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Nigerian Armed Forces

The Nigerian Armed Forces are the Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Its origins lie in the elements of the Royal West African Frontier Force that became Nigerian when independence was granted in 1960. In 1956 the Nigeria Regiment of the Royal West African Frontier Force was renamed the Nigerian Military Forces, RWAFF, in April 1958 the colonial government of Nigeria took over from the British War Office control of the Nigerian Military Forces. Since its creation the Nigerian military has fought in a civil war – the conflict with Biafra in 1967–70 – and sent peacekeeping forces abroad both with the United Nations and as the backbone of the Economic Community of West African States Cease-fire Monitoring Group in Liberia and Sierra Leone, it has seized power twice at home. In the aftermath of the civil war, the much expanded size of the military, around 250,000 in 1977, consumed a large part of Nigeria’s resources under military rule for little productive return; the great expansion of the military during the civil war further entrenched the existing military hold on Nigerian society carried over from the first military regime.

In doing so, it played an appreciable part in reinforcing the military’s nearly first-among-equals status within Nigerian society, the linked decline in military effectiveness. Olusegun Obasanjo, who by 1999 had become President, bemoaned the fact in his inaugural address that year: ‘... Professionalism has been lost... my heart bleeds to see the degradation in the proficiency of the military.’Training establishments in Nigeria include the prestigious officer entry Nigerian Defence Academy at Kaduna, the Armed Forces Command and Staff College and the National War College at Abuja. The U. S. commercial military contractor Military Professional Resources Inc. has been involved from around 1999–2000 in advising on civil-military relations for the armed forces. The roles of a country’s armed forces are entrenched in her Constitution; the defence of the territorial integrity and other core interests of the nation form the major substance of such roles. Section 217-220 of the 1999 Constitution of Nigeria addresses the Nigerian Armed Forces: There shall be an armed forces for the Federation which shall consist of an army, a navy, an air force, such other branches of the armed forces of the Federation as may be established by an Act of the National Assembly.

The Federation shall, subject to an Act of the National Assembly made in that behalf and maintain the armed forces as may be considered adequate and effective for the purpose of – defending Nigeria from external aggression. Perform such other functions as may be prescribed by an act of the National Assembly; the composition of the officer corps and other ranks of the armed forces of the Federation shall reflect the federal character of Nigeria. The Nigerian Army is the land branch of the Nigerian Armed Forces and the largest among the armed forces. Major formations include the 1st Division, the 2nd Division, the 3rd Armoured Division, 81st Division, 82nd Division, newly formed 8th, 7th and 6th, Divisions; the Nigerian Navy is the sea branch of the Nigerian Armed Forces. The Nigerian Navy command structure today consists of the Naval Headquarters in Abuja, three operational commands with headquarters in Lagos and Bayelsa. Training command's headquarters are located in Lagos, the commercial capital of Nigeria, but with training facilities spread all over Nigeria.

There are five operational bases, five forward operational bases, two dockyards located in Lagos and Port Harcourt and two fleets based in Lagos and Calabar. The Nigerian Air Force was formally established in January 1964 with technical assistance from West Germany; the air force started life as a transport unit with aircrew being trained in Canada and Pakistan. The air force did not get a combat capability until a number of MiG-17 aircraft were presented by the Soviet Union in 1966. In 2007 the Air Force had a strength of 10,000, it flies transport, trainer and fighter aircraft. The Air Force sponsors the Air Force Military School, Jos and the Air Force Institute of Technology. Nigeria has pursued a policy of developing domestic training and military production capabilities. Nigeria has continued a strict policy of diversification in her military procurement from various countries. There is a Joint Task Force in the Niger Delta region designated "Restore Hope." This is an inter service Operational Team comprising members of the Army, the Navy, the Air Force to combat terrorism in the Niger Delta.

JTF HQ is located at Yenagoa. In December 1983, the new Major General Muhammadu Buhari regime announced that Nigeria could no longer afford an activist anti-colonial role in Africa. Anglophone ECOWAS members established ECOMOG, dominated by the Nigerian Army, in 1990 to intervene in the civil war in Liberia; the Army has demonstrated its capability to mobilize and sustain brigade-sized forces in support of peacekeeping operations in Liberia. Smaller army forces have been sent on UN and ECOWAS deployments in the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda and Sierra Leone; this doctrine of African military intervention by Nigeria is sometimes called Pax Nigeriana. That policy statement did not deter Nigeria under Generals Ibrahim Babangida in 1990 and Sani Abacha in 1997 from sending ECOMOG peacekeeping forces under the auspices of ECOWAS i

ČD Class 749

The ČD 749 class is a diesel electric locomotive, created through refurbishment of classes 751 and 752. Following the move away from steam haulage on Czechoslovak railways, it was decided that heating of passenger cars would move from steam heat, where steam from a boiler is piped through the train, to electric train heat. To convert the locomotives to the 749 class, the steam boiler was removed, replaced with an alternator to provide electric train supply for heating; this process took place with the locomotives of the ČD Class 753, which were converted to the 750 class. The prototype for the conversion took place in 1992, with locomotive 751 039 being converted, with a second locomotive being converted in 1993. Following these two, 60 locomotives were converted, with the process being carried out until 1996; the final locomotive was additionally modified with a new electrical control system. The locomotives chosen to be converted were selected from all production series, therefore the new numbers do not form a continuous series.

After 2005 the locomotives were used in freight transport to replace the aging unrebuilt 751 and 753 classes, due to increasing electrification rendering the diesel locomotives obsolete. In 2007, several locomotives were transferred to ČD Cargo, following the separation from České dráhy. Today the remaining freight locomotives are based around České Budějovice, where they are used when freight trains are diverted away from the wires. At České dráhy several locomotives are still operational at Prague's Vršovice depot, working weekend services to Čerčany. Class 749 is four axle locomotive; the prime mover is a ČKD K 6 S 310 DR, a four stroke, six cylinder diesel engine, fitted with a PDH 50 V turbocharger. All four axles are fitted with DC traction motors, manufactured by ČKD


RM, rm, or R&M may refer to: Random map, a randomly generated map in strategy games RauteMusik. FM, a German Internet Radio Station The RM, a movie Running Man, a Korean variety show RM, born Kim Nam-joon, a South Korean rapper RM, a clothing line designed by Roland Mouret RM Auctions, a classic car auction company Reichle & De-Massari, a Swiss family business specializing in information and communications technology RM plc a British company specialising in providing products and services to educational organizations and establishments Malaysian ringgit, the currency of Malaysia Reichsmark, the historical currency of the Weimar Republic and the 3rd Reich Rapid manufacturing, computer automated additive manufacturing of end-use products Records Management, an information archiving practice Relationship Marketing, in marketing jargon Risk management and prioritization of business risks Récoltant-Manipulant, a Champagne producer that bottles under its own label Regia Marina, the Italian Navy prior to 1946 Royal Marines, the United Kingdom's amphibious forces RM postal area, the UK postcode area for Romford Republic of Macedonia, sovereign state in Europe Madagascar, in the 1949 and 1968 UN Conventions on Road Traffic Marshall Islands in the FIPS 10-4 standard for country codes, used by the U.

S. Government for geographical data processing Moldova Romania Province of Rome, Italy Rural municipality, a type of municipality in the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan Santiago Metropolitan Region of Chile Range of motion, or range of movement, the distance a joint can move between the flexed and extended positions Recurrent miscarriage, referring to multiple consecutive miscarriages Regenerative medicine, the process of replacing or regenerating human cells, tissues or organs to restore or establish normal function Respiratory mechanics, the branch of human physiology focusing upon the bio-mechanics of respiration Rhabdomyolysis, a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle tissue breaks down leading to kidney failure Rhesus monkey, a species of Old World monkey native to South and Southeast Asia Routine and microscopy, or urinalysis, an array of tests performed on urine rm, a Unix command for the removal of files RealMedia, a data format provided by RealNetworks Relational Model, a database model based on predicate logic and set theory Reset Mode, an ANSI X3.64 escape sequence Resource Management, a service in Asynchronous Transfer Mode networks Reuters Messaging, an instant messenger application AEC Routemaster, the traditional London bus SJ Rm, a Swedish locomotive Rail Motor, a self-propelled rail car.

Faraday rotation measure, in astrophysics Relative migration, in gel electrophoresis Magnetic Reynolds number, a ratio used in magnetohydrodynamics Molière radius, in high energy physics One rep maximum, or 1RM, a weight training term Real Madrid C. F. A Spanish football club Radioman, a former rate of the U. S. Navy Registered Midwife, a registered or certified professional midwife Reiki Master, one level of the three-tiered hierarchy of Reiki Resident magistrate Returned Missionary, a young Mormon who have served as a missionary Récoltant-Manipulant, Champagne made by the winegrower rather than a combination of multiple Champagne producers Ranch to Market Road, a type of secondary state highway in Texas signposted as RM Reasoning Mind, a non-profit K-12 math initiative Romansh language of Switzerland Rosmah Mansor, "First Lady" of Malaysia, wife to Dato' Seri Najib Razak, Malaysia Prime Minister Richard Montgomery High School, in Rockville, Maryland Research Memo, a type of Congressional Research Service Report Race Modification, a gameplay feature in the Gran Turismo series of video games

Edwin R. Heath

Edwin Ruthven Heath was an American physician and explorer. He is best known for his exploration and mapping of the rivers of the Madre de Dios region in Peru and Bolivia; the Heath River on the Peru/Bolivia border and Puerto Heath, Bolivia bear his name. Edwin Heath was born on July 1839 in Janesville, Wisconsin, his parents and Madelia Heath, had come from Vermont. As a young boy he traveled with his parents to Sacramento, California during the California Gold Rush, his father was a doctor. Edwin became an orphan when his father died of that disease in 1850, his mother passed away in 1851, he returned to Wisconsin in 1853 via Nicaragua, was said to have protected himself on the journey with two six-shooters and a Bowie knife. With the help of his guardian, J. F. Willard, Heath attended Beloit College, graduating in 1861, he studied homeopathic medicine in New York and had a practice in Palmyra, New York until 1866. In 1866 he moved to Wyandotte and worked with cholera patients in the railroad camps of Ellsworth.

Heath met politician Joseph Pomeroy Root in Kansas. When Root went to South America in 1869 as American Minister to Chile, Heath accompanied him as secretary of the delegation. In Chile he met railway builder Henry Meiggs, who appointed Heath to supervise the construction of the Pacasmayo Railway. Heath returned to the United States in 1878, following Meiggs’ death and the takeover of the railway by the government of Chile. Professor James Orton of Vassar College undertook to explore the length of the Beni River in 1876, but was unsuccessful. Heath decided to complete that journey, began to travel up the Amazon via canoe in 1879. After 1500 miles he encountered a railway camp filled with workers ill with yellow fever, he remained there for seven months. On reaching Reyes, Bolivia, he spent a year planning the Beni expedition. During that time he sent herpetological samples back to the U. S.. Heath mapped the entire 1200 mile length of the Beni, traveling by canoe accompanied by two local guides. Heath returned to Kansas in 1882, working as a doctor in Wyandotte and in Kansas City.

He was named an Honorary Member of the Royal Geographical Society in 1883, was active in the American Geographical Society and the National Geographic Society. He participated in the 1916 talks of the League to Enforce Peace, served as Kansas City Counsel for Nicaragua and Bolivia, he died in Kansas City, Missouri on October 27, 1932 at the age of 93, is buried in Elmwood Cemetery

Georg Vierling

Georg Vierling was a German musician and composer. He is noted for modernizing the secular oratorio form. Georg Vierling was born in Frankenthal, studied music with Christian Heinrich Rinck in Darmstadt and composer Adolf Bernhard Marx in Berlin. In 1847 he became an organist in Frankfurt, director of the Singing Academy and in 1852 director of the Song Board in Mainz. In 1853 Vierling founded the Bach Verein in Berlin, in 1859 he became Director of Music at the Royal Academy of the Arts in Berlin. In 1883 he became a member of the Prussian Academy of Arts, he died in Wiesbaden. After his death, memorial performances of his cantatas were held in Stuttgart. Notable students include George Lichtenstein. Vierling's compositions include songs and choral works and organ works and one symphony. Selected works include: Hero and Leander The robbery of the Sabinerinnen Constantin Alarich The gentleman instructed his angels Sturm Maria Stuart Im Frühling Hermannsschlacht Tragic Overture String Quartet in A majorVierling wrote the libretti for a cantata of Max Bruch.

Works by or about Georg Vierling at Internet Archive Free scores by Georg Vierling at the International Music Score Library Project


Bixi, or Bi Xi, is a figure from Chinese mythology. One of the 9 sons of the Dragon King, he is depicted as a dragon with the shell of a turtle. Stone sculptures of Bixi have been used in Chinese culture for centuries as a decorative plinth for commemorative steles and tablets in the funerary complexes of its emperors and to commemorate important events, such as an imperial visit or the anniversary of a World War II victory, they are used at the bases of bridges and archways. Sculptures of Bixi are traditionally rubbed for good luck, they can be found throughout East Asia in Japan, Vietnam and the Russian Far East. The tradition of tortoise-mounted stelae originated no than early 3rd century. According to the 1957 survey by Chêng Tê-k'un, the earliest extant tortoise-borne stele is thought to be the one at the tomb of Fan Min, in Lushan County, Ya'an, Sichuan. Victor Segalen had earlier identified the stele as a Han dynasty monument; the stele has a rounded top with a dragon design in low relief - a precursor to the "two intertwined dragons" design, common on such steles in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, over a thousand years later.

In the collection of the Nanjing Museum there is a hunping funerary jar, dating to 272 AD, with a miniature architectural composition on top, among other objects, a tortoise carrying a stele erected by the Jin dynasty governor of Changsha in honor of a local dignitary. The best known extant early example of the genre is the set of four stele-bearing tortoises at the mausoleum of Xiao Xiu, the younger brother of the first Liang dynasty emperor Wu, near Nanjing; the bixi tradition flourished during the Qing dynasties. The Ming founder, the Hongwu Emperor, in the first year after the dynasty had been proclaimed, adopted regulations, allowing tortoise-based funerary tablets to the higher ranks of the nobility and the mandarinate, he tightened the rules in 1396, leaving only the highest nobility and the officials of the top 3 ranks eligible for bixi-based stelae. The type of dragons crowning the tortoise-born stele, the type and number of other statuary at the tomb site, were prescribed by the same regulations as well.

At the Hongwu Emperor's own mausoleum, a huge bixi holding the so-called Shengde stele welcomes visitors at the Sifangcheng pavilion at the entrance of the mausoleum complex. Three centuries the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty visited Nanjing and contributed another tortoise, with a stele praising the founder of the Ming, comparing him to the founders of the great Tang and Song dynasties of the past; the Hongwu Emperor's tortoise tradition was continued by the Ming and Qing emperors, whose mausoleums are decorated by bixi-born steles as well. The self-declared emperor Yuan Shikai was posthumously honored with a bixi-based stele in Anyang, as was the Republic of China Premier Tan Yankai, whose stele near Nanjing's Linggu Temple had its inscription erased after the Communist Revolution. A foreign head of state was honored with a bixi as well, as it happened to the sultan of Brunei Abdul Majid Hassan, who died during his visit to China in 1408; the sultan's grave, with a suitably royal bixi-based monument, was discovered in Yuhuatai District south of Nanjing in 1958.

After an ancient Christian stele was unearthed in Xi'an in 1625, it, was put on the back of a tortoise. In 1907, this so-called Nestorian Stele was moved to the Stele Forest Museum along with its tortoise; these days, long-lost bixi continue to be unearthed during archaeological excavations and construction work. Among the most remarkable finds is the discovery of a huge 1200-year-old in Zhengding in June 2006; the stone turtle is 8.4 m long, 3.2 m wide, 2.6 m tall, weighs 107 tons. It has since been moved to Zhengding's Kaiyuan Temple; the concept of a tortoise-borne, dragon-crowned stele was early adopted by China's northern neighbors. The earliest extant monument of the Turkic Kaganate - the so-called "Bugut Stele" of the late 6th century from Arkhangai Province in western Mongolia with a Sogdian and Sanskrit inscription was installed on a stone tortoise, it is now in Tsetserleg. According to the Turkish researcher Cengiz Alyilmaz, it was the design of this stele that influenced the builders of the important 8th-century stelae with Old Turkic inscriptions, many of which stood on tortoises.

Among them, the most accessible one is Bayanchur Khan's's Terhin-Gol stele, now in the Mongolian Academy of Sciences in Ulan Bator. The Jurchen Jin dynasty and the Mongol Yuan dynasty erected tortoise-based monuments as well, some of which have been preserved in Russia's Ussuriysk and Mongolia's Karakorum. In Japan, this form of tortoise-supported stele is found at the graves of prominent Kamakura period figures in the city of Kamakura. Another large collection of tortoise-borne stelae, spanning 17th through 19th centuries, can be seen at the cemetery of the Tottori Domain daimyō outside Tottori. Otherwise, the form does not seem to have been popular in earlier or times. In Korea, tortoise-borne stelae are known during the Three Kingdoms of Korea period. Monuments of this type have been preserved from the Goryeo dynasty as well, such as the Stele of Bongseon Honggyeongsa. Vietnam has a long tradition of tortoise-born stelae, where they commemorate emperor Lê Lợi