Nidaros Cathedral is a cathedral of the Church of Norway located in the city of Trondheim in Trøndelag county. It is built over the burial site of King Olav II, who became the patron saint of the nation, is the traditional location for the consecration of new kings of Norway, it was built over a 230 year period, from 1070 to 1300 when it was completed. However additional work and renovations have continued intermittently since then. Nidaros was designated as the cathedral for the Diocese of Nidaros in 1152. After experiencing the turmoil and controversies of the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, it was taken from the Catholic Church by the newly established state Church of Norway in 1537, which adopted the teachings and reforms of Martin Luther, Phillip Melancthon and others, becoming an Evangelical Lutheran church. Nidaros is the northernmost medieval cathedral in the world; the cathedral is the main church for the Nidaros og Vår Frue parish, the seat of the Nidaros domprosti, the seat of the Bishop of the Diocese of Nidaros.
The Preses of the Church of Norway is based at this cathedral. The large, stone church seats about 1,850 people and it was used as the site of coronation of the kings of Norway. Nidaros Cathedral was built beginning in 1070 to memorialize the burial place of Olav II of Norway, the king, killed in 1030 in the Battle of Stiklestad, he was canonized as Saint Olav a year by Grimketel, the Bishop of Nidaros. It was designated the cathedral of the Catholic Archdiocese of Nidaros from its establishment in 1152 until its abolition in 1537 under the Reformation. Since the Reformation, it has served as the cathedral of the Lutheran bishops of Trondheim in the Diocese of Nidaros; the architectural style of the cathedral is Gothic. It has been an important destination for pilgrims coming from all of Northern Europe. Along with Vår Frue Church, the cathedral is part of the Nidaros og Vår Frue parish in the Nidaros deanery in the Diocese of Nidaros. Work on the cathedral as a memorial to St. Olav started in 1070.
It was finished some time around 1300, nearly 150 years after being established as the cathedral of the diocese. The cathedral was badly damaged by fires in 1327 and again in 1531; the nave was not rebuilt until the restoration in early 1900s. In 1708, the church burned down except for the stone walls, it was struck by lightning in 1719, was again ravaged by fire. Major rebuilding and restoration of the cathedral started in 1869 led by architect Heinrich Ernst Schirmer, nearly completed by Christian Christie, it was completed in 2001. Maintenance of the cathedral is an ongoing process; the oldest parts of the cathedral consist of the octagon with its surrounding ambulatory. This was the site of the original high altar, with the reliquary casket of Saint Olav, choir. Design of the octagon may have been inspired by the Corona of Canterbury Cathedral, although octagonal shrines have a long history in Christian architecture; the choir shows English influence, appears to have been modeled after the Angel Choir of Lincoln Cathedral.
It is joined to the octagon by a stone screen. The principal arch of this screen is subdivided into three subsidiary arches: the central arch frames a statue of Christ the Teacher, standing on the top of a central arch of three subsidiary arches below him; the space above the principal arch, corresponding to the vault of the choir, contains a crucifix by the Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland, placed between statues of the Virgin Mary and the Apostle John. Built into the south side of the ambulatory is a small well. A bucket could be lowered to draw up water drawn from the spring that originated from St. Olav's original burial place.. The present cathedral has two principal altars. At the east end of the chancel in the octagon is an altar at the site of the medieval high altar, behind which stood the silver reliquary casket containing the remains of St. Olav; this silver-gilt reliquary casket was melted down for coinage by Christian II and St. Olav's remains buried in an unknown location under the cathedral.
The only relic known to have survived is a femur in a silver-gilt reliquary. Shaped as a forearm, it was given by Queen Josephine to St. Olav Catholic Cathedral in Oslo; the original reliquary casket was with dragon heads on its gables. The dragons are similar to those carved on the gables of Norwegian stave churches. Surviving medieval reliquary caskets in Norway also bear such dragon heads, for instance, that at Heddal Stave Church, he was the kingdom's patron saint. The current altar was designed to recall in marble sculpture the essential form of this reliquary casket, it replaces the previous baroque altar, transferred to Vår Frue Church. The second altar is in the crossing, where the transept intersects the chancel, it bears a large modern silver crucifix. It was commissioned and paid for by Norwegian American emigrants in the early twentieth century, the design was inspired by the memory of a similar silver crucifix in the medieval church; the medieval chapter house may be used as a chapel for smaller groups of worshipers.
All the stained glass in the cathedral dates from its rebuilding in the 20th centuries. The windows on the north side of the church depict scenes from the Old Testament against a blue background, while those on the south side of the church
Sign of Truth is the first album by Swedish/German power metal band Dionysus. It was recorded at the Röhn Studio in Fulda, best known for its productions with Edguy and Avantasia, by Tobias Sammet and mixed by Tommy Newton. HammerFall singer Joacim Cans worked with Dionysus on the album, wrote the lyrics of "Bringer of Salvation" and "Bringer of War" on their second album, Anima Mundi. "Time Will Tell" – 5:05 "Sign of Truth" – 5:34 "Bringer of Salvation" – 4:35 "Pouring Rain" – 5:23 "Anthem" – 5:39 "Holy War" – 5:27 "Don't Forget" – 6:05 "Walk on Fire" – 5:58 "Never Wait" – 5:50Bonus Tracks10. "Loaded Gun" – 5:12 11. "Key into the Past" – 5:19 Olaf Hayer – vocals Johnny Öhlin – guitar Nobby Noberg – bass Ronny Milianowicz – drums Kaspar Daklqvist – keyboard
The Muscle Shoals Bill was designed to build a dam in the Tennessee River and sell government-produced electricity. Congress passed bills to harness energy from the Tennessee River, but presidents Coolidge and Hoover insisted that private enterprise should do the job, vetoed the bills; the chief sponsor, Senator George Norris of Nebraska, had blocked a proposal from Henry Ford to develop the dam site. Hoover's veto message stated: I am opposed to the Government entering into any business the major purpose of, competition with our citizens. There are national emergencies which require that the Government should temporarily enter the field of business, but they must be emergency actions and in matters where the cost of the project is secondary to much higher considerations. There are many localities where the Federal Government is justified in the construction of great dams and reservoirs, where navigation, flood control, reclamation, or stream regulation are of dominant importance, where they are beyond capacity or purpose of private or local government capital to construct.
In these cases power is a by-product and should be disposed of by contract or lease. But for the Federal Government deliberately to go out to build up and expand such an occasion to the major purpose of a power and manufacturing business is to break down the initiative and enterprise of the American people. Norris demanded public power because he distrusted owned utilities. Norris said of Hoover: Using his power of veto, he destroyed the Muscle Shoals bill--a measure designated to utilize the great government property at Muscle Shoals for the cheapening of fertilizer for American agriculture and utilization of the surplus power for the benefit of people without transmission distance of the development; the power people want no yardstick which would expose their extortionate rates so Hoover killed the bill after it had been passed by both houses of congress. The idea for the Muscle Shoals Bill in 1933 became part of the New Deal's Tennessee Valley Authority. Hubbard, Preston John. Origins of the TVA: the Muscle Shoals controversy, 1920-1932 Norris, George W..
Fighting Liberal: The Autobiography of George W. Norris. U of Nebraska Press. P. 249ff. Wengert, Norman. "Antecedents of TVA: The Legislative History of Muscle Shoals." Agricultural History 26#4 pp: 141-147. In JSTOR