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Niger–Congo languages

The Niger–Congo languages are the world's third largest language family in terms of number of speakers and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages. It is considered to be the world's largest language family in terms of distinct languages, ahead of Austronesian, although this is complicated by the ambiguity about what constitutes a distinct language, it is the third-largest language family in the world by number of native speakers, comprising around 700 million people as of 2015. Within Niger–Congo, the Bantu languages alone account for 350 million people, or half the total Niger–Congo speaking population; the most spoken Niger–Congo languages by number of native speakers are Yoruba, Igbo and Zulu. The most spoken by total number of speakers is Swahili. While the ultimate genetic unity of the core of Niger–Congo is accepted, the internal cladistic structure is not well established. Other primary branches may include Dogon, Ijo and Rashad.

The connection of the Mande languages has never been demonstrated, without them the validity of Niger–Congo family as a whole has not been established. One of the most distinctive characteristics common to Atlantic–Congo languages is the use of a noun-class system, a gender system with multiple genders; the language family most originated in or near the area where these languages were spoken prior to Bantu expansion. Its expansion may have been associated with the expansion of Sahel agriculture in the African Neolithic period, following the desiccation of the Sahara in c. 3500 BCE. According to Roger Blench, all specialists in Niger–Congo languages believe the languages to have a common origin, rather than constituting a typological classification, for reasons including their shared noun-class system, shared verbal extensions and shared basic lexicon. Similar classifications to Niger–Congo have been made since Diedrich Westermann in 1922. Joseph Greenberg continued that tradition, making it the starting point for modern linguistic classification in Africa, with some of his most notable publications going to press starting in the 1960s.

However, there has been active debate for many decades over the appropriate subclassifications of the languages in this language family, a key tool used in localising a language's place of origin. No definitive "Proto-Niger–Congo" lexicon or grammar has been developed for the language family as a whole. An important unresolved issue in determining the time and place where the Niger–Congo languages originated and their range prior to recorded history is this language family's relationship to the Kordofanian languages, now spoken in the Nuba mountains of Sudan, not contiguous with the remainder of the Niger–Congo-language-speaking region and is at the northeasternmost extent of the current Niger–Congo linguistic region; the current prevailing linguistic view is that Kordofanian languages are part of the Niger–Congo language family and that these may be the first of the many languages still spoken in that region to have been spoken in the region. The evidence is insufficient to determine if this outlier group of Niger–Congo language speakers represent a prehistoric range of a Niger–Congo linguistic region that has since contracted as other languages have intruded, or if instead, this represents a group of Niger–Congo language speakers who migrated to the area at some point in prehistory where they were an isolated linguistic community from the beginning.

There is more agreement regarding the place of origin of Benue–Congo, the largest subfamily of the group. Within Benue–Congo, the place of origin of the Bantu languages as well as time at which it started to expand is known with great specificity. Blench, relying on prior work by Kay Williamson and P. De Wolf, argued that Benue–Congo originated at the confluence of the Benue and Niger Rivers in central Nigeria; these estimates of the place of origin of the Benue-Congo language family do not fix a date for the start of that expansion, other than that it must have been sufficiently prior to the Bantu expansion to allow for the diversification of the languages within this language family that includes Bantu. The classification of the divergent family of the Ubangian languages, centred in the Central African Republic, as part of the Niger–Congo language family is disputed. Ubangian was grouped with Niger–Congo by Greenberg, authorities concurred, but it was questioned by Dimmendaal; the Bantu expansion, beginning around 1000 BC, swept across much of Central and Southern Africa, leading to the extinction of much of the indigenous Pygmy and Bushmen populations there.

The following is an overview of the language groups included in Niger–Congo. The genetic relationship of some branches is not universally accepted, the cladistic connection between those who are accepted as related may be unclear; the core phylum of the Niger–Congo group are the Atlantic–Congo languages. The non-Atlantic–Congo languages within Niger–Congo are grouped as Dogon, Ijo and Rashad. Atlantic–Congo combines the Atlantic languages, which do not form one branch, Volta–Congo, it comprises more than 80 % of the Niger -- close to 600 million people. The proposed Savannas group combines Adamawa and Gur. Outside of the Savannas group, Volta–Congo comprises Kru, Volta–Niger and Benue–Congo (or "East Be

Europa Editions UK

Europa Editions UK is an independent British publishing house. It was founded in 2011 by Sandro Ferri and Sandra Ozzola Ferri, the owners and publishers of the Italian press company Edizioni E/O. In a 2013 interview, Sandro Ferri said the company was "born with the intention to create bridges between cultures."Europa is directed by Eva Ferri and Christopher Potter while Daniela Petracco manages publicity and sales. Europa published Elena Ferrante's Neapolitan Novels from 2012 to 2015; the series was adapted into a two-part play by April De Angelis at the Rose Theatre, Kingston in March 2017. The first book in the series has been adapted into an HBO television series entitled My Brilliant Friend. Writers published by Europa include Andrea Camilleri, Négar Djavadi, Deborah Eisenberg, Dario Fo, Saleem Haddad, Jean-Claude Izzo, Amelie Nothomb, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Eric Emmanuel Schmitt. Europa entered the YA landscape with the publication of A Winter’s Promise by Christelle Dabos, translated from the French by Hildegarde Serle.

Tonga books was an innovative editorial enterprise undertaken by Europa Editions in collaboration with American author Alice Sebold, who acquired and edited four works of fiction published by Europa under the series name Tonga Books. In 2013, Europa launched its series of Europa World Noir. Publishers Weekly wrote that the series signaled Europa's “reaffirmed enthusiasm for noir.” Notable titles in the series include Gene Kerrigan's Gold Dagger Award-winning The Rage, Jean-Claude Izzo’s Total Chaos, which launched the Mediterranean Noir movement, the reissue of groundbreaking Scottish crime writer William McIlvanney’s Laidlaw books. Karin Brynard’s Weeping Waters was published by Europa's imprint World Noir in 2018, it has been shortlisted for 2019 prestigious Crime Writers’ Association International Dagger. Europa launched Europa Compass, a new nonfiction imprint featuring titles on travel, contemporary culture, popular science, history and politics. In 2019 the company moved its sales operation to become part of the Alliance, a global group of 15 publishers and their international partners who share a common vision of editorial excellence and original, diverse publishing alongside innovation in marketing and commercial success.

The sales service and administrative backup to the Alliance is provided by Faber. Europa UK titles are distributed in the Ireland by Grantham Book Services. Europa Editions Europa Editions UK Edizioni E/O

St. George's Golf and Country Club

St. George's Golf and Country Club is a golf course and country club located in Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada in the west end neighbourhood of Islington; the club was established in 1909 by Robert Home Smith from Stratford-upon-Avon, England who purchased the area of land, located on the banks of the Humber River. The club was built in co-ordination with the construction of the Royal York Hotel, being designed in downtown Toronto, with the plan being that the golf facilities would be necessary for the guests staying in the hotel. Leading the construction of the hotel was Sir Edward Wentworth Beatty, known to be acquainted with Smith. Leading construction of the golf course was Stanley Thompson, the leading Canadian golf course architect. At its Islington Avenue location, the course opened in 1929; the course, under the Royal York name, hosted the Canadian Open in 1933. However, in 1935 Smith died, his executor trustee Godfrey S. Pettit, became president of the club. In 1946 the name of the country club was changed from The Royal York Golf Club to St. George's Golf and Country Club as a result of the financial arrangement with the Canadian Pacific Railway ending.

The club has been rated several times in the top three of Canada and amongst the top 100 in the worldSt. George's has hosted the Canadian Open five times: 1933, won by Joe Kirkwood, Sr. 1949, won by Dutch Harrison 1960, won by Art Wall, Jr. 1968, won by Bob Charles 2010: won by Carl PetterssonThe course has been extended in length, to 7,025 yards, par 71, to attract more Canadian Open events. While the course is universally regarded as outstanding, issues of logistics and available space in a crowded neighbourhood make hosting a tournament of this magnitude somewhat problematic. Logistical steps taken to host the Open include closing the busy thoroughfare Islington Avenue before and during the tournament, using the nearby Islington Golf Club's practice facilities, shuttling the players back and forth to Islington Golf Club, limiting the number of spectators who can access the course, starting play for the first two rounds from the 1st and 9th tees. St. George's has been announced as the host for the Canadian Open in 2020 and 2024.

The club has hosted the Canadian Women's Open five times: 1975, 1978, 1980, 1982, 1984. The club runs a curling program during the winter months; the course was the host venue for golf of the 2017 Invictus Games. St. George's Golf and Country Club: Information Retrieved on July 18, 2007 St. George's Golf and Country Club official website Google Map - Aerial view


Whiteeeen is a Japanese vocal group, produced by senior vocal group Greeeen. Its members, who debuted in their teens, have their identities remain hidden. A live-action film adaptation of Strobe Edge was announced in the August 2014 issue of Bessatsu Margaret, in October, it announced that Greeeen's song, "Ai Uta", would be the theme song for the film, as the song was released in 2007 when Greeeen debuted, that it was relevant to the protagonist's mood. An audition was held for girls between 15 and 29 to record their own versions of the song and post it to Greeeen's official Line account. Among the contestants, 11 were selected and screened by Greeeen and their producer, JIN. 15-year-old Meri and Kana, 16-year-old Hima and 17-year-old Noa were chosen, that they were selected due to their "pure and transparent" sound rather than their vocal abilities. They debuted under the name "Whiteeeen", a portmanteau of "white" and "teen", with the four e's representing the number of members. Greeeen, who coined the name, hope that the four members would "never forget their pure and white moods" during their future musical activities, hence the "white" in their name.

Their cover of "Ai Uta" was re-titled "Ai Uta". The members' identities remain hidden, they did not attend public events, they released their second single, "Pocket", written by Greeeen, as the theme song to Nippon Animation's 40th anniversary film Sinbad: Sora Tobu Hime to Himitsu no Shima. In the same year, Whiteeeen recorded one of the songs for Soredemo Boku wa Kimi ga Suki, "Ano Koro ", a Japanese-language cover of Hu Xia's song "Those Years", the theme song for You Are the Apple of My Eye. On March 9, 2016, Whiteeeeen released their first mini-album, its cover featuring the backs of the members. On August 17, they released their third single, "Kiseki", used as the theme song to Aozora Yell. On December 14, they released Zero Koi. On October 31, 2017, Meri announced her graduation from the group, auditions were held for her replacement. In April 2018, Moca and Akagi were announced as new members, the group was renamed as "Whiteeeen2", they released their single, "Honey Toast" on June 6. On August 26, 2019, their official website announced the graduation of Hima and Kana.

Official website Public Website by Universal Music Japan

Prue Halliwell

Prudence "Prue" Halliwell is a fictional character from the American television series Charmed, played by Shannen Doherty from October 7, 1998 until May 17, 2001. The character was created by Constance M. Burge. Prue is introduced into the series as the eldest sister to Phoebe Halliwell, she is one of the first original featured leads and, more a Charmed One – one of the most powerful witches of all time. Prue possesses the power to move objects with her mind by chanelling telekinesis through her eyes; as the series progresses, she learns how to channel her telekinesis through her hands and gains the power of astral projection, the ability to be in two places at once. Prue develops martial arts skills and becomes an effective hand-to-hand fighter like Phoebe. Prue is portrayed as the oldest, strong, "kick-ass sister" and "leader of the group." During her three seasons on Charmed, she is regarded as the strongest and most powerful witch of the Halliwell sisters. Prue's storylines have revolved around her protecting innocents and defeating the forces of evil in San Francisco with her sisters, as well as leading a normal life as an appraiser for an auction house and as a professional photographer for a magazine company.

She has romantic relationships with her old high school flame Inspector Andy Trudeau in season one, fellow auction house employee Jack Sheridan in season two. In the third season, Prue is forced to marry the warlock Zile in a dark marriage ceremony, but their marriage soon ends after he is vanquished. In the season three finale "All Hell Breaks Loose", Prue is attacked by Shax, a powerful demonic assassin sent by The Source of All Evil, ending the season on a cliffhanger. After Doherty departed the series, this attack was revealed to be fatal, she was replaced in season four by Rose McGowan, who played the long-lost younger half-sister Paige Matthews. The character received a positive reception from television critics, who praised her strong persona and Doherty's performance. Doherty received two Saturn Award nominations in 1999 and 2000, for Best Actress on Television for her portrayal of Prue. In 2007, AOL TV ranked Prue at number nine on their list of the Top TV Witches. In addition to the television series, the character has appeared in numerous expanded universe material, such as the Charmed novels and its comic book adaptation.

In 1998, The WB began searching for a drama series, looked to Spelling Television, which had produced the network's most successful series 7th Heaven, to create it. Expanding on the popularity of supernatural-themed dramas, the production company explored forms of mythology to find mythological characters they could focus on with contemporary storytelling. In order to create the series, Constance M. Burge was hired as the creator as she was under contract with 20th Century Fox and Spelling Television after conceiving the drama Savannah; the character of Prue Halliwell was conceived by Burge. The pilot script was based around three mismatched sisters who are based on Burge and her two older sisters and Edie Burge. Prue is based on Burge's older sister Laura. On creating Prue, Burge stated "my older sister, Laura, is strong driven and so I attributed the characteristics that my sister Laura has to the character Prue." Executive producer Brad Kern claimed Prue was written into the series as "the older sister, the kick-ass sister.

She was the tough one. She was the most skeptical about the magic up top, but became the most powerful of." Doherty stated that the character "had a sense of responsibility that she felt towards her family and she was nurturing and maternal and giving". When the series was in its first development stages, executive producer Aaron Spelling had always known who he wanted for the role of Prue, Shannen Doherty, an actress from a previous Spelling Television series, Beverly Hills, 90210. Doherty devoted to the project pitched the idea to her best friend for the role of Piper Halliwell, former Picket Fences actress Holly Marie Combs. Doherty played the role of Prue in a 28-minute test pilot alongside Combs and actress Lori Rom who played the youngest sister Phoebe Halliwell. Rom quit the series and a new pilot was filmed with former Who's the Boss actress Alyssa Milano, who took over the role of Phoebe. In May 2001, it was announced that Doherty would be departing Charmed. Following the announcement, rumors circulated that the reason behind Doherty's departure was because of a feud with Milano.

Doherty told Entertainment Tonight that "there was too much drama on the set and not enough passion for the work", that there were never any problems between her and Combs. During an interview on Watch What Happens Live in 2013, Milano spoke about the rumored feud between her and Doherty, after a caller asked for the truth behind Doherty's departure. Milano said, "I don't know if she got fired, we never found out what happened. I can tell you that we were on the air with her for three years and there were some rough days. Holly and Shannen were best friends for like 10 years before the show started so it was much sort of like high school. I would hope that in our thirties it wouldn't feel like that anymore."The producers considered recasting the role of Prue with a different actress. Actresses Soleil Moon Frye, Irene Molloy and Denise Richards were rumored to be possible replacements. Spelling approached Tiffani Thiessen, who replaced Doherty on Beverly Hills, 90210, Jennifer Love Hewitt. However, both Thiessen and Hewitt decline

Pictures at an Exhibition

Pictures at an Exhibition is a suite of ten pieces composed for piano by Russian composer Modest Mussorgsky in 1874. The suite is Mussorgsky's most famous piano composition, has become a showpiece for virtuoso pianists, it has become further known through various orchestrations and arrangements produced by other musicians and composers, with Maurice Ravel's 1922 version for full symphony orchestra being by far the most recorded and performed. The composition is based on pictures by the artist and designer Viktor Hartmann, it was in 1868 that Mussorgsky first met Hartmann, not long after the latter's return to Russia from abroad. Both men were devoted to the cause of an intrinsically Russian art and became friends, they met in the home of the influential critic Vladimir Stasov, who followed both of their careers with interest. According to Stasov's testimony, in 1868, Hartmann gave Mussorgsky two of the pictures that formed the basis of Pictures at an Exhibition. In 1870, Mussorgsky dedicated the second song of the cycle The Nursery to Hartmann.

Stasov remarked that Hartmann loved Mussorgsky's compositions, liked the "Scene by the Fountain" in his opera Boris Godunov. Mussorgsky abandoned the scene in his original 1869 version, but at the requests of Stasov and Hartmann, he reworked it for Act 3 in his revision of 1872; the years 1873–74 are associated with the staging of Boris Godunov, the zenith of Mussorgsky's career as a composer—at least from the standpoint of public acclaim. Mussorgsky's distant relative and roommate during this period, Arseniy Golenishchev-Kutuzov, describing the January 1874 premiere of the opera, remarked: "During the winter, there were, I think, nine performances, each time the theatre was sold out, each time the public tumultuously called for Mussorgsky." The composer's triumph was overshadowed, however, by the critical drubbing. Other circumstances conspired to dampen Mussorgsky's spirits; the disintegration of The Mighty Handful and their failure to understand his artistic goals contributed to the isolation he experienced as an outsider in Saint Petersburg's musical establishment.

Golenishchev-Kutuzov wrote: " banner was held by Mussorgsky alone. The loss of the artist, aged only 39, plunged the composer into deep despair. Stasov helped to organize a memorial exhibition of over 400 Hartmann works in the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg in February and March 1874. Mussorgsky lent to the exhibition the two pictures Hartmann had given him, viewed the show in person. In June, two-thirds of the way through composing his song cycle, Mussorgsky was inspired to compose Pictures at an Exhibition completing the score in three weeks. In a letter to Stasov written on 12 June 1874, he describes his progress: My dear généralissime, Hartmann is boiling as Boris boiled—sounds and ideas hung in the air, I am gulping and overeating, can manage to scribble them on paper. I am writing the 4th No.—the transitions are good. I want to work more and steadily. My physiognomy can be seen in the interludes. So far I think it's well turned... The music depicts his tour of the exhibition, with each of the ten numbers of the suite serving as a musical illustration of an individual work by Hartmann.

Five days after finishing the composition, he wrote on the title page of the manuscript a tribute to Vladimir Stasov, to whom the work is dedicated. One month he added an indication that he intended to have it published. Golenishchev-Kutuzov gives the following account of the work's reception among Mussorgsky's friends and colleagues and an explanation for his failure to follow through on his plans to publish it: Soon, with the composition of the musical illustrations for Pictures from an Exhibition by the architect Hartmann, he reached the acme of that musical radicalism, to whose'new shores' and to whose'unfathomed depths' the admirers of his'Peepshows' and'Savishnas' had pushed him so diligently. In music for these illustrations, as Mussorgsky called them, he represented, Baba Yaga in her wooden house on chicken legs, catacombs and rattling carts. All this was not done jokingly, but'seriously'. There was no end to the enthusiasm shown by his devotees. Mussorgsky noticed their bewilderment and seemed to feel that he'had gone too far.'

He set the illustrations aside without trying to publish them. Mussorgsky devoted himself to Khovanshchina. In August, Mussorgsky completed the last two songs of Sunless and resumed work on Khovanshchina, composing the prelude to Act 1 in September; as with most of Mussorgsky's works, Pictures at an Exhibition has a complicated publication history. Although composed rapidly, during June 1874, the work did not appear in print until 1886, five years after the composer's death, when an edition by the composer's friend and colleague Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov was published; this edition, was not a accurate representation of Mussorgsky's score but