Conservative Party of Canada
The Conservative Party of Canada, colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-of-centre federal political party in Canada. It was formed in 2003 from the merger of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada and the Canadian Alliance, it traces its history to the original Conservative Party of Canada, formed after Confederation in 1867 and changed its name to Progressive Conservative Party in 1942. In Canadian politics, the party sits to the right of the Liberal Party of Canada. Like their federal Liberal rivals, the party is defined as a "big tent", welcoming a broad variety of members; the party's leader is Andrew Scheer. From Confederation till 1942, the Conservative Party of Canada participated in numerous governments. Before 1942, the predecessors to the Conservatives had multiple names, but by 1942, the main right-wing Canadian force became known as the Progressive Conservatives. In 1957, John Diefenbaker became the first Prime Minister from the Progressive Conservative Party, remained in office until 1963.
Another Progressive Conservative government was elected after the results of the 1979 federal election, with Joe Clark becoming Prime Minister. Clark served from 1979 to 1980, when he was defeated by the Liberal Party after the 1980 federal election. In 1984, the Progressive Conservatives won with Brian Mulroney becoming Prime Minister. Mulroney was Prime Minister from 1984 to 1993, his government was marked by free trade agreements and economic liberalization; the party suffered a near complete loss after the 1993 federal election, thanks to a splintering of the right-wing. A similar result occurred in 1997, in 2000, when the Reform Party became the Canadian Alliance. In 2003, the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservatives merged, forming the Conservative Party of Canada; the unified Conservative Party favours lower taxes, small government, more decentralization of federal government powers to the provinces modeled after the Meech Lake Accord and a tougher stand on "law and order" issues.
The party won two minority governments after the 2006 federal election, a majority government in the 2011 federal election before being defeated in the 2015 federal election by a majority Liberal government. John Lynch-Staunton served as interim leader of the newly created Conservative Party of Canada from 8 December 2003 until 20 March 2004, when the party elected Stephen Harper as its first leader. Andrew Scheer was elected leader on 27 May 2017; the Deputy Leader is appointed by the Leader. The National Council is the party's national governing body, elected by the Conservative Party membership at its bi-annual meetings. A National Councillor is elected for a two-year term and cannot serve for more than three consecutive terms. Composition of the National Council is based on the following criteria: four members from a province with more than 100 seats in the House of Commons three members from a province with 52–100 seats two from any province with 26–50 seats one member from each province with 4–25 seats one member from each territory the Party leader The Chair of the Conservative Fund Canada the Executive Director.
At present, the National Council has four members from Ontario. The party president is elected by National Council following their election. Since 2016, the President of the Conservative Party has been Scott Lamb, a councillor representing British Columbia; the party President is the conduit between the National Council. Don Plett interim until 2005 John Walsh Scott Lamb The Executive Director answers to the party President, is responsible for the day-to-day management and operations of the party. From February 2009 to December 2013, the Executive Director was Dan Hilton. Dimitri Soudas was named the new Executive Director in December 2013. On 30 March 2014, Soudas was told to resign or be fired from the position after interfering with the nomination contest taking place in his fiancée's riding. In July 2014, Dustin Van Vugt was brought in as the Deputy Executive Director – a position created for him; some media agencies, such as the CBC, suggested that this was a way for Thompson to begin handing over the work for the top job to Van Vugt, until his promotion to Executive Director could be formally ratified by the party's National Council.
In October 2014, Van Vugt's position was unanimously ratified by the party's National Council, Thompson became the Chief Operations Officer. The Director of Political Operations reports to the Executive Director, is one of the most important positions within the party; the person filling this role has direct access to the party leader, due to their responsibilities for organizing the party's work on the ground and in preparing for the next election. With Stephen Harper as Prime Minister and Conservative Party leader, the Director of Political Operations has moved from party positions to the Prime Minister's and other Minister's Offices, back to the party's headquarters, depending on the identified needs. Doug Finley was the Director of Political Operations until 2009, when Finley was appointed to the Senate and Jenni Byrne Finley's Deputy, became the Director. In August 2013, Byrne left the job to become the co-Deputy Chief of Staff in the Prime Minister's O
Churchill—Keewatinook Aski is a federal electoral district in Manitoba, represented in the House of Commons of Canada since 1935. It covers the northern four-fifths of Manitoba, a vast wilderness area dotted with small municipalities and First Nations reserves, it was named after the town of Churchill, which resides on Churchill River. It is the fifth-largest riding in all of Canada; the riding has the highest percentage of Aboriginal peoples in Canada.. The riding was created in 1933; the entire area of Nelson was transferred into the new riding of Churchill. This riding gained territory from Selkirk—Interlake and was renamed "Churchill—Keewatinook Aski" during the 2012 electoral redistribution. Incumbent Bev Desjarlais ran as an independent candidate in the 2006 election; the New Democratic Party candidate was Niki Ashton, daughter of Manitoba Member of the Legislative Assembly and cabinet minister Steve Ashton. The Liberals fielded actress Tina Keeper; the Conservatives nominated longtime party member and Flin Flon city councillor Nazir Ahmad, while the Greens ran former substitute teacher Jeff Fountain.
Brad Bodnar, a resident of The Pas, ran as an independent. The New Democratic Party candidate was Niki Ashton, for the second time; the Liberals fielded incumbent Tina Keeper. The Conservatives nominated Wally Daudrich; the fourth candidate was Green Party of Saara Harvie. This riding has elected the following Members of Parliament: Its Member of Parliament is Niki Ashton, she is a member of the New Democratic Party. Note: Conservative vote is compared to the total of the Canadian Alliance vote and Progressive Conservative vote in 2000 election. Note: Canadian Alliance vote is compared to the Reform vote in 1997 election. Note: NDP vote is compared to CCF vote in 1958 election. Note: Progressive Conservative vote is compared to "National Government" vote in 1940 election. Note: "National Government" vote is compared to Conservative vote in 1935 election. List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts " Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
Riding history for Churchill from the Library of Parliament Expenditures - 2008 Expenditures - 2004 Expenditures - 2000 Expenditures - 1997
2017 New Democratic Party leadership election
The 2017 New Democratic Party leadership election was won by Jagmeet Singh. The election was triggered by Tom Mulcair having lost a vote on leadership review at the party's federal convention held in Edmonton, Alberta on April 10, 2016, which resulted in a majority of delegates voting in favor of holding a new leadership election. Mulcair declined to partake in the subsequent leadership election and stated that he would remain leader until the party chose a replacement. Four candidates made it onto the leadership ballot: Charlie Angus, Niki Ashton, Guy Caron, Jagmeet Singh; the voting process occurred on Sunday, October 1, 2017. Every party member was entitled to cast a secret vote using a preferential, ranked choice ballot for the selection of the Leader, had no candidate received a majority during the first round of voting, subsequent rounds, occurring once a week, would have taken place until October 15, 2017, or until a candidate received a majority of votes. Singh, the only non-MP in the race, formally announced his candidate for the leadership on May 15, 2017.
Singh received the support of 11 MPs, the most of any candidate, including former leadership candidates Nathan Cullen and Peter Julian, in addition to the support of major labour unions such as the United Food and Commercial Workers. Media attention surrounding his campaign noted the fact that, if elected, Singh would be the first visible minority person to lead a major federal party, as well as the first of the Sikh faith. Singh was elected in the first round, with 53.8% of the votes, thus rendering the need for subsequent rounds of voting unnecessary. Following his election as Leader, Singh appointed former leadership rival Guy Caron to serve as the New Democratic Party's Parliamentary Leader; the result at the 2016 convention was the first time a leader of any Canadian federal political party has failed to receive at least 50% in a leadership review vote. In the months since the 2015 federal election, Mulcair's leadership had been a point of conflict within the party because of the election campaign, in which the NDP fell to third place from the Official Opposition status it gained in the 2011 election.
The New Democrats had led public opinion polls since May 2015 and appeared to be poised to win their first federal election in history. However, they fell back behind the Conservatives in the last month; the election thus resulted in a Liberal majority government. The party fell to third place. Mulcair's leadership faced criticism following the election due to his moderate platform that the party was running on. In contrast, Liberal leader Justin Trudeau had promised to run a budget deficit to fund stimulus programs and higher social spending, a position, perceived as allowing the Liberals to outflank the NDP. Under rules set out in the party's constitution, every member is entitled to cast a secret ballot for the selection of the Leader; the new leader was chosen on October 1, 2017, on the first round of voting through a preferential, ranked choice ballot that would have taken place once a week until a candidate hit the 50 per cent plus one mark to be declared leader had a leader not been chosen in the first round.
Candidates were required to spend no more than $1.5 million. 25% of all donations to candidates were paid to the party. To be nominated, candidates required at least 500 signatures from party members, at least half of which must be from female-identified members and at least 100 from "other equity-seeking groups" including indigenous people, LGBT people, persons with disabilities and visible minorities. At least 50 signatures were required from each of five regions: "Atlantic", "Quebec", "Ontario", "the Prairies" and "B. C. and the North". Background Charlie Angus, 56, has been the MP for Timmins—James Bay since 2004 and was elected NDP Caucus Chair in January 2016, he is the author of seven books and worked as a journalist, a roofer and a dishwasher earlier in life. Before entering politics, Angus was a member of the Toronto punk band L'Étranger with Andrew Cash and Peter Duffin, from 1980 to circa 1984, subsequently formed the country band Grievous Angels in 1986. From 1985 to 1990, Angus and his partner Brit Griffin lived in Angelus House, a Catholic Worker house they founded, where they invited the homeless to live with them.
They established a separate homeless shelter in 1986. In 1990, they moved to northern Ontario, where Angus owned and ran a magazine and entered politics. Angus stepped down as Caucus Chair and Indigenous Affairs Critic on November 23, 2016, to consider a leadership bid, he formally registered his campaign with Elections Canada on February 20, 2017 and publicly launched it on February 26. Date candidacy registered: February 20, 2017 Date campaign launched: February 26, 2017 Campaign website: charlieangusndp.caEndorsements MPs: Carol Hughes, Christine Moore Provincial politicians: Gilles Bisson, France Gélinas, Elizabeth Hanson, Andrew Swan, John Vanthof, Dave Wilson, Lenore Zann, Buckley Belanger Municipal politicians: Phil Allt, James Gordon, Catherine McKenney, Gav
Carleton University is a public comprehensive university in Ottawa, Canada. Founded in 1942 as Carleton College, a private, non-denominational evening college to serve veterans returning from World War II, the institution was chartered as a university by the provincial government in 1952 through the The Carleton University Act; the legislation was subsequently amended in 1957 to give the institution its current name. The university moved to its current campus in 1959, would expand throughout the 1960s amid broader efforts by the provincial government to increase support to post-secondary institutions and expand access to higher education. Carleton, which has produced more than 140,000 alumni, is reputed for its strength in a variety of fields such as humanities, international business, physics, computer science, many of the disciplines housed in its Faculty of Public Affairs; as well as having excellent student accommodation facilities. The university is named for the now-dissolved Carleton County, which included the city of Ottawa at the time the university was founded.
Carleton County, in turn, was named in honour of Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester, who served as Governor General of Canada of The Canadas from 1786 to 1796. As of 2017, Carleton has enrolment of more than 25,000 undergraduate and more than 4,000 postgraduate students, its campus is located west of Old Ottawa South, within close proximity to The Glebe and Confederation Heights, is bounded to the north by the Rideau Canal and Dow's Lake and to the south by the Rideau River. Carleton competes in the U Sports league as the Carleton Ravens; the university is renowned for the strong performance of its men's basketball team, which won seven consecutive Canadian national championships between 2006 and 2017, in addition to 13 of the 15 championships since 2003. I learned early the life lesson that it is people, not buildings, that make up an institution, and if we put our hearts to it we can do something worthwhile. – Henry Marshall Tory Carleton College, a non-denominational institution, was founded in 1942 at the height of the Second World War by the Ottawa Association for the Advancement of Learning.
It began in a rented building and only offered night courses in public administration and introductory university subjects. When the war ended in 1945, the college began expanding to meet the needs of veterans coming home; the Faculty of Arts and Science was established, which included courses in journalism and first-year engineering. In 1946, the college moved to First Avenue in The Glebe neighbourhood, the former location of the Ottawa Ladies' College, its first degrees were conferred in 1946 to graduates of its programs in Journalism and Public Administration. For nearly a decade the college operated on a shoestring budget, with funds raised through community initiatives and modest student fees. During the war, student fees were kept low and Carleton gave special grants to veterans returning home who wished to continue their studies; the faculty was composed of part-time professors who worked full-time in the Public Service, some of whom were convinced to leave for full-time tenure positions.
However, full-time teaching staff were still young scholars at the beginning of their careers. In 1952, the Carleton College Act was passed by the Ontario Legislature, changing its corporate name to Carleton College and conferring the power to grant degrees. Carleton thus became the province's first non-sectarian college. In the same year, the 62-hectare property nestled between the Rideau Canal and the Rideau River on which the current campus is located was acquired; some of the land was donated by a prominent Ottawa businessman. Construction began on the new campus in 1953. In 1957, the Carleton University Act of 1952 was amended, granting Carleton status as a public university and thus changing its name to Carleton University. Carleton's motto, "Ours the Task Eternal," is taken from Walt Whitman's poem, Pioneers! O Pioneers!. The governance was modelled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906 which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority over all other matters.
The president, appointed by the board, was to provide a link between the two bodies and to perform institutional leadership. In 1959, construction was completed on the new Rideau River campus, Carleton moved to its current location; the original buildings included three that still stand today, the Maxwell MacOdrum Library, Norman Paterson Hall and the Henry Marshall Tory Building. Following this, Carleton expanded to meet the need for tertiary education in Canada; the policy of university education initiated in the 1960s responded to population pressure and the belief that higher education was a key to social justice and economic productivity for individuals and for society. In 1967, a Catholic institution, Saint Patrick's College, was incorporated into Carleton. Founded in 1942, it had been granting its diplomas via the University of Ottawa. Both University of Ottawa and Saint Patrick's had been inaugurated by the Catholic order Oblates of Immaculate Mary; the college was housed in a building near the Pretoria Bridge.
Around 1973, a new building was erected on the Carleton campus proper. The college was dissolved as a separate entity after the 1979 academic year, its final dean was Gerald Clarke, a professor fro
2008 Canadian federal election
The 2008 Canadian federal election was held on Tuesday, October 14, 2008, to elect members to the House of Commons of Canada of the 40th Canadian Parliament after the previous parliament had been dissolved by the Governor General on September 7, 2008. The election, like the previous one in 2006, yielded a minority government under the Conservative Party of Canada, led by the incumbent Prime Minister, Stephen Harper; the election call resulted in the cancellation of four federal by-elections, scheduled to occur in September. In 2007, Parliament passed a law fixing federal election dates every four years and scheduling the next election date as October 19, 2009, but the law does not limit the powers of the Governor General to dissolve Parliament at any time, such as when opposition parties bring down the government on a vote of confidence. In this election there was no loss of a non-confidence vote, but the Prime Minister asked the Governor General to call an election; the Governor General granted the Prime Minister's request.
64.7% of eligible voters cast ballots in the 2006 federal election. The Conservative Party received the most votes of any single party, with 36% of the vote, won 124 seats; the Liberal Party won fewer seats than in 2004 – 103 seats, 30% of the vote. The Bloc Québécois lost three seats, lowering its total with 10.5 % of the vote. The NDP retained its seats held at the dissolution of Parliament, won 11 more, making its total 29 seats, with 17.5% of the vote. The Green Party received 4.5% of the vote, a minimal increase from the previous election, but did not win any seats. Independents and other parties constituted 1% of the total vote with one independent winning a seat. Since the 2006 election, seven Members of Parliament had changed party: David Emerson, Wajid Khan, Joe Comuzzi from Liberal to Conservative. In by-elections, the NDP gained one seat from the Liberal Party, while the Conservative Party gained two seats, one from the Liberals and one from the Bloc Québécois. Four seats were vacant when the election was called: three held by the Liberal Party, one by the Bloc Québécois.
The parliament preceding this election was led by the Conservatives, who governed with the smallest minority in the Canadian House of Commons, just 40.6% of the seats. Although the average length of a minority parliament in Canada is 1 year, 5 months, 22 days, minorities led by the former Progressive Conservative Party have been much shorter: the longest previous Conservative minority was just 6 months and 19 days; the 39th Parliament became Canada's longest serving Conservative minority on October 24, 2006. On May 30, 2006, the Conservatives tabled Bill C-16, which would amend the Canada Elections Act to provide fixed election dates; the bill received royal assent on May 3, 2007. The bill states that there will be an election in 2009, it would be the first to have a fixed election date, the third Monday in October. Despite the bill, on September 7, 2008, the Prime Minister sought the dissolution of the 39th Parliament, the Governor General agreed to hold a general election on October 14, 2008.
On February 15, 2007, The Globe and Mail reported that the Conservatives were preparing for an election expected to be called shortly after the 2007 budget, due on March 19, 2007. Part of the reason for the timing of the election was given as strengthening Conservative poll numbers coupled with the desire to take advantage of the perception that Harper has "better leadership qualities than Liberal counterpart Stéphane Dion". On March 17, 2007, an internal Conservative Party memo was leaked to The Canadian Press, telling members that they "need to be ready to campaign within the next week"; the memo asked members to donate $75 to $150 to help to fund the early stages of the election campaign. None of these predictions for a federal election to occur in 2007 proved true, but the majority of pundits still believed a federal election would be triggered before the fixed election date of October 19, 2009, for sometime in 2008. Stephen Harper hinted at the possibility of dissolving parliament on August 14, 2008.
Speaking in Newfoundland and Labrador, he cited Stéphane Dion as the main player in making Parliament become "dysfunctional". "I'm going to have to make a judgment in the next little while as to whether or not this Parliament can function productively," Harper said. This came after repeated confidence votes that resulted in the NDP and Bloc parties not voting in favour of the government, the Liberal Party voting in favour or not attending the vote. Rumours of a possible fall election were further fuelled by Harper's announcement of a fourth federal by-election for September 22 in the Toronto riding of Don Valley West. On August 27, 2008, Harper asked Governor General Michaëlle Jean to cancel her trip to the Paralympic Games in Beijing, adding fuel to speculation that the Prime Minister would seek a dissolution. On September 7, 2008 after much speculation, Harper asked the Governor General to call a federal election on October 14, 2008. In Quebec City, several ballot boxes containing votes from advance polls disappeared after the close of advance polling on October 7.
The boxes were stored in a closet at the home of a deputy returning officer. Although there was no tampering of the boxes or the votes, three deputy returning officers were fired. Deputy returning officers are the only polling officials allow
Li Po Chun United World College
Li Po Chun United World College of Hong Kong, established in 1992, is an International Baccalaureate school in Wu Kai Sha, Hong Kong. It is the eighth member of the today 17 United World Colleges, others having been established in Wales, Norway, India, Swaziland, United States, Costa Rica, the Netherlands, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Armenia, China and Japan. Patrons of the college and the movement include Nelson Mandela, Her Majesty Queen Noor of Jordan and Charles, Prince of Wales; the first college, UWC Atlantic College, was established by the German educationalist Kurt Hahn to promote international understanding and peace. Students are selected by UWC National Committees or selection contacts in over 150 countries on merit and many receive full scholarships. UWC students are eligible to participate in the Shelby Davis Scholarship program, the largest international scholarship program for undergraduates in the world, which funds undergraduate studies for UWC students at leading US universities.
Li Po Chun United World College of Hong Kong is a subvented school receiving 22 per cent of its funding from the Hong Kong Government's Direct Subsidy Scheme but commands the highest school fees of all such organisations. Located in Hong Kong, Li Po Chun UWC states one of its goals as building understanding between students from Chinese cultural backgrounds and those from the rest of the world. Students have the opportunity to learn about China first hand; the school admits students from many local Hong Kong schools. The student body is made up of 42% local and 58% overseas students. In the year 2008-2009, students coming from the 6 inhabited continents represented 83 countries in the world. While "overseas" students are selected by the national selection committees of their home countries, Hong Kong students are chosen by a selection committee appointed by the Home Affairs Bureau. Hong Kong selection has 3 rounds; the first short-listing is based on the written applications. From those applications, a group of students is chosen to participate in "Challenge Day."
Challenge Day is organized by teachers and students. Afterwards, individual interview will be conducted by the Principal and a committee formed by government official. There will be an aptitude test on Math and English; each year, more than 500 students from Hong Kong apply for places, from these, 50 places are awarded to Li Po Chun UWC plus an extra 12 to 14 places at overseas United World Colleges. Li Po Chun United World College takes advantage of its location as a meeting place of west; the College offers Chinese at all levels, from beginners to advanced literature. Chinese Studies a course to study Chinese history and culture, was designed, developed and is offered at LPC. Li Po Chun's average IB grade has hovered around 38 points in recent years, one of the highest averages worldwide. In 2007, 5 students gained perfect scores of 45, which together with the other United World Colleges, represented over 15% of all perfect scorers achieved in the world. Due to these academic achievements LPCUWC is considered one of the top high schools in the World.
In late 2007, the Wall Street Journal identified the College as one of the world's top 50 schools for its success in preparing students to enter Ivy League universities, one of only two schools located outside the US, the only UWC outside the US to make it into the list. Students at the College undertake a 2-year International Baccalaureate Diploma Program. A requirement for the IB diploma, each student attends a TOK class for one year about half as as any other class, is required to make a formal TOK presentation and in the 2nd year write a paper on one of the topics/questions given by the IBO; the CAS program is a part of the requirements for an International Baccalaureate diploma. It requires a set number of hours in each of the 3 areas. Li Po Chun's adaptation of this system is called the "Quan Cai" program; the program has 5 components, community service, action, campus support and global concerns. The services are unique in that students sign up for a service for an entire year, while the other 4 activities are only 1 term activities.
A student is required to participate in 4 terms of service, 3 of campus support, 3 of global concerns, 2 of action and 1 term of creativity in their 2 years at LPC. The most emphasis is placed on the community service aspect. Community services include a variety of projects ranging from helping asylum seekers, to visiting nursing homes and aiding the elderly, helping underprivileged children with schooling and the lending of facilities to services outside of Hong Kong such as Initiative for Peace; the school competes in most of the sports available as Quan Cais. This includes soccer, athletics and badminton; the flexibility of the Quan Cai program allows students to start new activities at any time, if successful the school adopts the activity, making it official. The Café team organizes performance evenings that consist of the College community sharing dances and poems with each other, it is an event that works to bring together the College for one night. The Café team cooks a wide variety of baked goods that are sold throughout the show with the proceeds going to a different charity each Café.
Café is considered one of the most popular activities on campus. Within the academic timetable, which works on an 8-day cycle, the last block of day 8 is reserved for Global Iss
2012 New Democratic Party leadership election
An election for the leadership of the New Democratic Party, a social democratic party in Canada, was called for March 24, 2012, in order to elect a permanent successor to Jack Layton who had died the previous summer. The New Democratic Party's executive and caucus set the rules for the campaign at a series of meetings in September 2011; the election took place on the Internet. At the Leadership Convention, held at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Thomas Mulcair was declared to be the new leader of the party; the convention was to be held at Exhibition Place's Allstream Centre, but it was moved to the larger venue due to a greater than expected number of delegates registering for the event. The vote was open to all NDP members in a combination of exhaustive ballot and instant-runoff voting with one member, one vote; the entrance fee was set at $15,000 and each candidate's spending limit was capped at $500,000. Mulcair is the NDP's seventh leader elected since its founding in 1961; because the NDP was the Official Opposition in the 41st Canadian Parliament, he assumed the position of Leader of the Official Opposition in the House of Commons of Canada.
In a letter written days before his death, Layton recommended that a leadership election be held as early as possible in 2012 on the same time lines as in 2003, that Nycole Turmel, appointed interim leader because of his illness, continue in that role until the election of a permanent leader. Turmel said that the party intended to hold the leadership election in January 2012. Others, including party president Brian Topp and Deputy Leader Thomas Mulcair—both prospective candidates—called for a longer race. Topp agreed with calls for a vote in the year, such as February or March. Mulcair said. Like Topp, he suggests a convention in "late winter or early spring", he pointed out that such a time frame would be consistent with the last leadership election, which took 7.5 months. On September 9, the NDP federal council set the election for March 2012, in Toronto; the longer timeline was to allow more members to be recruited in Quebec, which had low numbers of NDP members but, following the "Orange Crush" in the recent election, the bulk of the party's MPs.
The leadership election was open to all members during a convention in a combination of exhaustive ballot and instant-runoff voting. Votes mailed in advance were cast by instant-runoff voting, but votes on the day, either at the convention or online, were for one round only. Candidates could withdraw before being formally eliminated and release preferences to lower down candidates who stay in. In the 2003 leadership election, members were able to vote in person at the convention, by mail, or online. In that election, affiliated organizations were allotted a minimum of 25 percent of the vote, with the remainder held by individual party members; the party's federal executive ruled in September 2011 that a 2006 change to the party constitution mandating one member, one vote precluded a carve out for affiliated groups. Party president and leadership candidate Brian Topp supported retaining the carve-out as did former MP Dawn Black, while MPs Thomas Mulcair, Peter Stoffer, Pat Martin opposed it. In previous leadership elections, a union's delegates would vote as a block making union endorsements an important factor in the outcome.
Candidates in the campaign had a $500,000 spending limit. On September 14, 2011, interim party leader Nycole Turmel announced rules for candidates from the federal caucus that would have members of the caucus executive, e.g. deputy leaders, to stay in their posts, but would require critics and committee chairs and vice chairs to step down if they chose to join the race. All those who were party members by February 18, 2012, were eligible to vote and could do so in one of three ways: mail-in preferential ballot; the candidates participated in six debates, in Ottawa, Quebec City, Winnipeg and Vancouver. The first debate was held in Ottawa on December 4, 2011, focused on the economy; the Halifax debate on January 29, 2012, focused on families, while the February debate in Quebec City were about "Canada on the world stage", the February debate in Winnipeg was about "Connecting people and regions". January 25, 2003: Jack Layton wins the leadership election to succeed Alexa McDonough. May 2, 2011: For the first time in the party's history, the NDP became the Official Opposition in the House of Commons of Canada due to the party's runner-up finish in the 2011 federal election.
July 25, 2011: Leader of the Opposition Jack Layton takes a medical leave of absence. August 22, 2011: Jack Layton dies of cancer. Turmel becomes interim leader of the NDP, acting Leader of the Opposition. September 9, 2011: The NDP federal council meets to discuss the date and rules for the election, the venue for the convention. September 15, 2011: Campaign rules for caucus are announced by interim leader Nycole Turmel, official start of the leadership campaign, nomination period opens. December 4, 2011, 2-4 pm: All-candidates debate on the economy. Ottawa Convention Centre. January 18, 2012, 7 pm: Toronto Area Council NDP Leadership debate, Bloor Collegiate Institute, Toronto. January 24, 2012: Deadline to register as leadership candidate. January 29, 2012, 2 pm: All-candidates debate on famil