Niklaus Emil Wirth is a Swiss computer scientist. He has designed several programming languages, including Pascal, pioneered several classic topics in software engineering. In 1984 he won the Turing Award recognized as the highest distinction in computer science, for developing a sequence of innovative computer languages. Wirth was born in Winterthur, Switzerland, in 1934. In 1959, he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in electronic engineering from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich. In 1960, he earned a Master of Science from Canada. In 1963, he was awarded a Ph. D. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from the University of California, supervised by the computer design pioneer Harry Huskey. From 1963 to 1967, he served as assistant professor of computer science at Stanford University and again at the University of Zurich. In 1968, he became Professor of Informatics at ETH Zürich, taking two one-year sabbaticals at Xerox PARC in California, he retired in 1999. In 2004, he was made a Fellow of the Computer History Museum "for seminal work in programming languages and algorithms, including Euler, Algol-W, Pascal and Oberon."
Wirth was the chief designer of the programming languages Euler, Algol W, Modula, Modula-2, Oberon-2, Oberon-07. He was a major part of the design and implementation team for the Lilith and Oberon operating systems, for the Lola digital hardware design and simulation system, he received the Association for Computing Machinery Turing Award for the development of these languages in 1984, in 1994 he was inducted as a Fellow of the ACM. His book, written jointly with Kathleen Jensen, The Pascal User Manual and Report, served as the basis of many language implementation efforts in the 1970s and 1980s in the United States and across Europe, his article Program Development by Stepwise Refinement, about the teaching of programming, is considered to be a classic text in software engineering. In 1975 he wrote the book Algorithms + Data Structures = Programs. Major revisions of this book with the new title Algorithms + Data Structures were published in 1985 and 2004; the examples in the first edition were written in Pascal.
These were replaced in the editions with examples written in Modula-2 and Oberon respectively. His textbook, Systematic Programming: An Introduction, was considered a good source for students who wanted to do more than just coding. Regarded as a challenging text to work through, it was sought as imperative reading for those interested in numerical mathematics. In 1992, he published the full documentation of the Oberon OS. A second book was intended as a programmer's guide. In 1995, he popularized the adage now named Wirth's law, which states that software is getting slower more than hardware becomes faster. In his 1995 paper A Plea for Lean Software he attributes it to Martin Reiser. 21655 Niklauswirth asteroid Extended Backus–Naur Form Wirth syntax notation Bucky bit Wirth–Weber precedence relationship List of pioneers in computer science Official website, ETH Zürich Biography at ETH Zürich Niklaus Wirth at DBLP Bibliography Server Niklaus E. Wirth at ACM Wirth, Niklaus. "Program Development by Stepwise Refinement".
Communications of the ACM. 14: 221–7. Doi:10.1145/362575.362577. Hdl:20.500.11850/80846. Wirth, N.. "On the Design of Programming Languages". Proc. IFIP Congress 74: 386–393. Turing Award Lecture, 1984 Pascal and its Successors paper by Niklaus Wirth – includes short biography. A Few Words with Niklaus Wirth The School of Niklaus Wirth: The Art of Simplicity, by László Böszörményi, Jürg Gutknecht, Gustav Pomberger. Dpunkt.verlag. ISBN 3-932588-85-1, ISBN 1-55860-723-4; the book Compiler Construction The book Algorithms and Data Structures The book Project Oberon – The Design of an Operating System and Compiler. The book about the Oberon language and Operating System is now available as a PDF file; the PDF file has an additional appendix Ten Years After: From Objects to Components. Project Oberon 2013
Tropical cyclone observation has been carried out over the past couple of centuries in various ways. The passage of typhoons, hurricanes, as well as other tropical cyclones have been detected by word of mouth from sailors coming to port or by radio transmissions from ships at sea, from sediment deposits in near shore estuaries, to the wiping out of cities near the coastline. Since World War II, advances in technology have included using planes to survey the ocean basins, satellites to monitor the world's oceans from outer space using a variety of methods, radars to monitor their progress near the coastline, the introduction of unmanned aerial vehicles to penetrate storms. Recent studies have concentrated on studying hurricane impacts lying within rocks or near shore lake sediments, which are branches of a new field known as paleotempestology; this article details the various methods employed in the creation of the hurricane database, as well as reconstructions necessary for reanalysis of past storms used in projects such as the Atlantic hurricane reanalysis.
Recent studies of the 18O and 13C isotopes found in stalagmites in Belize show that tropical cyclone events can leave markers that can be separated out on a week-by-week basis. The error rate of this type of microanalysis was 1 error in 1,200 sampling points. Rocks contain certain isotopes of elements, known as natural tracers, which describe the conditions under which they formed. By studying the calcium carbonate in coral rock, past sea surface temperature and hurricane information can be revealed. Lighter oxygen isotopes are left behind in coral during periods of heavy rainfall. Since hurricanes are the main source of extreme rainfall in the tropical oceans, past hurricane events can be dated to the days of their impact on the coral by looking at the increased 18O concentration within the coral. Kam Biu-Liu, a professor at Louisiana State University, has been studying sediment lying at the bottom of coastal lakes and marshes in order to study the frequency and intensity of hurricanes over the past 5,000 years.
Since storm surges sweep coastal sands with them as they progress inland, a layer of sand is left behind in coastal lakes and marshes. Radiocarbon dating is used to date the layers. Before the invention of the telegraph in the early to mid-19th century, news was as fast as the quickest horse, stage, or ship. There was no advance warning of a tropical cyclone impact. However, the situation changed in the 19th century as seafaring people and land-based researchers, such as Father Viñes in Cuba, came up with systematic methods of reading the sky's appearance or the sea state, which could foretell a tropical cyclone's approach up to a couple days in advance. In China, the abundance of historical documentary records in the form of Fang Zhi offers an extraordinary opportunity for providing a high-resolution historical dataset for the frequency of typhoon strikes. Kam-biu Liu et al. reconstructed a 1,000-year time series of typhoon landfalls in the Guangdong Province of southern China since AD 975 and found that on a decadal timescale, the twenty-year interval from AD 1660 to 1680 is the most active period on record, with twenty-eight to thirty-seven typhoon landfalls per decade.
The variability in typhoon landfalls in Guangdong mimics that observed in other paleoclimatic proxies from China and the northern hemisphere. Remarkably, the two periods of most frequent typhoon strikes in Guangdong coincide with two of the coldest and driest periods in northern and central China during the Little Ice Age. For centuries, people have sailed the world's oceans and seas, for just as long, they have encountered storms; the worst of the cyclones over the open seas took those that observed them into the depths of the oceans. However, some did survive to report harrowing tales. Before the invention of the wireless telegraph in 1905, reports about storms at sea either coincided with their arrival at the coast as ships scrambled into port, or came weeks and months afterwards from remote ports of call. Ship and buoy reports, available since the 1970s, are used in real-time not only for their temperature and wind measurements, but for their sea surface temperature and wave height measurements.
Wind reports from ships at sea have become based on anemometers, less so on the Beaufort Scale. This is important to note as the Beaufort Scale underestimates winds at higher wind speeds, indicating ship wind observations taken for older storms are to underrepresent their true value; as Christopher Landsea et al. point out, many tropical cyclones that formed on the open sea and did not affect any coast went undetected prior to satellite observation since the 1970s. They estimated an undercount bias of zero to six tropical cyclones per year between 1851 and 1885 and zero to four per year between 1886 and 1910; these undercounts take into account the typical size of tropical cyclones, the density of shipping tracks over the Atlantic basin, the amount of populated coastline. In the early 20th century, forecasting the track of cyclones was still confined to areas of the greatest surface pressure falls, based upon surface weather observations, climatology; these methods proved to be the cutting edge of tropical cyclone forecasting through the mid 20th century.
Land-based surface observations remain invaluable as a source of real-time information at locations near the coastline and inland. Combined with ship observations and newspapers, they formed the total information network for hurricane detection until radiosondes were introduced in 1941 and reconnaissance aircraft began in 1944. Land-based observations of pressure and wind can sh
Holy Family Convent is a national school in Jaffna, Sri Lanka. The school consists of both a Tamil and an English convent; the school was first managed by an Irish lady called Mrs. Flannagan with the aim of providing English education to the girls in Jaffna. In 1862 the school was taken over by the sisters of the Holy Family and became the first convent school on the island. A nunnery exists behind the convent. St. Henry's college is in Ilavalai, Jaffna and is the Roman Catholic school for Tamil boys. On Good Friday, 1987, the school was damaged in an air raid by the Sri Lankan Air Force targeting Tamil Tigers. In 2002 it was amalgamated with the Tamil Convent Mahavidyalayam and in 2010 it was upgrade as a national school, it has a student population of 2000 and a teaching staff 76. Mathangi "Maya" Arulpragasam - British artist List of schools in Northern Province, Sri Lanka Holy Family Convent
Windsor for the Derby are an American post-rock band formed in Tampa, Florida in 1995 but based in Austin, Texas. Since their formation, the group has released many albums through labels such as Trance Syndicate, Young God Records, most on Secretly Canadian, has maintained a revolving door line-up, with founding members Dan Matz and Jason McNeely acting as the band's core. Calm Hades Float Minnie Greutzfeldt Difference and Repetition The Emotional Rescue Earnest Powers We Fight Til Death Giving Up the Ghost How We Lost Against Love "The Melody Of A Fallen Tree" "Forgotten" Live at the Blue Flamingo Windsor for the Derby/Desafinado split single Metropolitan Then Poland EP The Kahanek Incident - Volume 1 Windsor for the Derby/Drain split 12" Stars of the Lid/Windsor for the Derby split 7" Fangface split 7" Now I Know the Sea 7" Melt Close 7" The Emotional Rescue EP The Awkwardness EP Empathy for People Unknown 12" Highway Kind compilation Speaker Special 7"
General John Michel was a British Army officer. He was born the son of David Robert Michel, MP of Kingston Russell House, Dorset, a Colonel in the Dorset Militia and inherited the Mountain River estate in St John, Jamaica from his father in law, John Ayscough, receiving the compensation when the slaves were freed. On 1 February 1781 he was appointed ensign in the 51st Regiment of Foot, he served at the siege of Fort St Philip and was taken prisoner on its surrender. In June 1785 he succeeded to a lieutenancy in the 51st, in July 1790 was appointed captain in the 4th Dragoon Guards. Captain Michel served two years on the staff as aide-de-camp to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, in October 1793 succeeded to a majority in August 1796 to a lieutenant-colonelcy in the 4th Dragoon Guards. In 1801 he exchanged into the 14th Light Dragoons. In February 1807 he was re-appointed to the Irish staff, he was promoted full general on 8 June 1837. He served as the Member of Parliament for Belfast from 1812 to 1818.
He was buried at Dewlish. He had married the daughter of Pierce Crosbie of Ballyheigue Castle, Co.. Kerry and secondly Anne, the daughter of Hon. Henry Fane, with whom he had 3 sons and 2 daughters, his son became Field Marshal John Michel. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by John Michel
Claude Fischler is a French social scientist. He is a directeur de recherche of the French National Centre for Scientific Research and heads the Institut Interdisciplinaire d'Anthropologie du Contemporain, a research unit of the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences, in Paris. Claude Fischler's main area of research has been a comparative, interdisciplinary social science perspective on food and nutrition, his work covers the structure and function of cuisines and preferences and their evolution and change over time and space, as well as body image. Subsequently, he came to focus on perception of risk and crises, on comparative approaches of attitudes toward food and health across cultures, on the reception and perception of sensitive technologies and more on assessment and measurement of well-being and quality of life in a comparative perspective, his main current research is on commensality - eating together - its forms and functions, its possible impact on public health. The anthropology of commensality ties into the general issue of sharing food, at the local and global levels.
Claude Fischler served on the Scientific Committee and the Expert Committee on Human Nutrition of the French Agency for Food Safety and on its board of directors. He has been a member of the steering committee of the French National Program on Nutrition and Health, he has been a member on the Executive Committee of the European Sociological Association. He serves on the Strategic Committee on Sustainable Agriculture and Development advising the French Minister of Food and Agriculture and on the Advisory Group on Risk Communication of the European Food Safety Authority. Le Retour des astrologues. Diagnostic sociologique, Club de l'Obs, 1971. Reviewed in Archives de sociologie des religions17:34, pp. 183-184. La Croyance astrologique moderne: Diagnostic sociologique, with Edgar Morin & al. Lausanne, L'Age d'homme, 1981. La Damnation de Fos, with Bernard Paillard, Paris, Le Seuil, 1981. L'Homme et la Table, Paris, École des hautes études en sciences sociales, 1990. L'Homnivore. Le goût, la cuisine et le corps, Odile Jacob, 1990.
Awarded a prize by the Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques. Reprinted in 1991, 2001, 2010. Du Vin, Odile Jacob, 1999. Manger. Français, Européens et Américains face à l'alimentation, with Estelle Masson, Odile Jacob, 2008. La nourriture - pour une anthropologie bioculturelle de l'alimentation, Communications 31, 1979. Manger magique », Autrement, n°149, 1994. Pensée magique et alimentation aujourd'hui, Cahiers de l'OCHA 5, 1996. Les alimentations particulières: Mangerons-nous encore ensemble demain?, Odile Jacob, 2013. "Food and Identity", Social Science Information 27:2, pp. 275–292. "Food Selection and Risk Perception" "Commensality and Culture", Social Science Information 50, pp. 528–548. Claude Fischler's website. Claude Fischler, Edgar Morin Centre