Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, scalloping, lancet windows, hood mouldings, the Gothic Revival movement emerged in 19th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with deeply philosophical movements associated with a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism, the Anglo-Catholicism tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. The Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by medievalism, which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals, as industrialisation progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories grew. Proponents of the such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values that had been supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation, poems such as Idylls of the King by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast specifically modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance.
In German literature, the Gothic Revival had a grounding in literary fashions, guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active primarily in Turin, recognized the Gothic order as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Some of the earliest evidence of a revival in Gothic architecture is from Scotland, inveraray Castle, constructed from 1746, with design input from William Adam, displays the incorporation of turrets. These were largely conventional Palladian style houses that incorporated some features of the Scots baronial style. The eccentric landscape designer Batty Langley even attempted to improve Gothic forms by giving them classical proportions, a younger generation, taking Gothic architecture more seriously, provided the readership for J. Brittens series of Cathedral Antiquities, which began appearing in 1814. In 1817, Thomas Rickman wrote an Attempt. to name and define the sequence of Gothic styles in English ecclesiastical architecture, the categories he used were Norman, Early English and Perpendicular.
It went through numerous editions and was still being republished by 1881. The largest and most famous Gothic cathedrals in the U. S. A. are St. Patricks Cathedral in New York City and Washington National Cathedral on Mount St. Alban in northwest Washington, D. C. One of the biggest churches in Gothic Revival style in Canada is Basilica of Our Lady Immaculate in Ontario, Gothic Revival architecture was to remain one of the most popular and long-lived of the Gothic Revival styles of architecture. The revived Gothic style was not limited to architecture, classical Gothic buildings of the 12th to 16th Centuries were a source of inspiration to 19th-century designers in numerous fields of work. Architectural elements such as pointed arches, steep-sloping roofs and fancy carvings like lace ant lattice work were applied to a range of Gothic Revival objects. Sir Walter Scotts Abbotsford exemplifies in its furnishings the Regency Gothic style, parties in medieval historical dress and entertainment were popular among the wealthy in the 1800s but has spread in the late 20th century to the well-educated middle class as well.
By the mid-19th century, Gothic traceries and niches could be inexpensively re-created in wallpaper, the illustrated catalogue for the Great Exhibition of 1851 is replete with Gothic detail, from lacemaking and carpet designs to heavy machinery
Janus, or Johannes Lutma the elder was a well-known Dutch silversmith. He was a pupil of Paulus van Vianen who was known for his style in silver, so-called for its smooth. After spending time in Paris, Lutma came to Amsterdam in 1621 where he got engaged on 31 maart 1623 to Mayken Roelants and he was a friend of Rembrandt, who etched a portrait of him. The portrait shown here was painted by Jacob Adriaensz Backer, Lutma is best known for his choir-panel in the New Church of Amsterdam. A number of the designs of Lutma were published in 4 series of prints, mainly by his sons Jacob and Johannes Lutma the Younger, more often known as Jan Lutma. Jan developed a distinct, if not very influential, technique of engraving by making dots on the plate with a punch. The Rijksmuseum of Amsterdam has several works of Johannes Lutma in its collection, in the Amsterdam neighbourhood De Pijp, as well as Schoonhoven, there are streets named after him
Dutch Reformed Church
The Dutch Reformed Church was the largest Christian denomination in the Netherlands from the onset of the Protestant Reformation until 1930. It was the foremost Protestant denomination, and—since 1892—one of the two major Reformed denominations along with the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands and it spread to the United States, South Africa, Sri Lanka and various other world regions through the Dutch colonization. The allegiance to the Dutch Reformed Church was a common feature among Dutch immigrant communities around the world and it developed during the Protestant Reformation, being shaped theologically by John Calvin, but other major Reformed theologians. At the time of the merger, the Church had 2 million members organised in 1,350 congregations, a minority of members of the Church chose not to participate in the merger and instead formed the Restored Reformed Church. The Reformation was a time of violence and persecution by the established Catholic Church and governments. The first Synod of 23 Dutch Reformed leaders was held in October 1571 in the German city of Emden, the Synod of Emden is generally considered to be the founding of the Dutch Reformed Church, the oldest of the Reformed churches in the Netherlands.
The Synod both affirmed the actions of the earlier Synod of Wesel, as well as established presbyterian church government for the Dutch Reformed Church, the first Synod to be located in the Dutch Republic was held in Dordrecht in 1578. This synodical meeting is not to be confused with the better known Second Synod of Dort of 1618, large groups of Marranos settled in Emden and converted to Christianity. Mostly all Marranos, many Jewish groups converted to Christianity around 1649 to the Nederduitsche, Niederdeutsche church on Dutch Reformed Church, in the latter meeting, the Church fathers expelled Arminians and added the Canons of Dort to the Confessions. The Canons of Dort, together with the previously adopted Belgic Confession, most conflicts and splits in the Church arose because of disagreement over the substance and interpretation of these doctrinal documents. The government of the Dutch Republic, which had instigated the Arminians expulsion, no Synod was held in the Netherlands until after the end of the Republic in 1795.
Before the demise of the Dutch Republic in 1795, the Dutch Reformed Church enjoyed the status of public or privileged church, though it was never formally adopted as the state religion, the law demanded that every public official should be a communicant member. Consequently, the Church had close relations with the Dutch government, a privilege of members of the Dutch Reformed Church was that they could have their businesses open on Sundays, otherwise considered a religious day and not one for business. The 17th and early 18th centuries were the age of the Dutch Nadere Reformatie, led primarily by Gisbertus Voetius and Wilhelmus à Brakel, in the 19th century, theological liberalism led to splits in the Dutch Reformed Church. In 1834, the minister Hendrik de Cock of the town of Ulrum was told by leaders that he could not preach against certain colleagues. He and his congregation seceded from the Dutch Reformed Church, in time, the Afscheiding led to the departure of 120 congregations from the Dutch Reformed Church.
In 1886, another separation, the Doleantie, led by Dutch Reformed businessman and politician Abraham Kuyper. The Dutch Reformed Church remained the largest church body in the Netherlands until the middle of the 20th century, the rapid secularisation of the Netherlands in the 1960s dramatically reduced participation in the mainstream Protestant church
Royal Palace of Amsterdam
The Royal Palace in Amsterdam is one of three palaces in the Netherlands which are at the disposal of the monarch by Act of Parliament. The palace was built as a city hall during the Dutch Golden Age in the 17th century, the building became the royal palace of King Louis Napoleon and of the Dutch Royal House. It is situated on the west side of Dam Square in the centre of Amsterdam, opposite the War Memorial and next to the Nieuwe Kerk. The palace was built as the Town Hall of the City of Amsterdam and was opened as such on 29 July 1655 by Cornelis de Graeff and it was built by Jacob van Campen, who took control of the construction project in 1648. It was built on 13,659 wooden piles and cost 8.5 million gulden, a yellowish sandstone from Bentheim in Germany was used for the entire building. The stone has darkened considerably in the course of time, marble was the chosen material for the interior. Jacob van Campen was inspired by Roman administrative palaces and public buildings and he wanted to build a new capitol for the Amsterdam burgomasters who thought of themselves as the consuls of the new Rome of the North.
The technical implementation was looked after by the town construction master Daniël Stalpaert, the sculptures were executed by Artus Quellijn. The central hall is 120 feet long,60 feet wide and 90 feet high, on the marble floor there are two maps of the world with a celestial hemisphere. The Western and Eastern hemispheres are shown on the maps, the hemispheres detail the area of Amsterdams colonial influence. The terrestrial hemispheres were made in the mid-18th century and they replaced an earlier pair made in the late 1650s. The originals showed the regions explored by the Dutch East India Companys ships in the first half of the 17th century. This feature may have inspired by the map of the Roman Empire that had been engraved on marble and placed in the Porticus Vipsania. On top of the palace is a domed cupola, topped by a weather vane in the form of a cog ship. This ship is a symbol of Amsterdam, just underneath the dome there are a few windows. From here one could see the ships arrive and leave the harbour, in the cupola is the famous carillon by François and Pieter Hemony cast in 1664 in Amsterdam.
It was renovated by Eijsbouts in 1965, only 9 bells by François and Pieter Hemony remained. 38 new bells by Eijsbouts were made and tuned in meantone temperament, the old corroded Hemony bells are kept inside the palace
Protestant Church in the Netherlands
The Protestant Church in the Netherlands is the largest Protestant denomination in the Netherlands, being both Reformed and Lutheran. It was founded 1 May 2004 as the merger of the Dutch Reformed Church, the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands, the merger was the culmination of an organizational process started in 1961. Several orthodox Reformed and liberal churches did not merge into the new church, a bulk of its membership, along with that of other Protestant denominations, is distributed in the Reformed north, which contrasts with the Roman Catholic south. The Protestant Church of the Netherlands forms the second largest Christian denomination after the Roman Catholic Church, from the onset of the Protestant Reformation, the Dutch population became divided into about two-thirds Protestant and one-third Roman Catholic believers. This began to change gradually in the 20th century as there has been a decline in religious adherence. It is the faith of the Dutch Royal Family – a remnant of historical dominance of the Dutch Reformed Church.
The doctrine of the Protestant Church in the Netherlands is expressed in its creeds, in addition to holding the Apostles, the Nicene and the Athanasian Creeds of the universal church, it holds to the confessions of its predecessor bodies. From the Lutheran tradition are the unaltered Augsburg Confession and Luthers Catechism, from the Reformed, the Heidelberg and Genevan Catechisms along with the Belgic Confession with the Canons of Dordt. The Church acknowledges the Theological Declaration of Barmen and the Leuenberg Agreement, ordination of women and blessings of same-sex marriages are allowed. The PKN contains both liberal and conservative movements, although the liberal Remonstrants left talks when they could not agree with the adoption of the Canons of Dordt. Local congregations have far-reaching powers concerning controversial matters, the polity of the Protestant Church in the Netherlands is a hybrid of presbyterian and congregationalist church governance. Church governance is organised along local and national lines, at the local level is the congregation.
An individual congregation is led by a council made of the minister along with elders. At the regional level are the 57 classical assemblies whose members are chosen by the church councils, at the national level is the General Synod which directs areas of common interest, such as theological education, ministry training and ecumenical co-operation. To ensure that Lutherans are represented in the Church, the Lutheran congregations have their own synod, the Lutheran Synod has representatives in the General Synod. Secularization, or the decline in religiosity, first became noticeable after 1960 in the Protestant rural areas of Friesland, then, it spread to Amsterdam and the other large cities in the west. Finally the Catholic southern areas showed religious declines, a countervailing trend is produced by a religious revival in the Protestant Bible Belt, and the growth of Muslims and Hindu communities resulting from immigration and high birth rates. A minister of the PKN, Klaas Hendrikse has described God as a word for experience, or human experience, seven congregations have so far decided to form the Continued Reformed Churches in the Netherlands
A church building, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly worship services. The term in its sense is most often used by Christians to refer to their religious buildings. In traditional Christian architecture, the church is arranged in the shape of a Christian cross. When viewed from plan view the longest part of a cross is represented by the aisle, towers or domes are often added with the intention of directing the eye of the viewer towards the heavens and inspiring church visitors. The earliest identified Christian church was a church founded between 233 and 256. During the 11th through 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals, a cathedral is a church, usually Roman Catholic, Oriental Orthodox or Eastern Orthodox, housing the seat of a bishop. In standard Greek usage, the word ecclesia was retained to signify both a specific edifice of Christian worship, and the overall community of the faithful. This usage was retained in Latin and the languages derived from Latin, as well as in the Celtic languages.
In the Germanic and some Slavic languages, the word kyriak-ós/-ē/-ón was adopted instead, in Old English the sequence of derivation started as cirice and eventually church in its current pronunciation. German Kirche, Scottish kirk, Russian церковь, etc. are all similarly derived, according to the New Testament, the earliest Christians did not build church buildings. Instead, they gathered in homes or in Jewish worship places like the Second Temple or synagogues, the earliest archeologically identified Christian church is a house church, the Dura-Europos church, founded between 233 and 256. During the 11th through 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals, in addition to being a place of worship, the cathedral or parish church was used by the community in other ways. It could serve as a place for guilds or a hall for banquets. Mystery plays were performed in cathedrals, and cathedrals might be used for fairs. The church could be used as a place to thresh and store grain, a common architecture for churches is the shape of a cross.
These churches often have a dome or other large vaulted space in the interior to represent or draw attention to the heavens. Other common shapes for churches include a circle, to represent eternity, or an octagon or similar star shape, another common feature is the spire, a tall tower on the west end of the church or over the crossing. The Latin word basilica was used to describe a Roman public building
Dam Square or Dam is a town square in Amsterdam, the capital of the Netherlands. Its notable buildings and frequent events make it one of the most well-known and important locations in the city and the country. Dam Square lies in the center of Amsterdam, approximately 750 meters south of the main transportation hub, Centraal Station. It is roughly rectangular in shape, stretching about 200 meters from west to east and it links the streets Damrak and Rokin, which run along the original course of the Amstel River from Centraal Station to Muntplein and the Munttoren. The Dam marks the endpoint of the other well-traveled streets Nieuwendijk, a short distance beyond the northeast corner lies the main red-light district, de Wallen. On the west end of the square is the neoclassical Royal Palace, beside it are the 15th-century Gothic Nieuwe Kerk and the Madame Tussauds Wax Museum. The National Monument, a stone pillar designed by J. J. P. Oud and erected in 1956 to memorialize the victims of World War II, overlooking the plaza are the NH Grand Hotel Krasnapolsky and the upscale department store De Bijenkorf.
These various attractions have turned the Dam into a tourist zone, the Dam derives its name from its original function, a dam on the Amstel River, hence the name of the city. Built in approximately 1270, the dam formed the first connection between the settlements on the sides of the river, as the dam was gradually built up to it became wide enough for a town square, which remained the core of the town developing around it. Dam Square as it exists today grew out of what was originally two squares, the dam, called Middeldam, and Plaetse, an adjacent plaza to the west. A large fish market arose where ships moored at the dam to load and unload goods, the area became a centre not only of commercial activity but of the government, as the site of Amsterdams town hall. As a market square, the Dam had a house that can be seen in some old paintings. It was demolished in 1808 by order of Louis Bonaparte who, upon taking up residence in the newly converted Royal Palace, complained that his view was obstructed.
The Damrak, or the mouth of the Amstel River, was partially filled in the 19th century, since then. The new land made room for the Beurs van Zocher, an exchange that was built in 1837. After the stock moved to the Beurs van Berlage in 1903. In its place, De Bijenkorf department store has stood since 1914, in 1856, a war memorial named De Eendracht was unveiled inside the square before King William III
Albert Jansz Vinckenbrinck
Albert Jansz Vinckenbrink, was a Dutch Golden Age sculptor in Amsterdam. According to the RKD he was a sculptor who learned from his father and became the father of the sculptors Jan, Hendrik and he made the pulpit for the Nieuwe kerk, and a sketch of this is in the portrait made of him by the Holsteyn brothers. That print claims he was a sculptor of the city of Amsterdam, according to the Amsterdam Museum he made the statues of David and Goliath now in their café
Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands
Willem-Alexander is the King of the Netherlands. Willem-Alexander was born in Utrecht and is the oldest child of Beatrix of the Netherlands and he became Prince of Orange as heir apparent upon his mothers accession on 30 April 1980, and succeeded her following her abdication on 30 April 2013. He went to primary and secondary schools, served in the Royal Netherlands Navy. He married Máxima Zorreguieta Cerruti in 2002 and they have three daughters, Catharina-Amalia, Princess of Orange, Princess Alexia, and Princess Ariane, Willem-Alexander is interested in sports and international water management issues. At the age of 49, he is currently the second youngest monarch in Europe after Felipe VI of Spain, Willem-Alexander Claus George Ferdinand was born on 27 April 1967 in the University Hospital Utrecht, Now is University Medical Center Utrecht in Utrecht, Netherlands. He is the first child of Princess Beatrix and Prince Claus, and he was the first male Dutch royal baby since the birth of Prince Alexander in 1851, and the first immediate male heir since Alexanders death in 1884.
From birth, Willem-Alexander has held the titles Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau and he was baptised as a member of the Dutch Reformed Church on 2 September 1967 in Saint Jacobs Church in The Hague. He had two brothers, Prince Friso and Prince Constantijn. He lived with his family at the castle Drakensteyn in the hamlet Lage Vuursche near Baarn from his birth until 1981 and his mother Beatrix became Queen of the Netherlands in 1980, after his grandmother Juliana abdicated. He received the title of Prince of Orange as heir apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Willem-Alexander attended Nieuwe Baarnse Elementary School in Baarn from 1973 to 1979. After his military service from 1985 to 1987, Willem-Alexander studied History at Leiden University from 1987 onwards and his final thesis was on the Dutch response to Frances decision under President Charles de Gaulle to leave the NATOs integrated command structure. Willem-Alexander speaks English and German in addition to his native Dutch, between secondary school and his university education, Willem-Alexander performed military service in the Royal Netherlands Navy from August 1985 until January 1987.
He received his training at the Royal Netherlands Naval College and the frigates HNLMS Tromp and HNLMS Abraham Crijnssen, in 1988 he received additional training at the ship HNLMS Van Kinsbergen and became a lieutenant. As a reservist for the Royal Netherlands Navy, Willem-Alexander was promoted to Lieutenant Commander in 1995, Commander in 1997, Captain at Sea in 2001, and Commodore in 2005. As a reservist for the Royal Netherlands Army, he was made a Major in 1995, and was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in 1997, Colonel in 2001, and Brigadier General in 2005. As a reservist for the Royal Netherlands Air Force, he was made Squadron Leader in 1995, as a reservist for the Royal Marechaussee, he was made Brigadier General in 2005. Before his investiture as king in 2013, Willem-Alexander was honorably discharged from the armed forces, the government declared that the head of state cannot be a serving member of the armed forces, since the government itself holds supreme command over the armed forces.
As king, Willem-Alexander may choose to wear a uniform with royal insignia
Jan van Speyk
Jan Carolus Josephus van Speijk, written Van Speyk, was a Dutch naval lieutenant who became a hero in the Netherlands for his opposition to the Belgian Revolution. Born in Amsterdam in 1802, van Speijk was orphaned only a few weeks after his birth, when he was 18 years old, he joined the Royal Netherlands Navy and served in the Dutch East Indies from 1823 to 1825. He successfully attacked Bangka and Java, which earned him the nickname Schrik der Roovers, when the Belgian War of Independence began, Van Speijk was given command of a Dutch gunboat. Van Speijk despised the Belgian independence movement, and he said he would die than become an infamous Brabander. On February 5,1831, a gale blew his gunboat into the quay at the port of Antwerp, the Belgians quickly stormed his ship, demanding Van Speijk haul down the Dutch flag. Rather than surrender his ship, he fired a pistol into a barrel of gunpowder in the ships magazine, according to legend, he shouted Dan liever de lucht in. The number of Belgians killed is unknown, though it probably numbered in the dozens, twenty-eight of his 31 crewmen perished in the blast.
Eight days after Van Speijks death, the Netherlands declared a period of mourning and his remains were buried in the Nieuwe Kerk in Amsterdam, where the remains of naval hero Admiral Michiel de Ruyter are interred. Van Speijk is regarded as a hero in the Netherlands. This resulted in a decree issued by King William I pronouncing that as long as the Dutch Navy exists there will always be a ship named Van Speijk to preserve his memory. Seven ships of the Royal Netherlands Navy ships have carried this name, the latest being the Van Speijk of 1994 and her predecessor, the frigate Van Speijk, launched in 1965, was the lead ship of her own class. The mast of Van Speijks ship is preserved at the Koninklijk Instituut voor de Marine, for his actions as captain of Gunboat Number 2, Jan van Speijk was decorated with the Knights Cross of the Order of William. A national memorial in his honour is located at the J. C. J. van Speijk Lighthouse in Egmond aan Zee, media related to Jan van Speijk at Wikimedia Commons