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2016 Cook Islands Census

The 2016 Cook Islands Census took place on December 1 2016. The population of the Cook Islands was counted as 17,434 – a decrease of 360 from the 2011 census. Population counts for the inhabited Islands of the Cook Islands. All figures are for the total population count; the resident population count was 14,802. Total population count was 17,434, down 360 from the 2011 Census. There are 8,520 males in the Cook Islands and 8,914 females; the largest ethnic groups in 2016 were 78.2% Cook Islands Māori, 7.6% part Cook Islands Māori, 14.2% other ethnic groups. Data is for the census usually-resident population count; the largest religion in the Cook Islands is the Cook Islands Christian Church with 48.8% of the population identifying with that religion in 2016. Data is for the census usually-resident population count

Al-Khaṣībī

Abu ʿAbd-Allāh al-Ḥusayn ibn Ḥamdān al-Jonbalānī al-Khaṣībī known as al-Khaṣībī was from a village called Jonbalā, between Kufa and Wasit in Iraq, the center of the Qarmatians. He was a member of a well-educated family with close ties to eleventh Twelver Imam Hasan al‐Askari and a scholar of the Islamic sect known as the Alawites or Nusayris, now present in Syria, Southern Turkey and Northern Lebanon. For a time, al-Khaṣībī was imprisoned in Baghdad, due to accusations of being a Qarmatian. According to the Alawites, after settling in Aleppo, under the rule of the Shia Hamdanid dynasty, he gained the support and aid of its ruler, Sayf al-Dawla, in spreading his teachings, he dedicated his book Kitab al‐Hidaya al‐Kubra to his patron. He died in Aleppo and his tomb, which became a holy shrine, is inscribed with the name Shaykh Yabraq, he taught several unique beliefs. One such belief was that Jesus was every one of the prophets from Adam to Muhammad, as well as other figures such as Socrates and some ancestors of Muhammad.

Other historical figures were the incarnations of Ali and Salman al‐Farisi. He and his works were praised by the influential Iranian Shiʿite scholar Muhammad Baqir Majlisi. Al-Khasibi's first exposure to the teachings of Ibn Nusayr was through ʿAbdallāh al-Jannān, a student of Muḥammad ibn Jundab, a student of Nusayr himself. Having been initiated into the doctrine through al-Jannān, Khasibi was now al-Jannān's "spiritual son". With the death of al-Jannān, however, al-Khasibi had no means of continuing practice and study of the doctrine; this period of dryness ended when he encountered an ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad, who claimed to be a direct disciple of Nusayr. In this manner, al-Khasibi received transmission from both al-Jannān and ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad, thus continuing transmission of the Nusayri doctrine. Khasibi did not believe he was representative of a splinter, rebel group of the Shias, but rather believed he held the true doctrine of the Shias. During his reign, the founder of the Alawite sect, al-Khasibi, benefited from Sayf al-Dawla's patronage.

Al-Khasibi turned Aleppo into the stable centre of his new sect, sent preachers from there as far as Persia and Egypt with his teachings. His main theological work, Kitab al-Hidaya al-Kubra, was dedicated to his Hamdanid patron. Sayf al-Dawla's active promotion of Shi'ism began a process whereby Syria came to host a large Shi'a population by the 12th century. Ibn Nusayr Encyclopædia Iranica, ḴAṢIBI

Qarapapaqs

The Qarapapaqs or Karapapaks are a Turkic sub-ethnic group of Azerbaijanis who live in Azerbaijan, Georgia, in the northeast of Turkey near the border with Georgia and Armenia in the provinces of Ardahan, Kars and Ağri. The exact number for the Qarapapaq population worldwide is unknown but is to be in the hundred thousands. Sometimes referred to as Terekeme or Tarakama (from Arabic: "تراكمة", the Arabic broken plural for Turkmen—a term traditionally used for any Turkic nomadic people, Qarapapaqs are identified as a sub-ethnic group of Azerbaijanis though in the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary they are sometimes listed as a separate ethnic group. Theories of Qarapapaqs descending from Kumyks have been brought forward by scholars like Fahrettin Kırzıoğlu and Zeki Velidi Togan; the Terekeme populated territories in what is now southern Georgia, northwestern Armenia, southern Dagestan, central and northwestern Azerbaijan, but entirely migrated to Persia and the Ottoman Empire upon Russia's conquest of Persia's territories in the North Caucasus and South Caucasus between 1813 and 1828 during the Russo-Persian War and the Russo-Persian War.

Here they were given the name Karapapakh by the Anatolians reflecting the element of the Terekeme ethnic outfit that distinguished them from the local population. Russia's expansion to Kars in 1878 as a result of the Russo-Turkish War led to some Qarapapaq settlements becoming part of Russia once again. With the Russian Revolution and Soviet expansion south in late 1910s and 1920s, Qarapapaqs became a new nationality group in Soviet Union. Late in 1930s, the Soviet Union stopped classifying Qarapapaqs as a separate people and in 1944, they were included in the mass deportation of Meskhetian Turks from Georgia to Central Asia. Though the Qarapapaqs left in the Caucasus had assumed Azeri identity by the mid-20th century and despite lack of record of Qarapapaqs in modern censuses of the South Caucasus states, nowadays small groups may still identify themselves as Qarapapaq or Terekeme in the regions inhabited by them. Qarapapaqs are found in Central Asia where many of them were deported along with the Meskhetian Turks in 1944 during the Stalinist population transfers.

The last census to mention Qarapapaqs as a separate ethnic group was the 1926 Soviet census, according to which there were 6,311 of them throughout the South Caucasus. Qarapapaqs speak a dialect of Azerbaijani. Most Qarapapaqs are Sunni Muslims, but some of them are Shia of the Twelvers school of thought. In the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary, those identifying with the Caferi strand are listed as Turkmen. Qarapapaqs have developed rich traditions of oral literature consisting of ashik songs and folk tales. Ayrums Azerbaijanis in Turkey Iranian Azerbaijanis Meskhetian Turks Peoples of the Caucasus in Iran Qajar dynasty#Migration of Caucasian Muslims

Oscar Slater

Oscar Joseph Slater was a victim of a Scottish miscarriage of justice. Wrongly convicted of murder and sentenced to death, he was freed after two decades of hard labour through the efforts of multiple journalists and writers, including Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, he was born Oscar Leschziner in Upper Silesia, Germany to a Jewish family. Around 1893, to evade military service, he moved to London, where he worked as a bookmaker using various names, including Anderson, before settling on Slater for official purposes, he was prosecuted for malicious wounding in 1896 and assault in 1897 but was acquitted in both cases. In 1899 he by 1901 was living in Glasgow, he claimed to be a gymnastics instructor, a dentist, a dealer in precious stones but was known to police as a pimp and gangster who associated with thieves and receivers of stolen goods. In December 1908 Marion Gilchrist, a spinster aged 83 years, was beaten to death in a robbery at West Princes Street, after her maid had popped out for ten minutes.

Although she had jewellery worth £3,000 hidden in her wardrobe, the robber was disturbed by a neighbour and took only a brooch. Slater had left for New York five days after the murder and came under suspicion as, before the murder, a caller to Gilchrist's house had been looking for someone called "Anderson", Slater had been seen trying to sell a pawn ticket for a brooch; the police soon realised that the pawn ticket was a false lead but still applied for Slater's extradition. Slater was advised that the application would fail anyway but, in any case, decided to return voluntarily to Scotland. At his trial presided over by Lord Guthrie, whose summing up was prejudicial, defence witnesses provided Slater with an alibi and confirmed that he had announced his visit to America long before the murder, he was convicted by a majority of nine to six. In May 1909 he was sentenced to the execution to take place before the end of the month. However, Slater's lawyers organised a petition, signed by 20,000 people, the Secretary of State for Scotland, Lord Pentland, issued a conditional pardon and commuted the sentence to life imprisonment.

Slater was to serve nineteen years at Peterhead Prison. The following year the Scottish lawyer and amateur criminologist William Roughead published his Trial of Oscar Slater, highlighting flaws in the prosecution; the circumstantial evidence against Slater included his "flight from justice". The identification evidence was fleeting and otherwise unreliable, tainted, or coached. In particular, Slater was conspicuously contrasted with nine off-duty policemen in his identification parade. Roughead's book convinced many of Slater's innocence. In 1912, Conan Doyle published The Case of a plea for a full pardon for Slater. In 1914 Thomas MacKinnon Wood ordered a Private Inquiry into the case. A detective in the case, John Thomson Trench, provided information, concealed from the trial by the police; the Inquiry found that the conviction was sound and instead Trench was dismissed from the force and prosecuted on trumped-up charges from which he was acquitted. 1927 saw the publication of The Truth about Oscar Slater by William Park.

The contents of the book led the Solicitor General for Scotland, Alexander Munro MacRobert, to conclude that it was no longer proven that Slater was guilty. An Act was passed to extend the Jurisdiction of the established Scottish Court of Criminal Appeal to convictions before the original shut-off date of 1926. Slater's conviction was quashed in July 1928 on the grounds that the judge had not directed the jury about the irrelevance of Slater's previous character. Slater received £6,000 in compensation. Detective-Lieutenant Trench died in 1919, aged fifty, never lived to see justice done. In the 1930s Slater married a local Scottish woman of German descent thirty years his junior and settled in the seaside town of Ayr where he repaired and sold antiques; as an enemy alien and his wife were interned for a brief time at the start of World War II, though Slater had long since lost his German citizenship and never returned to Germany. Most of Slater's surviving family, including two sisters, died in the Holocaust.

He died in Ayr in 1948 of natural causes. The lessons of the Slater miscarriage were considered as late as 1976 by the Devlin Committee review on the limitations of identity parades. More the Slater case has been revisited by several scholars and writers. In Glasgow rhyming slang See you "Oscar" rhymes Slater with later. List of miscarriage of justice cases Conan Doyle, The Case of Oscar Slater, available at Project Gutenberg Margalit Fox, Conan Doyle for the Defense: The True Story of a Sensational British Murder, a Quest for Justice, the World's Most Famous Detective Writer, Random House ISBN 9780399589454 William Park, The Truth About Oscar Slater William Roughead, Trial of Oscar Slater, available at the Internet Archive Media related to The Case of Oscar Slater at Wikimedia Commons 100th Anniversary of a Notorious Glasgow Murder Forensic Medicine Archives Project – University of Glasgow The Case of Oscar Slater The Chronicles of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle The Oscar Slater scandal exposed The Trials of Oscar Slater on IMDb

Barbara Grace Tucker

Barbara Grace Tucker is an Australian born peace activist. She is a native of the Melbourne suburb of Glen Waverley and travelled before settling in Britain in the early 1980s, she joined the London Parliament Square Peace Campaign of Brian Haw in December 2005. This round-the-clock campaign had been initiated by Haw in June 2001 to protest the sanctions against Iraq which had devastated Iraqi society and had, according to UNICEF, killed some 500,000 children. In the seven years or so since Tucker's arrival she has been arrested 47 times–usually on charges of "unauthorised demonstration". In 2008 she served two weeks in prison for breach of police bail, in 2011 she served a nine-week prison sentence in Holloway Prison. Since January 2012 she was denied a tent, blankets or sleeping bag and slept in a chair, until that too was confiscated. Tucker has spent some time on an intravenous drip. In January 2013 Tucker started a hunger strike after protesting in the square for a total of eight years, she and her supporters vowed to continue their demonstration, did so until in 2013.

List of peace activists Brian & Co. Parliament Square SW1 Letters from Parliament Square