Japanese bush warbler
The Japanese bush warbler, known in Japanese as uguisu, is an Asian passerine bird more heard than seen. Its distinctive breeding call can be heard throughout much of Japan from the start of spring; the bird is secretive. It is only seen in spring before there is foliage in the trees. In winter the call is a low chirping; the Japanese bush warbler tends to remain deep in the shadow of foliage during the day. The Japanese bush warbler is olive tending toward dusky colors below, it has pale eyebrows. It has a beak; the bird is 15.5 centimetres in length. They are omnivore but they eat little insect and spiders during summer and they eat seeds and nuts during winter; the reproductive season is the beginning of summer and males make territories and sing "Ho-hokekyo" for 1000 times a day. This bird tends to have polygamy relationships. Since the male tweets "Ho-hokekyyo", females are attracted to that. Form a side-hole type pot-shaped nest, lay 4-6 eggs, females raise their baby; the Japanese bush warbler is a common year-round resident throughout Japan and the northern Philippines.
In summer the Japanese bush warbler can be found in Hokkaidō, Manchuria and central China. In winter, the bush-warbler can be found in southern China and Taiwan, it was introduced to Oahu in Hawaii between 1929–1941 and have since spread to other South Eastern islands of the Hawaiian chain. In summer it ranges from low hills to high mountains, preferring bamboo thickets and black pine trees. In winter it seeks cover at lower elevations; the propensity of the Japanese bush warbler to sing has led to the birds being kept as cage birds. Robert Young records that to encourage singing the cages of kept birds were covered with a wooden box with a small paper window that allowed only subdued light in. Along with the return of the barn swallow the bush warbler's call is viewed by Japanese as a herald of springtime, it is one of the favorite motifs of Japanese poetry, featured in many poems including those in Man'yōshū or Kokin Wakashū. In haiku and renga, uguisu is one of the kigo. In poetry the bird is associated with the ume blossom, appears with ume on hanafuda playing cards.
There is a popular Japanese sweet named Uguisu-boru which consists of brown and white balls meant to resemble ume flower buds. However, the distinctive song is not heard until in spring, well after the ume blossoms have faded. In haiku the bird with this song is known as sasako, the song is called sasanaki; the beauty of its song led to the English name Japanese Nightingale, although the Japanese bush warbler does not sing at night as the European nightingale does. This name is no longer used. An uguisu-jō is a female announcer at Japanese baseball games, or a woman employed to advertise products and sales with a microphone outside retail stores; these women are employed because of their beautiful'warbling' voices. They are employed to make public announcements for politicians in the lead-up to elections. In Japanese architecture there is a type of floor known as "uguisubari", translated into English as "nightingale floor"; these floors have squeaking floorboards that resemble the Japanese bush warbler's low chirping, are meant to be so designed to warn sleepers of the approach of ninja.
Examples can be seen at Nijō Castle and Chion-in temple in Kyoto. The nightingale's droppings contain an enzyme, used for a long time as a skin whitening agent and to remove fine wrinkles, it is sometimes sold as "uguisu powder". The droppings are used to remove stains from kimono. Pi pi pi... kekyo kekyo Hooo- hoke'kyo Hoohokekyo. Young Japanese bush warblers do not perform the "hoohokekyo" song skillfully, but learn to sing by imitating others in the vicinity. Hooo- hokekyo, hooo- hokekyo; the songs of two Japanese bush warblers are recorded here on a single file. Hamao, S. and M. Hayama, 2015. Breeding ecology of the Japanese Bush Warbler in the Ogasawara Islands. Ornithological Science, 14: 111-115. Hamao S Ippu-tasai no tori: Uguisu. Bun-ichi Sogo Shuppan, Tokyo. Japanese bush-warbler, Mike Danzenbaker's bird photo website
Kawamata is a town in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 May 2018, the town had an estimated population of 13,532 in 5417 households, a population density of 110 persons per km²; the total area of the town was 127.7 square kilometres. Kawamata is known for its production of silk products. In the late 6th century, Ōtomo no Koteko known as Otehime, came to this area. According to tradition, she is honored for having encouraged silk farming in the area; the town is known for the raising of shamo, a special breed of game bird similar to chicken. Shamo ramen is a local speciality. Kawamata's main annual event is the Cosquín en Japón festival, a three-day celebration of traditional Argentinian music and dance, held each year in October; the geographic area of Kawamata is 10 km east-to-west and 20 km north-to-south. It has an altitude of 201.2 m as measured at the site of the municipal office. Kawamata is located at the confluence of two local rivers, the Hirose and the Isazawa, from which the town's name is derived.
Several other small rivers and streams run through the town. There are four designated mountains in Kawamata: Mt. Kōdaishi, Mt. Hakubaishi, Mt. Kuchibuto, Mt. Hanazuka. Fukushima Prefecture Fukushima Date Nihonmatsu Iitate Namie The central town consists of the Kawamata neighborhood and parts of Tsuruzawa and Iizaka; the remaining areas are outlying neighborhoods: Kawamata Tsuruzawa Kogami Iizaka Ōtsunagi Kotsunagi Higashi-Fukuzawa Nishi-Fukuzawa Ojima Akiyama Yamakiya The former village of Yamakiya is the largest and most sparsely populated region of Kawamata, as well as the most physically isolated. It is located in the mountains to the south-east of the central town. Within Kawamata, Yamakiya retains some of its own distinct cultural characteristics. Yamakiya is home to the Yamakiya Taiko Club, an amateur taiko drum performance group made up of young people from the community. In April 2012, several members of the club travelled to Washington, DC in the US for the 100th anniversary of the National Cherry Blossom Festival as part of a cultural exchange initiative.
One of Yamakiya's prominent facilities is the Yamakiya Skating Rink, an outdoor ice rink, open during January and early February. Speed skating competitions are held for local school children every year; the Yamakiya region was placed under mandatory evacuation due to elevated levels of radiation following the 2011 earthquake and nuclear crisis. As of 10 August 2013, the evacuation status of Yamakiya was reorganized, with the majority of the area being redesignated as "an area readying for the lifting of evacuation orders", a small area by the Namie border to remain restricted; the actual evacuation status may be lifted in spring of 2016. Kawamata has a humid climate; the average annual temperature in Kawamata is 11.4 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1,271 mm with September as the wettest month; the temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 24.3 °C, lowest in January, at around −0.1 °C. Per Japanese census data, like many rural Japanese communities, Kawamata has suffered from a shrinking population over the past few decades.
From a high of more than 27,000 in 1950, the population has decreased to only 15,010 in 2012. This has been correlated with a reduction in available services, including the shutting down of the Kawamata Line railway in 1972, the closing or merging of several schools; the area of present-day Kawamata was part of ancient Mutsu Province. Numerous Jōmon period ruins have been found in the area. During the Edo period, it was tenryō territory under direct control of the Tokugawa shogunate. After the Meiji Restoration, it was organized as part of Adachi District in the Nakadōri region of Iwaki Province with the creation of the modern municipalities system; the origin of modern Kawamata goes back to 1876. In 1955, seven neighboring villages – Fukuda, Kotsunagi, Ōtsunagi, Ojima and Yamakiya – were merged into Kawamata Town, leading to the current municipal boundaries. Kawamata's official emblem, a stylized か hiragana designed to resemble a bird in flight, was adopted in 1965. Kawamata was impacted in a number of ways by tsunami.
As an inland community, the town was not directly affected by the tsunami. However, power outages lasting up to several days occurred. Several buildings, including the municipal office building, suffered significant structural damage and were subsequently evacuated; the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant led to the establishment of a 30 km exclusion zone around the power station. Although Kawamata was located outside this region, in April 2011, the Japanese government established additional evacuation areas which included the Yamakiya neighborhood of Kawamata; the evacuation order will be lifted on 31 March 2017. Controls had been relaxed in August 2013 permitting decontamination work to start; the traditional industries of Kawamata were agriculture and textiles. Rice farming, shamo chicken, silk goods all remain culturally important. In recent years, the manufacturing of products such as automobile parts has become prominent; as of 2012, Kawamata had six public elementary schools and two junior high schools oper
Katsurao is a village located in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 October 2017, the village had a nominal registered population of 1,463, a population density of 17.2 inhabitants per square kilometre in 469 households. The total area is 84.37 square kilometres. However, on March 2011, the entire population was evacuated as a result of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, as of May 2017, the actual number of residents was 18. Katsurao is located in the Abukuma Plateau of central Fukushima in the Tōhoku region of northern Japan, with a mean altitude of over 500 metres. Fukushima Prefecture Tamura Nihonmatsu Namie Katsurao has a humid climate; the average annual temperature in Katsurao is 10.4 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1,374 mm with September as the wettest month; the temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 23 °C, lowest in January, at around −0.7 °C. Per Japanese census data, the population of Katsurao was constant over the past 40 years; the area of present-day Katsurao was part of Mutsu Province.
The remains of Kofun period burial mounds have been found in the area. During the Nara period, it was part of ancient Futaba District in Iwaki Province. During the Edo period, it was part of Sōma Domain, ruled by the Sōma clan until the Meiji restoration. After the Meiji restoration, on April 1, 1889, the village of Katsurao was created within Futaba District, Fukushima. Although Katsurao escaped significant damage from the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, it was located downwind of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Although outside the nominal 20-kilometre exclusion zone, as a result of wind patterns following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, the entire population of the village was evacuated by government order by May 2011. In March 2013, the government divided the village into three zones, with the majority of the village area cleared for unrestricted return of its inhabitants by spring of 2014, a smaller area cleared for daylight return only, a larger area in which the existing restrictions against entry would be maintained until at least 2017.
However, in March 2014, the government postponed lifting of the restrictions on return for a year due to remaining high levels of radiation. On June 12, 2016, the evacuation order was lifted for two-thirds of the village area, with the mountainous region bordering neighbouring Namie remaining restricted due to high residual radiation; the economy of Katsuro was heavily dependent on agriculture. Katsurao had one public elementary school and one public junior high school operated by the village government in March 2011. Both schools remain closed; the village did not have a high school. Katsurao is not served by any passenger train stations. Japan National Route 399 Media related to Katsurao, Fukushima at Wikimedia Commons Official Website
Tōhoku Main Line
The Tōhoku Main Line is a 575.7 km long railway line in Japan operated by the East Japan Railway Company. Although the line starts from Tokyo Station in Chiyoda, most of the long-distance trains begin at Ueno Station in Taitō, pass through such cities as Saitama, Utsunomiya and Sendai, before reaching the end of the line in Morioka; the line extended to Aomori, but was truncated upon the extension of the Tōhoku Shinkansen beyond Morioka, which parallels the Tōhoku Main Line. The 159.9 km long portion of the line between Ueno Station and Kuroiso Station in Nasushiobara, Tochigi is referred to as the Utsunomiya Line. A portion of the Tōhoku Main Line is shared with the Keihin-Tōhoku Line and the Saikyō Line; these lists are separated by service patterns provided on the Tōhoku Main Line. The section between Ueno and Kuroiso is known as the Utsunomiya Line. ●: All rapid trains stop *: Some rapid trains stop |: All rapid trains pass A: Aterui H: Hamayuri ●: All rapid trains stop |: All rapid trains pass KiHa 100 series E531 series EMUs 701 series EMUs 719 series EMUs E721 series/ SAT721 series EMUs HB-E210 series DMUs - Senseki-Tohoku Line 701 series EMUs The construction of the Tōhoku Main Line began in the Kantō region and extended to the north end of Honshu, the city of Aomori.
It is one of oldest railway lines in Japan, with construction beginning in the late 19th century. Until November 1, 1906, the current Tōhoku Main Line was run by a private company Nippon Railway. In 1883, the first segment between Ueno and Kumagaya opened. In 1885, it was extended to Utsunomiya. Following construction of the Tone River Bridge in 1886, Utsunomiya and Ueno were directly connected; the line extended further to the north. In 1891, the segment between Morioka and Aomori opened, creating the longest continuous railway line in Japan. After 1906, the line was nationalized and became the Tohoku Main Line operated by the Ministry of Railways; when Tokyo Station opened in 1925, the Tōhoku Main Line was extended from Ueno to the new station. Until the 1950s, this segment was used and many trains ran through both the Tōkaidō Main Line and Tohoku Main Line. However, when the Tohoku Shinkansen opened, it occupied land used for the tracks of mid and long-distance Tohoku Main Line trains; as a result, only a small number of commuter lines such as the Keihin-Tohoku Line now operate to Tokyo from the north, making Tokyo Station's status as part of the Tōhoku Main Line somewhat circumspect.
This is set to change in March 2015 when the under-construction Ueno-Tokyo Line is completed, facilitating through service between the Tōkaidō Line and the Utsunomiya and Joban Lines. In 2002, the Tohoku Shinkansen was extended from Morioka to Hachinohe and the operations of the local track segment between those two cities was turned over to Iwate Ginga Railway and Aoimori Railway. With the extension of the Tōhoku Shinkansen to Shin-Aomori station in 2010, the segment between Hachinohe and Aomori was delegated to the Aoimori Railway Company; the shortened Tōhoku Main Line is now the second-longest line in Japan, after the Sanin Main Line. The Tokyo to Omiya section was double-tracked between 1892 and 1896, extended to Furukawa in 1908, Koyama the following year, to Utsunomiya in 1913; the Iwanuma - Sendai - Iwakiri section was double-tracked between 1920 & 1923 and the Utsunomiya - Iwanuma section between 1959 and 1964. The Iwakiri - Morioka - Aomori section was double-tracked between 1951 and 1968, including the 17 km realigned section between Iwakiri and Atago in 1962.
The 7 km Tokyo to Tabata section was electrified at 1,500 V DC in 1909, extended to Akabane in 1928, Omiya in 1932 and Kuroiso in 1959. Electrification was continued north at 20 kV AC, reaching Fukushima in 1960, Sendai in 1961, Morioka in 1965, Aomori in 1968. Hasuda Station: The Bushu Railway operated a 17 km line to Kamine from 1924 until 1938. Mamada Station: A 2 km 610 mm gauge handcar line to Omoigawa operated between 1899 and 1917. Hoshakuji Station: A 12 km line servicing the Utsunomiya Army Airfield operated between 1942 and 1945. Ujiie Station: An 8 km 610 mm gauge handcar line operated to Kitsuregawa between 1902 and 1918. Yaita Station: The Tobu Railway opened the 24 km 762 mm gauge Tobu Yaita Line to Shin Takatoku on 1 March 1924; the line was converted to 1,067 mm gauge in 1929, closed on 30 June 1959. Nishi-Nasuno Station: A 15 km line was opened by the Shiobara Railway to Shiobara in 1912; the line was electrified at 550 V DC in 1921, closed in 1936. The Higashino Railway opened a 24 km line to Nasu Ogawa between 1918 and 1924, the line closing in 1968.
At Otawara Station, it connected with the 762 mm horse-drawn tramway mentioned below for the three years they were both open. A 5 km 762 mm gauge handcar line to Otawara opened in 1908. In 1917, it was converted to a horse-drawn tramway, but closed in 1921. At Otawara Station, it connected with the Higashino Railway line mentioned above. Shirakawa Station: A 23 km line to Iwaki Tanakura was opened by the Shirotana Railway in 1916; the line was nationalised in 1941, closed in 1944. Plans to reopen the line in 1953 resulted in a decision to convert the line to a dedicated busway, which opened in 1957. Koriyama Station: The Fukushima Prefectural Government operated a 13 km 762 mm gauge line to Miharu between 1891 and 1914. Matsukawa Station: A 12 km line to Iwashiro Kawamata operated from
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, have the capability of interbreeding. The area of a sexual population is the area where inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area, where the probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. In sociology, population refers to a collection of humans. Demography is a social science. Population in simpler terms is the number of people in a city or town, country or world. In population genetics a sex population is a set of organisms in which any pair of members can breed together; this means that they can exchange gametes to produce normally-fertile offspring, such a breeding group is known therefore as a Gamo deme. This implies that all members belong to the same species. If the Gamo deme is large, all gene alleles are uniformly distributed by the gametes within it, the Gamo deme is said to be panmictic.
Under this state, allele frequencies can be converted to genotype frequencies by expanding an appropriate quadratic equation, as shown by Sir Ronald Fisher in his establishment of quantitative genetics. This occurs in Nature: localization of gamete exchange – through dispersal limitations, preferential mating, cataclysm, or other cause – may lead to small actual Gamo demes which exchange gametes reasonably uniformly within themselves but are separated from their neighboring Gamo demes. However, there may be low frequencies of exchange with these neighbors; this may be viewed as the breaking up of a large sexual population into smaller overlapping sexual populations. This failure of panmixia leads to two important changes in overall population structure: the component Gamo demos vary in their allele frequencies when compared with each other and with the theoretical panmictic original; the overall rise in homozygosity is quantified by the inbreeding coefficient. Note that all homozygotes are increased in frequency – both the deleterious and the desirable.
The mean phenotype of the Gamo demes collection is lower than that of the panmictic original –, known as inbreeding depression. It is most important to note, that some dispersion lines will be superior to the panmictic original, while some will be about the same, some will be inferior; the probabilities of each can be estimated from those binomial equations. In plant and animal breeding, procedures have been developed which deliberately utilize the effects of dispersion, it can be shown that dispersion-assisted selection leads to the greatest genetic advance, is much more powerful than selection acting without attendant dispersion. This is so for both autogamous Gamo demes. In ecology, the population of a certain species in a certain area can be estimated using the Lincoln Index. According to the United States Census Bureau the world's population was about 7.55 billion in 2019 and that the 7 billion number was surpassed on 12 March 2012. According to a separate estimate by the United Nations, Earth’s population exceeded seven billion in October 2011, a milestone that offers unprecedented challenges and opportunities to all of humanity, according to UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund.
According to papers published by the United States Census Bureau, the world population hit 6.5 billion on 24 February 2006. The United Nations Population Fund designated 12 October 1999 as the approximate day on which world population reached 6 billion; this was about 12 years after world population reached 5 billion in 1987, 6 years after world population reached 5.5 billion in 1993. The population of countries such as Nigeria, is not known to the nearest million, so there is a considerable margin of error in such estimates. Researcher Carl Haub calculated that a total of over 100 billion people have been born in the last 2000 years. Population growth increased as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace from 1700 onwards; the last 50 years have seen a yet more rapid increase in the rate of population growth due to medical advances and substantial increases in agricultural productivity beginning in the 1960s, made by the Green Revolution. In 2017 the United Nations Population Division projected that the world's population will reach about 9.8 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion in 2100.
In the future, the world's population is expected to peak, after which it will decline due to economic reasons, health concerns, land exhaustion and environmental hazards. According to one report, it is likely that the world's population will stop growing before the end of the 21st century. Further, there is some likelihood that population will decline before 2100. Population has declined in the last decade or two in Eastern Europe, the Baltics and in the Commonwealth of Independent States; the population pattern of less-developed regions of the world in recent years has been marked by increasing birth rates. These followed an earlier sharp reduction in death rates; this transition from high birth and death rates to low birth
Motomiya is a city located in north-central Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 April 2018, the city had an estimated population of 30,629 in 10,448 households and a population density of 347 persons per km²; the total area of the city was 88.02 square kilometres. It is the smallest city in Fukushima Prefecture, both in terms of size; the modern city of Motomiya was established on January 1, 2007, by the merger of the former town of Motomiya absorbing the village of Shirasawa. Located in the center of Fukushima Prefecture, Motomiya possesses a wide range of geographic features from the hills in the east, to the plains in the west; the average elevation of the city is about 200 meters above sea level. The city is 400 to 500 meters above sea level in some areas. Running through Motomiya, the Abukuma River divides the city in two. On the former Motomiya Town side, bordered by the Ōu Mountains in the west, the Abukuma River in the east, flat plains run north to south extending into the Kōriyama Basin.
The mountains to the north in Ōtama Village and Kōriyama serve as the sources for several rivers and streams including the Hyakunichi River, Adatara River, Seto River, Gohyaku River. The Hyakunichi River and Adatara River diverge downstream; the former Shirasawa Village is surrounded by gentle rolling hills. Motomiya has a humid continental climate characterized by mild summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall; the average annual temperature in Motomiya is 12.1 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1212 mm with September as the wettest month; the temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 25.1 °C, lowest in January, at around 0.3 °C. Fukushima Prefecture Kōriyama Nihonmatsu Adachi District: Otama Tamura District: Miharu According to 2005 census data, Motomiya lost population for the first time in 25 years, falling to 31,367 residents. Per Japanese census data, the population of Motomiya peaked around 2000, but has declined since; the area of present-day Motomiya was part of ancient Mutsu Province.
The oldest known record refers to the area of Motomiya as "Honmoku". In the Nara period, the characters for Honmoku were rewritten as pronounceable as Motome. Motome was rewritten as. In the 11th century, it became the current Motomiya; the origins of the name Motomiya meaning "Central Shrine," refer to the Adatara Jinja, a Shinto shrine in the city's northern district. As a starting point for roads to Aizu, Miharu, Sōma, many other destinations, Motomiya became well known as an inn town. In addition, with the growth of lesser roads to Aizu, Adachi no Umaya, a government-maintained rest stop and messenger station, was established in Motomiya; the stone marker indicating the start of the Aizu road is preserved at the Motomiya City Historical Folk Museum. Date Masamune used Motomiya as a base during the Battle of Hitotoribashi. Afterwards during the Edo period Tokugawa shogunate, Motomiya was part of the holding of Nihonmatsu Domain. During the Boshin War a number of battles were fought within the city limits.
After the Meiji Restoration, the area was organized as part of Adachi District in the Nakadōri region of Iwaki Province. The town of Motomiya was established with the creation of the modern municipalities system on April 1, 1889. During the Meiji and Taishō period, the Motomiya Electric Corporation was established and constructed a power plant in present Otama Village's Tamanoi district which provided electricity to the area. From this point many famous industries were born in the area. During the Showa era, Gunze, a Japanese textiles company, opened a factory and began operations in Motomiya. During World War II, Allied bombers attacked Motomiya, because the Gunze factories manufactured cloth used to cover the wings of [ Mitsubishi Zero fighters. After the war, Japan entered a time of rapid economic growth, industrial parks were zoned and constructed in Motomiya, Arai and Shiraiwa districts. Soon after, Asahi Beer was enticed to construct a brewery in the city limits. In the 1980s, mid-size housing developments such as the Northern Kōriyama New Town and Hikari ga Oka developments were begun as an influx of workers to Kōriyama and Fukushima created a demand for bedroom communities.
On January 1, 2007 Motomiya Town and neighbouring Shirasawa Village merged, forming the city of Motomiy. 1871 - Motomiya Village, Aota Village, Arai Village, Niita Village, Inashirota Village, Haneseishi Village, Sagehi Village, Sekishita Village, Takagi Village, Wada Village, Nukazawa Village, Shiraiwa Village, Nagaya Village, Inazawa Village, Matsuzawa Village were formed. April 1, 1889 - Motomiya Town, Aota Village, Arai Village, Niita Village, Iwane Village, Wagisawa Village, Shiraiwa Village were formed. April 1, 1954 - Motomiya annexed Aota, Niita Villages April 30, 1955 - Wagisawa Village was dissolved with Takagi District being added to Motomiya Town, Wada and Nukazawa Districts being added to Shiraiwa Village. March 31, 1956 - Motomiya absorbed Iwane Village. January 1, 2007 - Motomiya absorbed the village of Shirasawa to create the city of Motomiya. Motomiya, 本宮This is the original Motomiya area, includes the city hall and government offices Portions of the former agricultural northern area have been converted to industrial and
Fukushima is the capital city of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. It is located in the northern part of the central region of the prefecture; as of 1 April 2017, the city has an estimated population of 280,002 in 122,130 households and a population density of 390 persons per km². The total area of the city was 767.72 square kilometres. The present-day city of Fukushima consists of most of the former Shinobu and Date Districts and a portion of the former Adachi District; the city is located in nearby mountains. There are many onsen on the outskirts of the city, including the resort areas of Iizaka Onsen, Takayu Onsen, Tsuchiyu Onsen. Fukushima is the location of the Fukushima Race Course, the only Japan Racing Association horse racing track in the Tōhoku region of Japan. Fukushima is located in the central northeast section of Fukushima Prefecture 50 km east of Lake Inawashiro, 260 km north of Tokyo, about 80 km south of Sendai, it lies between the Ōu Mountains to the Abukuma Highlands to the east. Most of the city is within nearby mountains of the Fukushima Basin.
Mt. Azuma and Mt. Adatara loom over the city from the west and southwest In the north, Fukushima is adjacent to the Miyagi Prefecture cities of Shiroishi and Shichikashuku. In the northwest, Fukushima borders the Yamagata Prefecture cities of Takahata. Within Fukushima Prefecture, to the west of Fukushima is the town of Inawashiro, to the south is Nihonmatsu, to the east are Kawamata and Date, to the northeast is Koori; the Fukushima Basin is created by the surrounding Ōu Mountains in the west and the Abukuma Highlands in the east, with the Abukuma River flowing through the center of the basin, from south to north. Multiple tributaries to the Abukuma River source in the Ōu Mountains before flowing down into Fukushima, namely the Surikami and Arakawa rivers; these rivers flow eastward through the western side of the city until joining up with the Abukuma River in the central parts of the city. The irrigation from these rivers were used for the cultivation of mullberry trees, however in the latter half of the 20th century cultivation was switched from focusing on mullberry trees and instead growing a variety of fruit orchards.
The highest point within the city limits is Mt. Higashi-Azuma, a 1,974 m peak of Mt. Azuma, located on the western edge of the city; the lowest point is the neighborhood of Mukaisenoue, in the northeastern part of the city and has an elevation of 55 m. Mt. Shinobu, a 275 m monadnock, lies in the southeastern section of the Fukushima Basin and is a symbol of the city; the Abukuma River flows north-south through the central area of Fukushima and joins with many tributaries on its journey through the city. The Arakawa River originates from Mt. Azuma and flows eastward flowing into the Abukuma River near the city center; the Matsukawa River, which flows eastward from its origin in Mt. Azuma and joins with the Abukuma River in the northern part of the city. Another major tributary of the Abukuma River is the Surikami River, which originates along the Fukushima-Yamagata prefectural border near the Moniwa area in the northwest of the city. From there it flows into a reservoir created by the Surikamigawa Dam.
From there it continues flowing southeast before meeting up with the Abukuma River in northern Fukushima, thus completing its 32 km run. Other tributaries of the Abukuma River which flow within Fukushima are the Kohata, Mizuhara, Shimoasa, Iri, Ōmori, Hattanda rivers; the Oguni River flows through the city and is a tributary of the Hirose River, which itself is a tributary of the Abukuma River, however the Oguni River doesn't meet up with the Hirose River until the district of Date, outside of the Fukushima city limits. There are multiple lakes in the area of Fukushima. Goshiki-numa called Majo no Hitomi is a caldera lake located in Mt. Azuma's Mt. Issaikyō peak; the lake is so-named due its water color changing in relation to weather conditions. Lake Kama and Lake Oke are located in Bandai-Asahi National Park. In the Tsuchiyu area in the western part of the city lie the small lakes of Lake Me, Lake O, Lake Nida. In the neighborhood of Watari lies Lake Chaya. Lake Jūroku is in the Ōzasō neighborhood.
Fukushima Prefecture Nihonmatsu, Date Date District – Koori, Iitate Yama District – Inawashiro Yamagata Prefecture Yonezawa, Takahata Miyagi Prefecture Shiroishi, Shichikashuku Under the Köppen climate classification, the majority of Fukushima has a humid subtropical climate, however the mountains that line the western border of the city have a humid continental climate. There is a large temperature and weather difference between central Fukushima versus the mountains on the edge of the city; the hottest month tends to be August, with an average high of 30.4 °C in central Fukushima, at an elevation of 67 metres, while Tsuchiyu Pass on the western edge of the city and at an elevation of 1,220 metres has an average August high of 21.7 °C. The coldest month tends to be January, with an average low of -1.8 °C in central Fukushima and -9.0 on Tsuchiyu Pass. On average, central Fukushima receives 1,166.0 mm of precipitation annually and receives 0.5 mm or more of precipitation on 125.2 days per year.
An average of 189 cm of snow falls annually, with 22.9 days receiving more of snow. An average of 74 cm of snow falls in January. Central Fuk