander into a wider and wider valley, populated with farms and woodlots, the mountain ridge spreading across the western sky, it curves due east and joins the Wallkill just south of US 44-NY 55 near Gardiner. In the early 1990s, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, when it was researching the fate of the former Galeville air base site found that the lower Shawangunk supports an unusually diverse plant and animal community for the region due to the absence of any serious impoundment along the upper river, it reported no less than six species of freshwater mussels, including the rare swollen wedge mussel, 31 species of fish. Among the latter were the rare Notropis amoenus, Notropis stramineus, Percina caproedes, Lepomis auritis and Noturus insignis; the study found. Other rare plants in the lower Shawangunk Kill include threadfoot on submerged ledges, sharp-winged monkeyflower and redrooted flatsedge along the stream itself, with Davis' sedge, swamp agrimony, Aster vimeneus and violet bushclover joining the beakgrass in the flood plains.
Due to the minimal development within much of its watershed, there is little pollution. In 2015 the town council members of Wallkill, through which five miles of the stream flows, enacted a law to protect the Shawangunk Kill, it bars any construction, clear cuting, dumping or septic systems within 100 feet of the high water mark. Crawford, to the north has in place limits on new construction and rebuilding in the stream's vicinity, in Mount Hope much of the land around it is owned by the municipality; the river bedrock is predominantly shale, covered by silty loam soils left behind by past glaciation. The stream bed itself varies from solid rock to particulates such as gravel and clay. Geologically, the Shawangunk valley is part of the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, typified by the Shawangunk Ridge to the west and the lower Hoagerburgh Ridge to the east. North to south, going upriver Albany Post Road McKinstry Road Hoagerburgh Road Wallkill Avenue /Bruyn Turnpike Hardenbugh Road NY 52 Ulsterville Road Crawford Street Orange County Route 48/Sullivan County Route 66 Petticoat Lane NY 17 Orange County 76/Sullivan County 171 Spruce Road New Vernon Road Shoddy Hollow Road Metro-North Port Jervis Line Carboy Road NY 211 Mount Hope Road Guymard Turnpike Kohler Road Eatontown Road Fort Van Tyle Road Springbrook Road Mullock Road Dwaar Kill Platte Kill Tomy Kill Pakansink Creek Verkeerder Kill Little Shawangunk Kill List of New York rivers