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Nikolai Trubetzkoy

Prince Nikolai Sergeyevich Trubetzkoy was a Russian linguist and historian whose teachings formed a nucleus of the Prague School of structural linguistics. He is considered to be the founder of morphophonology, he was associated with the Russian Eurasianists. Trubetzkoy was born into privelege, his father, Sergei Nikolaevich Trubetskoy, came from a Gediminid princely family. In 1908, he enrolled at the Moscow University. While spending some time at the University of Leipzig, Trubetzkoy was taught by August Leskien, a pioneer of research into sound laws. Having graduated from the Moscow University, Trubetzkoy delivered lectures there until the Revolution. Thereafter he moved first to the University of Rostov-on-Don to the University of Sofia, took the chair of Professor of Slavic Philology at the University of Vienna, he died from a heart attack attributed to Nazi persecution following his publishing an article critical of Hitler's theories. Trubetzkoy's chief contributions to linguistics lie in the domain of phonology, in particular in analyses of the phonological systems of individual languages and in the search for general and universal phonological laws.

His magnum opus, Grundzüge der Phonologie was issued posthumously. In this book he defined the phoneme as the smallest distinctive unit within the structure of a given language; this work was crucial in establishing phonology. Trubetzkoy wrote as a literary critic. In Writings on Literature, a brief collection of translated articles, he analyzed Russian literature beginning with the Old Russian epic The Tale of Igor's Campaign proceeding to 19th century Russian poetry and Dostoevsky, it is sometimes hard to distinguish Trubetzkoy's views from those of his friend Roman Jakobson, who should be credited with spreading the Prague School views on phonology after Trubetzkoy's death. In his biography of the mathematical collective Nicolas Bourbaki, Amir Aczel described Trubetzkoy as a pioneer in structuralism, an interdisciplinary outgrowth of structural linguistics which would be applied in mathematics by the Bourbaki group—as in the notion of a mathematical structure—and in anthropology by Claude Lévi-Strauss, who sought to describe rules governing human behavior.

According to Aczel, Trubetzkoy's focus in Principles of Phonology was the study of phonemes and their opposing aspects, in order to describe rules of language—the goal of describing general, underlying rules being the common goal of structuralism. Anderson, Stephen R.. Phonology in the Twentieth Century. Theories of Rules and Theories of Representations. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Pp 83–116. Intellectual Biography of Nikolai Trubetzkoy at the Gallery of Russian Thinkers

Alexander D. Henderson (businessman)

Alexander Dawson Henderson was an American-born financier and philanthropist. He was vice president, first treasurer and founding investor of the California Perfume Company, which became Avon Products. Henderson supported his local church as a Vestryman for the St. Matthew’s Episcopal Church in Brooklyn, New York, his Philanthropic work included volunteering as President of the New York State Charities Aid Association and acting as Chairman of the Red Cross drive for funds. Henderson volunteered his time as director of the Ramapo Valley Independent newspaper. Henderson was born February 1865, in Brooklyn, New York, he was the sixth child of Angelina Annetta Weaver. On February 17, 1892, the Reverend John Hampstone, of the Emmanuel Baptist Church in Brooklyn, married Henderson and Ella Margaret Brown, his wife was listed as a prominent resident in the New York Social Blue Book as Mrs. A. D. Henderson, Nyack Tpke, Suffern, N. Y. Alexander and Ella had three children. Henderson, an American business executive and philanthropist, married Theodora Gregson Huntington 1927 In 1890, Henderson worked for the Union Warehouse Company in New York City where he held the position of private Secretary to Edward B.

Bartlett. The Union Warehouse was a large building located in New York City, worth over $100,000.00. On May 30, 1895, he became the bookkeeper for David H. McConnell of the California Perfume Company, he went on to become Vice-President and Treasurer of CPC. According to The Story of the CPC, "Mr. Alexander D. Henderson, our Vice-President and Treasurer, joined the company and helped to shape its policies and assist in its growth."As early as 1901, Henderson and McConnell were listed in the Trow Copartnership and Corporation Directory as "The California Perfume Co. David H McConnell, Alexander D Henderson, at 126 Chambers Street."On June 16, 1909, an agreement was made between David H. McConnell and Alexander D. Henderson as partners trading as D. H. McConnell and Company and Company, California Perfume Company to sell these holdings over to the California Perfume Company, a corporation of the State of New Jersey; the bill of sale was for $220,000.00. On July 22, 1914, in a letter to William Scheele and the CPC, Henderson described the "process of Perfumery and extracting odors from flowers".

In this letter Henderson said, "It is these pomades which we import direct from Grasse for the making of our perfumes, thus we have the true flower base which makes our floral odors so true to natural flowers and so lasting." In March of 1912, Henderson invested in the incorporation of the Hatfield Auto Truck Company of Elmira, New York with capital of $1,500,000. The incorporators were David H. McConnell, Alexander D. Henderson, Arthur S. Hoyt. In June 1915, Henderson took the train to San Francisco, California to set up a booth to advertise and exhibit CPC perfume products at the 1914-1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition; the CPC exhibit was in the Liberal Arts Building. A Gold Medal was awarded to the company for the quality of the products and the beauty of the packaging. On January 28, 1916, the California Perfume Company was incorporated in New York State. An announcement was placed in The New York Times. Suffern, cosmetics, extracts, fruit juices, household supplies, carry on business with $75,000: W. Scheele, A. D. Henderson, D. H. McConnell, Suffern.”Henderson and McConnell attended the American Perfumer annual meetings from May 9–11, 1916.

The meeting Trade Notes included the following statement: "California Perfume Co. of New Jersey has filed a certified copy of its charter to manufacture and deal in perfumery, toilet articles, flavoring extracts in San Francisco. Capital stock, $5,000, 40 shares at $100 each. Place of business, Jersey City, N. J. Subscribers A. D. Henderson 8 shares. In the article, "Introducing You to the CPC", "Mr. Henderson buys the ingredients from which everything in the CPC line is made; as such, he is, of course, a most important factor in the maintaining the high quality and low prices of the products you sell." In 1940, his second son, Girard B. Henderson was elected to serve on the board of directors for Avon Products and served for 35 years; the Henderson family came to Suffern in 1905 as summer visitors and boarders at Tilton's Hotel, a famous boarding house in those days. This hotel is on property now owned by the Avon Products. In 1909, Henderson built a large Georgian style home, which sat on the hill at Campbell Avenue and the Nyack Turnpike in Suffern, New York.

A postcard was made of the Hendersons' Suffern home, looking at the residence from the bottom of the driveway. The printing at the top of the postcard reads: "Residence of Mr. A. D. Henderson, Suffern, N. Y." Henderson had a passion for helping others less fortunate. He gave his time and energy to the local church and was President of the Rockland Country Branch of the State Charities Aid Association and Chairman of the Red Cross drive for funds during World War I in Ramapo Valley, New York. Henderson actively assisted in the designing and building of the Lafayette Theatre in Suffern, New York. Henderson fought for a good local newspaper; as a result, he became treasurer and director of the Ramapo Valley Independent when the old Su

Mandy Hampton

Madeline "Mandy" Hampton, Ph. D is a fictional character from the American serial drama The West Wing, portrayed by Moira Kelly, she was White House media consultant during the first season of the show, the former girlfriend of Deputy White House Chief of Staff Josh Lyman, with whom she clashed. A savvy political strategist and no-nonsense negotiator, the character is said to have been based on Mandy Grunwald, a real-life Democratic political consultant and media adviser who worked on the presidential campaigns for both Bill Clinton and Hillary Clinton. Moira Kelly said of her character, "She's a fighter in a difficult business and has a lot of strength."Although Kelly was a primary cast member during the first season, Mandy was featured less as the season progressed. Mandy Hampton is a political consultant who left a high-paying and prestigious public relations firm to work for top politicians in the public sphere. Ambitious, Mandy has a reputation as a savvy political strategist and no-nonsense negotiator.

She has a bachelor's degree in art history, a master's degree in communications, a Ph. D. in political science. Mandy starts out the show as an advisor to Democratic Senator Lloyd Russell, a political challenger to President Josiah Bartlet who opposes many of his policies, she was dating the senator, which angered Deputy White House Chief of Staff Josh Lyman, who used to date her himself. In the second episode of Season 1, "Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc", Mandy leaves the employ of the senator, stops dating him, when he defies her wishes and tables a bill in committee for which she planned to fight vigorously; as a result, she is hired as a media consultant for Bartlet, much to Josh's chagrin. In her new capacity, she reports directly to him and to Toby Ziegler, the White House communications director. Before leaving Russell's employment, Mandy wrote a memo to him critical of Bartlet's administration; this memo becomes public, an embarrassment for the Bartlet administration in the episode "Let Bartlet Be Bartlet", leading to her being cut out of the policy-making loop for a while until the President orders his senior staff to let her out of the doghouse.

In "The State Dinner", when the Federal Bureau of Investigation wants to use force to take down a militia involved a hostage situation, Mandy urges the President to exhaust all peaceful solutions first, despite Josh's advice to the contrary. Mandy argues "the greatest threat to democracy" is not "the nuts" but rather "the unbridled power of the state over its citizens." However, the situation ends poorly when the hostage-takers shoot and critically injure an FBI mediator and the FBI ends the standoff by force, Mandy is physically sickened by the events. The character appeared only in the first season, her appearances became sporadic as the episodes progressed, she departed from the show without plot explanation. Series creator Aaron Sorkin said that the character was not working out, the decision for Moira Kelly's departure from the show was amicable: "Moira is a terrific actress, but we just weren't the right thing for her, she expressed that she felt the same way, as a result, story lines hadn't been invested in that character, because we knew that at the end of the year, we'd be shaking hands and parting company."

The ensemble nature of the cast contributed toward making it difficult to focus adequately on the character. When the first season finale, "What Kind of Day Has It Been", featured a cliffhanger ending with an unknown character getting shot, many fans speculated it would be Mandy Hampton due to the character's ongoing departure; the St. Petersburg Times quoted an unnamed West Wing writer as suggesting that actors with two-year contracts are the most to have been shot, which the newspaper said suggests it could be Mandy due to her pending departure. However, the newspaper suggested that could be a red herring since it was not clear that Mandy was present in the scene when the shots were fired; the shooting victims turned out to be Josh Lyman and President Bartlet. Sorkin planned to reintroduce Mandy in the second-season episode "The War at Home", as the campaign operator of junior senator and environmentalist Seth Gilette, played by Ed Begley, Jr. However, that appearance never happened. Mandy Hampton has been cited in arguments that in the first season, the series placed its female characters in marginalized roles while the male characters occupied most of the powerful positions.

They pointed out that Mandy, who held a important position as political consultant, was not predominantly featured in major storylines and departed from the show quickly. However, authors Peter C. Rollins and John E. O'Connor, who published a book about the series, wrote, "This televised representation may not be so much the result of a conscious or unconscious bias on the part of the scriptwriters but a reflection of Washington reality." In an article for The Straits Times, writer Richard Feinberg acknowledged most of the important characters in the show were white males, but pointed to "very smart women" characters like Mandy as evidence that the show included a fair mix. List of characters on The West Wing List of The West Wing episodes

Pierre Légier

Pierre Légier ) was an 18th-century French writer, librettist and mayor. After a brief military career, he tried his luck at literature, his early verse met some success but his dramatic works did not. He returned to his hometown to take some administrative positions without abandoning literature, he was received at the Académie des sciences, belles-lettres et arts de Besançon et de Franche-Comté in 1780. Voltaire speaks of him in unflattering terms in a letter to Count of Tressan dated 3 February 1758. 1763: Le Rendez-vous, opera in one act and in verse, mingled with ariettes on a music by Duni. 1765: Épitre à monsieur Diderot, in Correspondance littéraire, philosophique et critique, 15 May but abridged in the Mercure de France, July 1765. 1769: Les protégés, three-act comedy, Paris. 1769: Amusements poétiques and kept in Orléans, Couret de Villeneuve, collection of tales and epistles. 1780: Traité historique et raisonné: d'après les loix, règlements et usages, sur les différentes procédures qui s'observent dans toutes les jurisdictions de l'enclos du Palais, à Paris tant en première instance, qu'en cause d'appel, P. F. Gueffier, 576 p..

1780: L'influence du luxe sur les mœurs et les arts, discours de réception en vers à l'Académie de Besançon, le jour de la saint Martin, éd. Besançon, Lépagnez cadet, 1780, 20 pages. 1780: Le Berger, fable. 1782: Épitre à un amateur des Beaux-Art. 1783: Susky, cautionary tale in prose, published in Affiches de Franche-Comté. 1784: L'Orateur, poem to abbot Talbert. From 1765: Different pieces in the Almanach des Muses. Charles Weisse, Notice sur M. Légier, in Mémoires de la Société d'agriculture de la Haute-Saône, Vesoul, 1812, tome III, p. 251-260. L'auteur a publié une synthèse de cette notice dans la Biographie universelle, ancienne et moderne, Paris, L. G. Michaud, 1819, vol. 23, p. 569. N. L. M. Desessarts et al. Les siècles littéraires de la France, chez l'auteur, an IX, tome 4, p. 127

Chilean icebreaker Almirante Óscar Viel

Almirante Óscar Viel is an icebreaker in service with the Chilean Navy since 1995. In service with the Canadian Coast Guard as CCGS Norman McLeod Rogers, it was named for former Canadian Member of Parliament and cabinet minister Norman McLeod Rogers, it is named for Counter Admiral Oscar Viel Toro, the commander of the Chilean naval forces from 1881–1883 and 1891. Contraalmirante Oscar Viel Toro is 294.9 feet long overall with a beam of 62.5 feet and a draught of 20 feet. As built, the ship had a loaded displacement of 6,320 long tons, gross register tonnage of 4,179, net tonnage of 1,847 and deadweight tonnage of 2,347 tons; as built, the vessel was equipped with a CODAG system composed of four diesel engines and two gas turbines powering two electric motors driving two shafts. This gave the ship a maximum speed of 15 knots, it was the first application of the system in icebreakers in the world. In 1982, the gas turbines were replaced with diesels and the icebreaker's propulsion system is four Fairbanks-Morse 38D8-1/8 diesel engines with four GE generators generating 4.8 megawatts and two Ruston RK3CZ diesel engines with two GE generators generating 2.6 megawatts driving two shafts creating 12,000 hp total.

The ship maintained the same speed after the alteration and has a range of 12,000 nautical miles at 12 knots. The ship can operate one helicopter. In Canadian service, the icebreaker had a complement of 55 but after entering Chilean service in 1995, this was reduced to 33. Other changes to the ship following the Chilean takeover was the addition of two Oerlikon 20 mm cannon and the operation of the Chilean Navy MBB Bo 105 helicopters; the icebreaker was constructed by Canadian Vickers at their shipyard in Montreal, Quebec with the yard number 289 and was launched on 25 May 1968. Norman McLeod Rogers entered into service with the Canadian Coast Guard in October 1969 for use as an icebreaker but to tend to the large buoys that were replacing lightships. In 1974, Norman McLeod Rogers performed hydrographic survey work in the Arctic, surveying around Bathurst Island for possible gas pipeline construction. In 1975, while on a scientific mission in Ungava Bay, the icebreaker went to the aid of Aigle d'Ocean, a small cargo ship that overturned in a storm.

Norman McLeod Rogers dispatched its helicopter to investigate before arriving on the scene. Contact with the helicopter was soon lost, but the icebreaker arrived at the scene of the sinking merchant vessel in time to rescue five people. A Hercules aircraft was sent to search for the helicopter, which had crashed into a hillside killing both crewmembers. In 1982, the Coast Guard, unhappy with Norman McLeod Rogers's experimental diesel and gas-powered propulsion system, had the gas turbines removed and diesel engines put in their place. Norman McLeod Rogers was transferred to the West Coast of Canada in 1990; the ship was placed in reserve soon after and transferred to Crown Assets Distribution for disposal in 1994. The ship was renamed 1220 in 1994 before being sold to the Chilean Navy on 20 December 1994; the ship entered into service with the Chilean Navy on 14 January 1995. The icebreaker was renamed Almirante Óscar Viel and was placed into service as a replacement for the discarded Piloto Pardo.

The ship's primary use with the Chilean Navy is as the Antarctic patrol and survey ship, making its first patrol in Antarctica in 1995. Maginley, Charles D.. The Canadian Coast Guard 1962–2002. St. Catharines, Ontario: Vanwell Publishing Limited. ISBN 1-55125-075-6. Maginley, Charles D. & Collin, Bernard. The Ships of Canada's Marine Services. St. Catharines, Ontario: Vanwell Publishing Limited. ISBN 1-55125-070-5. Moore, John, ed.. Jane's Fighting Ships 1981–82. New York: Jane's Publishing Incorporated. ISBN 0-531-03977-3. Saunders, Stephen, ed.. Jane's Fighting Ships 2004–2005. Alexandria, Virginia: Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-7106-2623-1. Chilean Navy's site for the Contraalmirante Oscar Viel Toro

2003 US Open – Men's Singles

Andy Roddick claimed his first and only Grand Slam title, defeating Juan Carlos Ferrero, 6–3, 7–6, 6–3, in the final to win the Men's Singles tennis title at the 2003 US Open. Roddick is the most recent American male player to win the US Open singles title as well as any other Grand Slam singles title. Pete Sampras was the reigning champion, but he retired from professional tennis in August of 2003; this was the first US Open where future champion Rafael Nadal appeared in the main draw, as well as the Grand Slam main draw appearance for future world number 4 and Grand Slam finalist Tomáš Berdych. It was the final Grand Slam appearance for former Grand Slam champions Michael Chang and Yevgeny Kafelnikov. Association of Tennis Professionals – 2003 US Open Men's Singles draw