London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
A billionaire, in countries that use the short scale number naming system, is a person with a net worth of at least one billion units of a given currency major currencies such as the United States dollar, the euro or the pound sterling. Additionally, a centibillionaire is used to reference a billionaire worth one hundred billion dollars; the American business magazine Forbes produces a global list of known U. S. dollar updates an Internet version of this list in real time. The American oil magnate John D. Rockefeller became the world's first confirmed U. S. dollar billionaire in 1916, still holds the title of history's wealthiest individual. As of 2018, there are over 2,200 U. S. dollar billionaires worldwide, with a combined wealth of over US$9.1 trillion, up from US$7.67 trillion in 2017. According to a 2017 Oxfam report, the top eight richest billionaires own as much combined wealth as "half the human race". According to the Forbes report released in March 2017, there are 2,043 U. S. dollar billionaires worldwide, from 66 countries, with a combined net worth of $7.67 trillion, more than the combined GDP of 152 countries.
The majority of billionaires are male. In 2015, there were ten LGBT billionaires; the United States has the largest number of billionaires of any country, with 536 as of 2015, while China and Russia are home to 213, 90 and 88 billionaires respectively. As of 2015, only 46 billionaires were under the age of 40, while the list of American-only billionaires, as of 2010, had an average age of 66. In 2019 there is now a record 607 billionaires in the U. S; that includes 14 of the world’s 20 richest. Jeff Bezos is again number 1 in the world, followed by Bill Gates at number 2. According to a 2016 Oxfam report, the wealth of the poorest 95% dropped by 38% between 2010 and 2015, despite an increase in the global population of 400 million. In the same period, the wealth of the richest 62 people between the World's Billionaires increased by $500bn to $1.76tn. This number has fallen from 388 as as 2010. More in 2017 an Oxfam report noted that just eight billionaires own as much combined wealth as "half the human race".
The table below lists numerous statistics relating to billionaires, including the total number of known billionaires and the net worth of the world's wealthiest individual for each year since 2008. Data for each year is from the annual Forbes list of billionaires, with currency figures given in U. S. dollars. Ritholtz, Barry. "Map of World Billionaires by Country and by Origin of Wealth". The Big Picture
Fon Wireless Ltd. is a company incorporated and registered in the United Kingdom that provides wireless services. In 2006, it was created in Madrid, Spain, by Martín Varsavsky where it headquarters most of its operations. Fon started out by building its Wi-Fi network through devices called "foneras". Members, whom the company called "Foneros", agreed to share a part of their bandwidth as a Wi-Fi signal, so that they could connect to other members' hotspots; as the company evolved, it shifted its focus to working with mobile operators and telecommunication providers, expanded from deploying residential Wi-Fi to providing access and technology to carriers and services providers. Fon claims to operate a network of over 20,000,000 WiFi hotspots. Fon Wireless Ltd. is a for-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. It was created in Spain, by Martín Varsavsky where it headquarters most of its operations. Fon has subsidiaries and branch offices in the United States, UK, France and Japan, its investors include Atomico Ventures, Index Ventures, Sequoia Capital and Skype.
The original idea of Fon was to create a network for Wi-Fi access. To become a Fon member, users had to buy a special router called a “Fonera”. With this router, they agreed to share a part of their bandwidth as a second Wi-Fi signal, in exchange for the right to use other members' Fon hotspots. To achieve this, Fon operated a system of dual access wireless networks. In 2007, Fon’s development model shifted to encompass ISPs and it began to work on creating Wifi community networks with British Telecom and SFR. In November 2007, Fon deployed its first wifi rollout, continued using this foundation with more telco partners in the years to come. Since its initial involvement with ISPs, Fon continued to expand its network through partnerships with local Internet service providers in countries such as Germany, Greece and Brazil among others. At the same time the company has continued to expand its product portfolio as technology developed. In 2016 the company evolved to include premium networks such as airports, convention centers, public spaces, etc. in addition to residential networks.
Fon has a technology portfolio called to allow service providers to deliver services to their own customers. Fon began with a software download for compatible routers, in particular, Linksys routers; this is custom firmware based on OpenWrt. Fon started using the OpenWrt base as firmware base for Fon branded routers; the firmware has been customised for use in the Fon Community, allowing consumers to share their broadband connection and to connect to other Fon Spots around the world. Fon developed a number of their own products: Gramofon - router with built-in streaming client Fonera SIMPL Wireless Router - lacks the RP-SMA removable antenna connection of the original SIMPL below Fonera SIMPL Wireless Router Fonera 2.0n Smart WiFi Router Fonera 2.0g Smart WiFi Router Fonera+ Wireless Router Fonera Wireless Router Fontenna WiFi AntennaFon firmware creates two different Wi-Fi signals: one private and one public. Private: encrypted and intended for the owner's private use. Only the Fon Spot owner can access the internal network and files.
Public: un-encrypted or open, but username and password protected so allowing only registered Fon users to access the Fon Wi-Fi community network, but they cannot access the consumer's private network. The new 2014 Fonera SIMPL, introduced in February 2014, includes Facebook integration; the owner of the Fonera SIMPL may register their own Facebook account with the device. Once this is done, any user, a'Facebook Friend' of the owner is granted access to that Fonera. The'Fonera Business' takes Facebook integration further by offering free WiFi to customers of a business who are asked to'Like' the Facebook page for the business in order to gain free WiFi access. In early 2018, the Online-Shop closed: "manufacture and sale of Foneras has been discontinued". Fon claims to have the largest Wi-Fi network in the world, with over 20 million hotspots as at June 2016. BT Group and Fon formed a partnership on October 4, 2007, they jointly created the BT-Fon Community by flashing Fon's software on all BT Total Broadband WiFi routers in the UK.
This allowed BT Total Broadband customers to participate in the Fon community without buying a Fonera router and in some cases without sharing their own WiFi. In 2007 Fon and SFR launched Fon on WiFi routers throughout France. SFR subscribers can opt into Fon to receive WiFi services. In 2008, ZON announced a partnership with Fon to create the largest WiFi network in Portugal. Fon technology is built into NOS WiFi routers so its subscribers become part of the Fon community automatically. SoftBank is Fon's first collaboration with a mobile line operator wanting to offload data traffic to WiFi. Since 2010, SoftBank bundles a Fonera with every iPhone. On October 31, 2011, Oi announced its partnership with Fon, granting global WiFi access to its broadband customers. From November 2011 through 2018, Belgacom was part the Fon network. Proximus added Fon's WiFi-sharing technology to its BBox2 modem earlier in 2011, making it possible to broadcast two WiFi signals from a broadband internet source. Fon Membership was automatically activated.
On February 28, 2012, Fon added Poland to its network, deploying over 100,000 hotspots in the first few months. KPN, a large telecommunications company in the Netherlands, Fon formed a partnership to publicly launch the Fon network on KPN modems. In March 2013, a new partnership with Deutsche Telekom in Germany was announced. Since four other Telekom branch
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer
Master of Science
A Master of Science is a master's degree in the field of science awarded by universities in many countries or a person holding such a degree. In contrast to the Master of Arts degree, the Master of Science degree is granted for studies in sciences and medicine and is for programs that are more focused on scientific and mathematical subjects. While it depends upon the specific program, earning a Master of Science degree includes writing a thesis. Algeria follows the Bologna Process. In Argentina, Ecuador, Colombia, Panamá, Perú and Uruguay, the Master of Science or Magister is a postgraduate degree of two to four years of duration; the admission to a Master's program requires the full completion of a four to five years long undergraduate degree, bachelor's degree or a Licentiate's degree of the same length. Defense of a research thesis is required. All master's degrees qualify for a doctorate program. Australian universities have coursework or research-based Master of Science courses for graduate students.
They run for 1–2 years full-time, with varying amounts of research involved. In Bangladesh, all universities, including Bangladesh Agricultural University Jagannath University, Dhaka University, University of Chittagong, Jahangirnagar University, Islamic University and Rajshahi University have Master of Science courses as postgraduate degrees. After passing Bachelor of Science any student becomes eligible to study in this discipline. In Canada, Master of Science degrees may be course-based research-based or a mixture. Master's programs take one to three years to complete and the completion of a scientific thesis is required. Admission to a master's program is contingent upon holding a four-year university bachelor's degree; some universities require a master's degree in order to progress to a doctoral program. In the province of Quebec, the Master of Science follows the same principles as in the rest of Canada. There is one exception, regarding admission to a master's program. Since Québécois students complete two to three years of college before entering university, they have the opportunity to complete a bachelor's degree in three years instead of four.
Some undergraduate degrees such as the Bachelor of Education and the Bachelor of Engineering requires four years of study. Following the obtention of their bachelor's degree, students can be admitted into a graduate program to obtain a master's degree. While some students complete their master's program, others use it as a bridge to doctoral research programs. After one year of study and research in the master's program, many students become eligible to apply to a Doctor of Philosophy program directly, without obtaining the Master of Science degree in the first place; the Chilean universities have used "Magíster" for a master degree, but other than, similar to the rest of South America. Like all EU member states, the Republic of Cyprus follow the Bologna Process. Universities in Cyprus have used either "Magíster Scientiae or Artium" or Master of Art/Science for a master degree with 90 to 120 ECTS and duration of studies between 1,5 to 2 years. Like all EU member states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia follow the Bologna Process.
The Czech Republic and Slovakia are using two master's degree systems. Both award a title of Mgr. or Ing. to be used before the name. The older system requires a 5-year program; the new system takes only 2 years but requires a completed 3-year bachelor program. It is required to write a thesis and to pass final exams, it is the case that the final exams cover the main study areas of the whole study program, i.e. a student is required to prove his/her knowledge in many subjects he attended during the 2 resp. 3 years. The Master of Science is an academic degree for a post-graduate candidates or researchers, it takes from 4 to 7 years after passing the Bachelor of Science degree. Master programs are awarded in many sciences in the Egyptian Universities. A completion of the degree requires finishing a pre-master studies followed by a scientific thesis or research. All M. Sc. degree holders are allowable to take a step forward in the academic track to get the PhD degree. Like all EU member states, Finland follows the Bologna Process.
The Master of Science academic degree follows the Bachelor of Science studies which last five years. For the completion of both the bachelor and the master studies the student must accumulate a total of 300 ECTS credits, thus most Masters programs are two-year programs with 120 credits; the completion of a scientific thesis is required. Like all EU member states, Germany follows the Bologna Process; the Master of Science academic degree replaces the once common Diplom or Magister programs that lasted four to five years. It is awarded in science related studies with a high percentage of mathematics. For the completion the student must accumulate 300 ECTS Credits, thus most Masters programs are two-year programs with 120 credits; the completion of a scientific thesis is required. In Slavic countries in European southeast, the education system was based on the German university system. Prior to the implementation of
A maxi yacht refers to a racing yacht of at least 70 feet in length. The term maxi originated with the International Offshore Rule rating system, which in the 1970s and 1980s measured offshore racing yachts and applied a single-number rating to each boat; this number was equal to the sailing waterline length in feet, plus or minus speed enhancing or reducing factors in the design. A yacht with a rating of 40 feet was about 47 to 52 feet in length overall; the IOR had upper and lower rating limits of 16 feet and 70 feet, so a yacht designed and built to exceed the maximum limit of 70 feet rating was known as a maxi. Being the biggest sailing yachts afloat, Maxis have always had the best chance of finishing first, they were sufficiently fast and seaworthy to cross oceans and became the craft of choice of pioneers of the Whitbread Round the World Race. The racing giants in the Maxi Yacht Rolex Cup 2005 are the modern descendants of those early aquatic thoroughbreds; the IOR Maxis were 75 to 82 feet long overall, raced boat-for-boat without handicap, unlike the rest of the IOR fleet which raced with a time correction factor depending on the boat's rating.
In the 1980s they were the most glamorous, exciting and high-visibility racing yachts in the world, with regular appearances at most of the great races such as the Fastnet, Sydney-Hobart, Bermuda Race, their own private series of regattas in the Mediterranean and Caribbean seas. The maxis were prominent as line honour contestants in the Whitbread Round the World Race from 1973 to 1993. Modern Maxi yachts are custom-designed and built to the IRC rule but regardless of handicap in order to achieve line honour victories. In 2001 however two 86 ft Reichel/Pugh boats were built to the "maxZ86" class in order to match boat speed evenly, but the class did not generate further interest. For the 2009 Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race, the Cruising Yacht Club of Australia increased the IRC rating upper limit for length of hull from 98 ft to 100 ft, most 98 ft yachts have been lengthened to this size. In order to achieve higher speeds, Maxi yachts were early adopters of modern materials and technologies such as carbonfiber, thermoformed sails, rotating wingmasts, water ballasts and canting keels.
Previous smaller Maxi yachts are still raced with corrected time class victories in mind whilst the 72 ft "mini-maxi" yachts now have a class of their own. Maxi yachts are raced in offshore races. • LH designates the length of hull as measured by IRC, excluding bowsprits International Maxi Association Maxi Yachts AB - production sailing yachts designed by Olympic medallist Pelle Pettersson and built on the island of Gotland. Over 16,000 have been built over the last 30 years. Current production consists of the Maxi 1200, Maxi 1300 and the Swedish Match 40
Skype Technologies S. A. R. L is a telecommunications company headquartered in Luxembourg City and Palo Alto, CA, United States, whose chief business is the manufacturing and marketing of the video chat and instant messaging computer software program Skype, various Internet telephony services associated with it. Microsoft purchased the company in 2011, it has since operated as their wholly owned subsidiary; the company is a Société à responsabilité limitée, or SARL, equivalent to an American limited liability company. Skype, a voice over IP service, was first released in 2003 as a way to make free computer-to-computer calls, or reduced-rate calls from a computer to telephones. Support for paid services such as calling landline/mobile phones from Skype, allowing landline/mobile phones to call Skype, voice messaging generates the majority of Skype's revenue. EBay acquired Skype Technologies S. A. in September 2005 and in April 2009 announced plans to spin it off in a 2010 Initial Public Offering.
In September 2009, Silver Lake, Andreessen Horowitz and the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board announced the acquisition of 65% of Skype for $1.9 billion from eBay, valuing the business at $2.75 billion. Skype was acquired by Microsoft in May 2011 for $8.5 billion. As of 2010, Skype was available in 27 languages and has 660 million worldwide users, an average of over 100 million active each month, has faced challenges to its intellectual property amid political concerns by governments wishing to control telecommunications systems within their borders. Skype was founded in 2003 by Janus Friis from Denmark and Niklas Zennström from Sweden, having its headquarters in Luxembourg with offices now in Tallinn, Stockholm, Palo Alto and Redmond, Washington; the Skype software was developed by Estonians Ahti Heinla, Priit Kasesalu and Jaan Tallinn, who together with Janus Friis and Niklas Zennström were behind the peer-to-peer file sharing software Kazaa. In April 2003, Skype.com and Skype.net domain names were registered.
In August 2003, the first public beta version was released. One of the initial names for the project was "Sky peer-to-peer", abbreviated to "Skyper". However, some of the domain names associated with "Skyper" were taken. Dropping the final "r" left the current title "Skype", for which domain names were available. In September 2005, SkypeOut was banned in China. In October of the same year, eBay purchased Skype for $2.6 billion. In December 2005, videotelephony was introduced. In April 2006, the number of registered users reached 100 million. In October 2006, Skype 2.0 for Mac was released, the first full release of Skype with video for Macintosh, in December, Skype announced a new pricing structure, with connection fees for all SkypeOut calls. Skype 3.0 for Windows was released. In 2006, a feature called, it teleconferences to be used as podcasts. Skypecasting remained in beta until it was discontinued on 1 September 2008. Skypecasts hosted public conference calls for up to 100 people at a time. Unlike ordinary Skype p2p conference calls, Skypecasts supported moderation features suitable for panel discussions and town hall forums.
Skype operated a directory of public Skypecasts. Throughout 2007, updates added new features including Skype Find, Skype Prime, Send Money, video in mood, inclusion of video content in chat, call transfer to another person or a group, auto-redial. Skype 184.108.40.206 for Mac OS X released adding availability of contacts in the Mac Address Book to the Skype contact list, auto redial, contact groups, public chat creation, an in-window volume slider in the call window. During several days in August, Skype users were unable to connect to full Skype network in many countries because of a Skype system-wide crash, the result of exceptional number of logins after a Windows patch reboot. In November, there was controversy when it was announced that users allocated certain London 020 numbers would lose them, after negotiations with the provider of this batch of numbers broke down. By early 2008, the tumultuous ownership relations between the founders and eBay had resulted in significant leadership churn, with a succession of Skype presidents including Niklas Zennström, Rajiv Dutta, Alex Kazim, Niklas Zennström, Henry Gomez, all holding that title at various points between 2005 and 2007.
The business had failed to meet certain earn-out targets, growth was decelerating, product development had slowed and in October 2007 eBay took a $1.4 billion'impairment' on the value of Skype, admitting it had overpaid, now valuing the company at about $2.7 billion. In October 2008, analysis revealed TOM-skype — the Chinese version of Skype run by TOM Online — sends content of text messages and encryption keys to monitoring servers. For the six months after the departure of Zennström and Friis, Michael van Swaaij led the company as Interim CEO, until the appointment of Josh Silverman in February 2008. Silverman was "widely viewed as bringing in stability to Skype after a tumultuous phase that followed the exit of the two Skype co-founders." Under Silverman's two-and-a-half year tenure, the company focused its product efforts around video calli