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Nikolai Bukharin

Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin was a Bolshevik revolutionary, Soviet Union politician, marxist philosopher and prolific author on revolutionary theory. As a young man, he spent six years in exile working with fellow exiles Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky. After the revolution of February 1917, he returned to Moscow, where his Bolshevik credentials earned him a high rank in the Bolshevik party and after the October Revolution became editor of the party newspaper Pravda. Within the Bolshevik Party, Bukharin was a left communist, but moved from the left to the right from 1921, his strong support for and defence of the New Economic Policy saw him lead the Right Opposition. By late 1924, this stance had positioned Bukharin favourably as Joseph Stalin's chief ally, with Bukharin soon elaborating Stalin's new theory and policy of socialism in one country. Together and Stalin ousted Trotsky, Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev from the party at the XVth Communist Party Congress in December 1927. From 1926 to 1929, Bukharin enjoyed great power as General Secretary of the Comintern's executive committee.

However, Stalin's decision to proceed with collectivisation drove the two men apart and Bukharin was expelled from the Politburo in 1929. When the Great Purge began in 1936, Stalin looked for any pretext to liquidate his former allies and rivals for power, some of Bukharin's letters and tapped phone-calls indicated disloyalty. Arrested in February 1937, he was charged with conspiring to overthrow the Soviet state. After a show trial that alienated many Western communist sympathisers, he was executed in March 1938. Nikolai Bukharin was born on September 1888, in Moscow, he was the second son of two schoolteachers, Ivan Gavrilovich Bukharin and Liubov Ivanovna Bukharina. His childhood is vividly recounted in his autobiographic novel How It All Began. Bukharin's political life began at the age of sixteen with his lifelong friend Ilya Ehrenburg when he participated in student activities at Moscow University related to the Russian Revolution of 1905, he joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1906, becoming a member of the Bolshevik faction.

With Grigori Sokolnikov, he convened the 1907 national youth conference in Moscow, considered the founding of Komsomol. By age thirty, he was a member of the Moscow Committee of the party; the committee was infiltrated by the Tsarist secret police, the Okhrana. As one of its leaders, Bukharin became a person of interest to them. During this time, he became associated with Valerian Obolensky and Vladimir Smirnov, met his future first wife, Nadezhda Mikhailovna Lukina, his cousin and the sister of Nikolai Lukin, a member of the party, they married soon after their exile, in 1911. In 1911, after a brief imprisonment, Bukharin was exiled to Onega in Arkhangelsk but soon escaped to Hanover, where he stayed for a year before visiting Kraków in 1912 to meet Vladimir Lenin for the first time. During the exile, he continued his education and wrote several books that established him as a major Bolshevik theorist in his 20s, his work and World Economy influenced Lenin, who borrowed from it in his larger and better-known work, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.

He and Lenin had hot disputes on theoretical issues and Bukharin's closeness with the European Left and his anti-statist tendencies. Bukharin developed an interest in the works of Austrian Marxists and non-Marxist economic theorists, such as Aleksandr Bogdanov, who deviated from Leninist positions. While in Vienna in 1913, he helped the Georgian Bolshevik Joseph Stalin write an article and the National Question, at Lenin's request. In October 1916, while based in New York City, he edited the newspaper Novy Mir with Leon Trotsky and Alexandra Kollontai; when Trotsky arrived in New York in January 1917, Bukharin was the first to greet him. At the news of the Russian Revolution of February 1917, exiled revolutionaries from around the world began to flock back to the homeland. Trotsky left New York on March 1917, sailing for St. Petersburg. Bukharin left New York in early April and returned to Russia by way of Japan, arriving in Moscow in early May 1917. Politically, the Bolsheviks in Moscow remained a definite minority to the Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries.

However, as soldiers and workers began to be attracted to the Lenin's promise to bring peace by withdrawing from the war, membership in the Bolshevik faction began to skyrocket—from 24,000 members in February 1917 to 200,000 members in October 1917. Upon his return to Moscow, Bukharin resumed his seat on the Moscow City Committee and became a member of the Moscow Regional Bureau of the party. To complicate matters further, the Bolsheviks themselves were divided into a right wing and a left wing; the right-wing of the Bolsheviks, including Aleksei Rykov and Viktor Nogin, controlled the Moscow Committee, while the younger left-wing Bolsheviks, including Vladimir Smirnov, Valerian Osinsky, Georgii Lomov, Nikolay Yakovlev, Ivan Kizelshtein and Ivan Stukov, were members of the Moscow Regional Bureau. On October 10, 1917, along with two other Moscow Bolsheviks: Andrei Bubnov and Grigori Sokolnikov were elected to the Central Committee; this strong representation on the Central Committee was a direct recognition of the fact that the Moscow Bureau

Embassy of France, Copenhagen

The French Embassy in Copenhagen is the main diplomatic mission of France to the Kingdom of Denmark. It is located in the Thott Palace at Kongens Nytorv 4 in Denmark; the ambassador since October 8, 2013 is François Zimeray. The building now housing the French Embassy was built for the Danish naval hero Niels Juel from 1683 to 1686 as the just second building on Kongens Nytorv which, inspired by the royal squares of Paris, had been laid out by Christian V of Denmark in the years following his coronation in 1670. With his victory in the Battle of Køge Bay, Niels Juel had won wealth, his new mansion was designed by Lambert van Haven as an L-shaped building in the Dutch Baroque style. After Niels Juel's death in 1697, the king, Christian V of Denmark, arranged for his official mistress and mother to five of his children, Sophie Amalie Moth, to take over his mansion, she passed it on to him and the king's eldest son, Christian Gyldenløve, who around 1700 extended the building with a third wing. In 1769, the palace was acquired by Otto Thott, who had the facade towards modernized to the design of Nicolas-Henri Jardin in 1763–64.

The property remained in the belonging of the Thott family until 1930 when it was purchased by the French state and turned into the French Embassy in Denmark. The Embassy is today used as a venue for a multitude of activities including conferences, wine tastings and guided tours. Jeanne-Louise Hermite:La vie d’un palais danois Kjær, Ulla and Florence Talbot: Det Thottske Palæ/Le Palais Thott. Copenhagen 2006. Text in Danish and French, forewords by former ambassador Anne Gazeau-Secret and HRH Prince Henrik

Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld

Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Duchess of Kent and Strathearn, was a German princess and the mother of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. As the widow of Charles, Prince of Leiningen, from 1814 she served as regent of the Principality during the minority of her son from her first marriage, until her second wedding in 1818 to Prince Edward, son of King George III of the United Kingdom. Victoria was born in Coburg on 17 August 1786 in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, she was the fourth daughter and seventh child of Franz Frederick Anton, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf. One of her brothers was Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, another brother, Leopold future king of the Belgians, married, in 1816, Princess Charlotte of Wales, the only legitimate daughter of the future King George IV, heiress presumptive to the British throne. On 21 December 1803 at Coburg, a young Victoria married Charles, Prince of Leiningen, whose first wife, Henrietta of Reuss-Ebersdorf, had been her aunt.

The couple had two children, Prince Carl, born on 12 September 1804, Princess Feodora of Leiningen, born on 7 December 1807. Through her first marriage, she is a direct matrilineal ancestor to various members of royalty in Europe, including Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Felipe VI of Spain, Constantine II of Greece. After the death of her first spouse, she served as regent of the Principality of Leiningen during the minority of their son, Carl; the death in 1817 of Princess Charlotte of Wales, the wife of Victoria's brother Leopold, prompted a succession crisis. With Parliament offering them a financial incentive, three of Charlotte's uncles, sons of George III, were prepared to marry. One of them, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn proposed to Victoria and she accepted; the couple were married on 29 May 1818 at Amorbach and on 11 July 1818 at Kew, a joint ceremony at which Edward's brother, the Duke of Clarence King William IV, married Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen. Shortly after their marriage, the Kents moved to Germany.

Soon after, Victoria became pregnant, the Duke and Duchess, determined to have their child born in England, raced back. Arriving at Dover on 23 April 1819, they moved into Kensington Palace, where Victoria gave birth to a daughter on 24 May 1819, Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent Queen Victoria. An efficient organiser, Sir John Conroy's planning ensured the Kents' speedy return to England in time for the birth of their first child; the Duke of Kent died of pneumonia in January 1820, six days before his father, King George III. His widow the Duchess had little cause to remain in the United Kingdom, since she did not speak the language and had a palace at home in Coburg where she could live cheaply on the revenues of her first husband. However, the British succession at this time was far from assured – of the three brothers older than Edward, the new king, George IV, the Duke of York were both estranged from their wives, who were in any case past childbearing age; the third brother, the Duke of Clarence, had yet to produce any surviving children with his wife.

The Duchess of Kent decided that she would do better by gambling on her daughter's accession than by living in Coburg and, having inherited her second husband's debts, sought support from the British government. After the death of Edward and his father, the young Princess Victoria was still only third in line for the throne, Parliament was not inclined to support yet more impoverished royalty; the provision made for the Duchess of Kent was mean: she resided in a suite of rooms in the dilapidated Kensington Palace, along with several other impoverished members of the royal family, received little financial support from the Civil List, since Parliament had vivid memories of the late Duke's extravagance. In practice, a main source of support for her was her brother, Leopold; the latter had a huge income of fifty thousand pounds per annum for life, representing an annuity allotted to him by the British Parliament on his marriage to Princess Charlotte, which had made him seem to become in due course the consort of the monarch.

After Charlotte's death, Leopold's annuity was not revoked by Parliament. In 1831, with George IV dead and the new king William IV being over 60 without any surviving legitimate issue, whose nearly 40-year-old wife was considered to be at the end of childbearing age, the young princess's status as heir presumptive and the Duchess's prospective place as regent led to major increases in British state income for the Kents. A contributing factor was Leopold's designation as King of the Belgians, upon which he surrendered his British income. Together in a hostile environment, John Conroy's relationship with the Duchess was close, with him serving as her comptroller and private secretary for the next nineteen years, as well as holding the unofficial roles of public relations officer, counsellor and political agent. While it is not clear which of the two was more responsible for devising the Kensington System, it was created to govern young Victoria's upbringing; the intention was for the Duchess to be appointed regent upon Victoria's ascension and for Conroy to be created Victoria's private secretary and given a peerage.

The Duchess and Conroy continued to be unpopular with the royal family and, in 1829, the Duke of Cumberland spread rumours that they were lovers in an attempt to discredit them. The Duke of Clarence referred to Conroy as "King John", while the Duchess of Clarence wrote to the Duchess of Kent to advise that she was isolating herself from the roya

DTACK Grounded

DTACK Grounded was a computer hobbyist newsletter published from July 1981 to September 1985 by Hal W. Hardenberg. Subtitled "The Journal of Simple 68000 Systems", the newsletter was dedicated to the proposition that the Motorola 68000 CPU could be used to build simple fast computers. In 1981 this was a revolutionary idea; this was before 68000-based personal computers like the Sharp X1, Apple Macintosh, Commodore Amiga, Atari ST had been created. In 1981 Motorola was marketing the 68000 as a CPU for high-end Unix workstations. Hal believed that the 68000 could be used as a simple embedded microprocessor as well, used the newsletter to explain how to do that. Hal was the editor of the newsletter and wrote all of its content; the ostensible purpose of the newsletter was to promote Hal's company's line of 68000-based hardware and software. However, Hal never let that get in the way of telling a good story or explaining how to design or build a fast computer, he was a hardware engineer and a businessman who knew how to write software.

His newsletter was full of amusing and educational stories about the way the personal computer hardware business worked, strong opinions about the best way to design personal computer hardware and software. "DTACK" is the name of a pin on the Motorola 68000 CPU that informed the CPU that data was ready to be read from memory. It stands for "Data Transfer Acknowledge." If a system has fast enough memory, this pin can be connected directly to the ground plane to produce the fastest-possible memory read/write time. However, any complex system would certainly have several different types of devices that would support different speeds of access, which in a large system would be accommodated by using the DTACK line to insert "wait states"—delays—into bus cycles; the logic circuitry required to pulse DTACK high to add these delays could be complex. Therefore only simple systems can use a design with "DTACK grounded"; when many different peripherals with different maximum speed capabilities must be used in a small system, another solution to keep DTACK grounded is to slow down the clock rate of the CPU so that all memory and peripheral devices can transfer data at the maximum speed of the CPU.

In turn, using a lower CPU clock frequency enables a simpler, less expensive circuit board design, with fewer layers, to be used successfully. This, like limiting the system to a few peripherals of low diversity, is a design strategy, applied to small or embedded systems but would not be appropriate for high-performance workstations. Many other microprocessors, including the Intel 8086, 8088, 80286, 80386, 8080, 8085, Zilog Z80, 6502 family, each have an input pin that serves a similar function to DTACK, but it is named READY or RDY. Therefore, a reference to DTACK distinctively implies the 68000 family of CPUs. In order to discourage photocopying of the newsletter, a portion of the DTACK Grounded newsletter was printed on dark red paper; this made it harder to photocopy those pages. This section of the newsletter was called "the Redlands", it contained the assembly source code for high performance math subroutines. A major topic in years of the newsletter was the DBASIC interpreter. Hal produced a fast Basic interpreter for the Atari ST computer.

It was written in hand-tuned assembly language, ran fast compared to other Basics. But it was non-standard: it couldn't run Microsoft Basic programs, it couldn't read or write MS-DOS format floppy disks; as a result it was not popular. In the 1990s Hal revived DTACK Grounded as an occasional column in Dr. Dobb's Journal called DTACK Revisited

Victor Agali

Victor Okechukwu Agali is a Nigerian former professional footballer who played as a forward. In 1997, Agali joined French club Olympique de Marseille. Finding it hard to establish a first team place, he moved to Sporting Toulon Var and subsequently to Germany, where he played in Hansa Rostock and Schalke 04. From 2005 to 2007 he played in the Turkish Süper Lig, returning to German Bundesliga team Rostock in August 2007. At Rostock Agali did not do well, after just one goal in 23 league matches he was given a free transfer to the Greek club Skoda Xanthi FC. After a season with Greek club Skoda Xanthi the Nigerian striker has signed for Anorthosis Famagusta. On 27 December 2009, he was arrested at Schiphol airport near Amsterdam for carrying fake passports, he moved in summer 2010 to the Chinese Super League club Jiangsu Sainty. Agali has played for Nigeria including the 2000 Summer Olympics. Victor Agali at Victor Agali at

Government of Armenia

The Government of the Republic of Armenia or the executive branch of the Armenian government is an executive council of government ministers in Armenia. It is one of the three main governmental branches of Armenia and is headed by the Prime Minister of Armenia; the incumbent government of Armenia is led by Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan who, as a leader of party winning the elections in December 2018 was appointed on January 14, 2019 by President Armen Sarkissian. Following the Article 55 of Armenian Constitution, the Republic's President must accept resignation of the government on the day of first sitting of newly elected Nation Assembly assumption of the office by the President of the Republic expression of the vote of no confidence to the Government resignation of the Prime Minister vacant position of Prime MinisterLater on the Prime Minister must be appointed by the President of the Republic; the elected Prime Minister should enjoy the confidence of majority Deputies and if this is impossible the confidence of maximum number of the Deputies.

Ministers must be appointed within 20 days. After these the Government is considered to be formed. All the ministers, including the prime minister, must be citizens of the Republic of Armenia; the structure of the Government must be defined by law in regard to recommendation by the Government. The procedure for the organization of operations of the Government and other public administration bodies under the Government must be defined by the decree of the President upon the submission of Prime Minister; the role of the Prime Minister is that it should supervise the Government activities, coordinate the work of the Ministers and it should adopt decisions on the organization of Government activities. In addition, decisions passed by the Government must be signed by the Prime Minister; the president has the right to suspend Governmental decisions for one month for checking the compliance of decisions with the constitution. Government decisions about appointment or dissolution of the governors must be approved by the President.

The president has a right to invite and head government sittings about issues of defence, foreign policy or national security. According to article 85 of the Armenian constitution, the Government shall develop and implement the domestic policy and it should implement foreign policy of the Republic of Armenia jointly with the President of the Republic of Armenia. By virtue of the Constitution, the international treaties, the laws of the Republic of Armenia, or the decrees of the President of the Republic and to ensure the implementation thereof the Government shall adopt decisions, which shall be subject to observance in the whole territory of the Republic" As it is defined in the Article 89 of the Constitution of the Republic of Armenia the Government shall: 1) submit its program to the National Assembly for approval in accordance with Article 74 of the Constitution. 5) implement state policies in the areas of science, culture, social security and environmental protection. The Article 74 of the Constitution of Armenia states that the government must within twenty days of its formation present its developed program to the National Assembly of the Republic.

On the National Assembly should discuss and vote for the approval of the program within five days after its presentation. The President shall dissolve the National Assembly if it does not give an approval to the program of the Government two times in succession within two months. Regarding state budget, The Government shall submit the draft of the state budget to the National Assembly at least ninety days prior to the beginning of the fiscal year; the Government may put forward a motion of its confidence in conjunction with the adoption of the state budget. If the National Assembly does not express no confidence in the Government the state budget as well as the amendments approved by the Government shall be considered adopted. If the National Assembly expresses no confidence in the Government in conjunction to the draft of the state budget, the new Government shall submit the draft state budget to the National Assembly within a period of ten days after the approval of its program; this draft shall be debated and voted on by the National Assembly within a period of thirty days in accordance with the procedure defined by this Article.

According to Article 88 of Armenian Constitution "A member of Government can not be engaged in hold an office in commercial organizations or in state and local self-government bodies not connected with his/her duties, or be involved in entrepreneurial activities, save for pedagogical creative, academic activities." Articles 109 and 110 of Armenian Constitution state that the Government may remove the Head of Community in cases prescribed by the law on the basis of the conclusion of the Constitutional Court. The communities may, based on the interests of the public, be merged with each other or separated by the law; the appropriate law shall be adopted by the National Assembly upon the recommendation of the Government. Before submitting the legislative initia