Immunity is the capability of multicellular organisms to resist harmful microorganisms from entering it. Immunity involves both specific and nonspecific components, the nonspecific components act as barriers or eliminators of a wide range of pathogens irrespective of their antigenic make-up. Other components of the immune system adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and are able to generate pathogen-specific immunity, an immune system may contain innate and adaptive components. The innate system in mammalians for example is composed of bone marrow cells that are programmed to recognise foreign substances. The adaptive system is composed of more advanced lymphatic cells that are programmed to recognise self substances, the reaction to foreign substances is etymologically described as inflammation, meaning to set on fire. The non-reaction to self substances is described as immunity, meaning to exempt or as immunotolerance, disease can arise when what is foreign cannot be eliminated or what is self is not spared.
Innate immunity, called native immunity, exists by virtue of an organisms constitution and it is divided into two types, Non-Specific innate immunity, a degree of resistance to all infections in general. Specific innate immunity, a resistance to a kind of microorganism only. As a result some races, specific individuals or breeds in agriculture do not suffer from certain infectious diseases, passive immunity is acquired through transfer of antibodies or activated T-cells from an immune host, it is short lived—usually lasting only a few months. The diagram below summarizes these divisions of immunity, humoral immunity is called active when the organism generates its own antibodies, and passive when antibodies are transferred between individuals or species. Similarly, cell mediated immunity is active when the organisms’ own T-cells are stimulated, the concept of immunity has intrigued mankind for thousands of years. Between the time of Hippocrates and the 19th century, when the foundations of the methods were laid.
If someone were exposed to the miasma in a swamp, in evening air, or breathing air in a sickroom or hospital ward, the modern word immunity derives from the Latin immunis, meaning exemption from military service, tax payments or other public services. For no one was attacked a second time, or not with a fatal result. The term immunes, is found in the epic poem Pharsalia written around 60 B. C. by the poet Marcus Annaeus Lucanus to describe a North African tribes resistance to snake venom. In the treatise, Al Razi describes the presentation of smallpox. The first scientist who developed full theory of immunity was Ilya Mechnikov after he revealed phagocytosis in 1882, the birth of active immunotherapy may have begun with Mithridates VI of Pontus. To induce active immunity for snake venom, he recommended using a similar to modern toxoid serum therapy
Plant pathology is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens and environmental conditions. Organisms that cause infectious disease include fungi, bacteria, viroids, virus-like organisms, protozoa, not included are ectoparasites like insects, vertebrate, or other pests that affect plant health by consumption of plant tissues. Control of plant diseases is crucial to the production of food. Plants in both natural and cultivated populations carry inherent disease resistance, but there are examples of devastating plant disease impacts. However, disease control is reasonably successful for most crops, plant diseases cause major economic losses for farmers worldwide. The Food and Agriculture Organization estimates indeed that pests and diseases are responsible for about 25% of crop loss, most phytopathogenic fungi belong to the Ascomycetes and the Basidiomycetes. The fungi reproduce sexually and asexually via the production of spores and other structures. Spores may be spread long distances by air or water, or they may be soilborne, Many soil inhabiting fungi are capable of living saprotrophically, carrying out the part of their life cycle in the soil.
These are known as facultative saprotrophs, fungal diseases may be controlled through the use of fungicides and other agriculture practices. However, new races of fungi often evolve that are resistant to various fungicides, biotrophic fungal pathogens colonize living plant tissue and obtain nutrients from living host cells. Necrotrophic fungal pathogens infect and kill host tissue and extract nutrients from the dead host cells, see the powdery mildew and rice blast images, below. Significant fungal plant pathogens include, Fusarium spp, magnaporthe grisea Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Ustilago spp. The oomycetes are not true fungi but are fungus-like organisms and they include some of the most destructive plant pathogens including the genus Phytophthora, which includes the causal agents of potato late blight and sudden oak death. Particular species of oomycetes are responsible for root rot, despite not being closely related to the fungi, the oomycetes have developed very similar infection strategies.
Oomycetes are capable of using effector proteins to turn off a plants defenses in its infection process, plant pathologists commonly group them with fungal pathogens. Significant oomycete plant pathogens Pythium spp and these are caused by species of Plasmodiophora and Spongospora, respectively. Most bacteria that are associated with plants are actually saprotrophic and do no harm to the plant itself, however, a small number, around 100 known species, are able to cause disease. Bacterial diseases are more prevalent in subtropical and tropical regions of the world
Maize, known as corn, is a large grain plant first domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The six major types of corn are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, flour corn, the leafy stalk of the plant produces separate pollen and ovuliferous inflorescences or ears, which are fruits, yielding kernels or seeds. Maize kernels are used in cooking as a starch. Most historians believe maize was domesticated in the Tehuacan Valley of Mexico, recent research modified this view somewhat, scholars now indicate the adjacent Balsas River Valley of south-central Mexico as the center of domestication. The Olmec and Mayans cultivated maize in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica and its believed that beginning about 2500 BC, the crop spread through much of the Americas. The region developed a network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. Nevertheless, recent data indicates that the spread of maize took place even earlier, according to Piperno, A large corpus of data indicates that it was dispersed into lower Central America by 7600 BP and had moved into the inter-Andean valleys of Colombia between 7000 and 6000 BP.
Since then, even earlier dates have been published, the study demonstrated that the oldest surviving maize types are those of the Mexican highlands. Later, maize spread from this region over the Americas along two major paths and this is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands. Before they were domesticated, maize plants only grew small,25 millimetres long corn cobs, Maize is the most widely grown grain crop throughout the Americas, with 361 million metric tons grown in the United States in 2014. Approximately 40% of the crop—130 million tons—is used for corn ethanol, genetically modified maize made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009. After the arrival of Europeans in 1492, Spanish settlers consumed maize and explorers and traders carried it back to Europe, Spanish settlers far preferred wheat bread to maize, cassava, or potatoes. Maize flour could not be substituted for wheat for bread, since in Christian belief only wheat could undergo transubstantiation.
At another level, Spaniards worried that by eating indigenous foods, which they did not consider nutritious, that not only would they weaken, despite these worries, Spaniards did consume maize and archeological evidence from Florida sites indicate they cultivated it as well. Maize spread to the rest of the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates and it was cultivated in Spain just a few decades after Columbuss voyages and spread to Italy, West Africa and elsewhere. The word maize derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for the plant and it is known by other names around the world. The word corn outside North America and New Zealand refers to any cereal crop, in the United States, Canada and New Zealand, corn primarily means maize, this usage started as a shortening of Indian corn. Indian corn primarily means maize, but can more specifically to multicolored flint corn used for decoration
Center of origin
A center of origin is a geographical area where a group of organisms, either domesticated or wild, first developed its distinctive properties. Centers of origin are considered centers of diversity, Nikolai Vavilov initially identified 8 of these, subdividing them into 12 in 1935. Locating the origin of plants is basic to plant breeding. This allows one to locate relatives, related species. Knowledge of the origins of crop plants is important in order to avoid erosion, the loss of germplasm due to the loss of ecotypes and landraces, loss of habitat. Germplasm preservation is accomplished through gene banks and preservation of natural habitats, a Vavilov Center is a region of the world first indicated by Nikolai Vavilov to be an original center for the domestication of plants. Vavilov developed a theory on the centers of origin of cultivated plants and he stated that plants were not domesticated somewhere in the world at random but there are regions where the domestication started. The center of origin is considered the center of diversity.
Vavilov centers are regions where a diversity of crop wild relatives can be found. The results indicated that foreign crops were 68. 7% of national food supplies as a global mean, Crop wild relatives Crop diversity Landraces Neglected and Underutilized Crops
The peninsula is located south of the Ukrainian region of Kherson and west of the Russian region of Kuban. It is connected to Kherson Oblast by the Isthmus of Perekop and is separated from Kuban by the Strait of Kerch, the Arabat Spit is located to the northeast, a narrow strip of land that separates a system of lagoons named Sivash from the Sea of Azov. Crimea has historically been at the boundary between the world and the Pontic–Caspian steppe. Crimea and adjacent territories were united in the Crimean Khanate during the 15th to 18th century, in 1783, Crimea was annexed by the Russian Empire. It became the Autonomous Republic of Crimea within newly independent Ukraine in 1991, with Sevastopol having its own administration, within Ukraine, the ex-Soviet Black Sea Fleet and its facilities were divided between Russias Black Sea Fleet and the Ukrainian Naval Forces. The two navies shared some of the harbours and piers, while others were demilitarised or used by either country. Sevastopol remained the location of the Russian Black Sea Fleet headquarters with the Ukrainian Naval Forces Headquarters based in the city, most of the international community does not recognize the annexation and considers Crimea to be Ukrainian territory.
Russia currently administers the peninsula as two federal subjects, the Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol. Ukraine continues to assert its right over the peninsula, the classical name Tauris or Taurica is from the Greek Ταυρική, after the peninsulas Scytho-Cimmerian inhabitants, the Tauri. In English usage since the modern period the Crimean Khanate is referred to as Crim Tartary. The Italian form Crimea becomes current during the 18th century, the omission of the definite article in English became common during the 20th century. The name Crimea follows the Italian form from the Crimean Tatar name for the city Qırım which served as a capital of the Crimean province of the Golden Horde, the name of the capital was extended to the entire peninsula at some point during Ottoman suzerainty. The origin of the word Qırım is uncertain, suggestions argued in various sources include, a corruption of Cimmerium. A derivation from the Turkic term qirum, from qori-, other suggestions that have not been supported by sources but are apparently based on similarity in sound include, a derivation from the Greek Cremnoi.
However, he identifies the port, not in Crimea, no evidence has been identified that this name was ever in use for the peninsula. The classical name was revived in 1802 in the name of the Russian Taurida Governorate, in the 8th century BCE the Cimmerians migrated to the region and subsequently the Scythians as well it being the site of Greek colonies. The most important city was Chersonesos at the edge of todays Sevastopol, the Persian Achaemenid Empire expanded to Crimea. Later occupiers included the Romans, Huns, the Byzantine Empire, the Kipchaks, the Golden Horde, consideration of the succeeding residents of the peninsula by their linguistic grouping is of relevance
Russians are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in Ukraine, Kazakhstan. A large Russian diaspora exists all over the world, with numbers in the United States, Israel. Russians are the most numerous group in Europe. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion, the Russian language is official in Russia, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan, and spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians. One is русские, which most often means ethnic Russians, another is россияне, which means citizens of Russia. The former word refers to ethnic Russians, regardless of what country they live in, under certain circumstances this term may or may not extend to denote members of other Russian-speaking ethnic groups from Russia, or from the former Soviet Union. The latter word refers to all people holding citizenship of Russia, regardless of their ethnicity, translations into other languages often do not distinguish these two groups.
The name of the Russians derives from the Rus people, the name Rus would have the same origin as the Finnish and Estonian names for Sweden and Rootsi. According to other theories the name Rus is derived from Proto-Slavic *roud-s-ь, the modern Russians formed from two groups of East Slavic tribes and Southern. The tribes involved included the Krivichs, Ilmen Slavs, Vyatiches, genetic studies show that modern Russians do not differ significantly from Belarusians and Ukrainians. Some ethnographers, like Zelenin, affirm that Russians are more similar to Belarusians, such Uralic peoples included the Merya and the Muromians. Outside archaeological remains, little is known about the predecessors to Russians in general prior to 859 AD when the Primary Chronicle starts its records and it is thought that by 600 AD, the Slavs had split linguistically into southern and eastern branches. Later, both Belarusians and South Russians formed on this ethnic linguistic ground, the same Slavic ethnic population settled the present-day Tver Oblast and the region of Beloozero.
With the Uralic substratum, they formed the tribes of the Krivichs, in 2010, the worlds Russian population was 129 million people of which 86% were in Russia,11. 5% in the CIS and Baltic countries, with a further 2. 5% living in other countries. Roughly 111 million ethnic Russians live in Russia, 80% of whom live in the European part of Russia, ethnic Russians historically migrated throughout the area of former Russian Empire and Soviet Union, sometimes encouraged to re-settle in borderlands by the Tsarist and Soviet government. On some occasions ethnic Russian communities, such as Lipovans who settled in the Danube delta or Doukhobors in Canada, after the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War starting in 1917, many Russians were forced to leave their homeland fleeing the Bolshevik regime, and millions became refugees
The lentil is an edible pulse. It is an annual plant of the legume family, known for its lens-shaped seeds. It is about 40 cm tall, and the seeds grow in pods, in South Asian cuisine, split lentils are known as lentils. Usually eaten with rice or rotis, the lentil is a staple throughout regions of India, Bangladesh. As a food crop, the majority of production comes from Canada. Lentils have been part of the diet since aceramic Neolithic times. Archeological evidence shows they were eaten 9,500 to 13,000 years ago, Lentil colors range from yellow to red-orange to green and black. Lentils vary in size, and are sold in forms, with or without the skins. Raw lentils are 8% water, 63% carbohydrates including 11% dietary fiber, 25% protein, lentils are a rich source of numerous essential nutrients, including folate, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, phosphorus and zinc, among others. When lentils are cooked by boiling, protein content declines to 9% of total composition, lentils have the second-highest ratio of protein per calorie of any legume, after soybeans.
The low levels of readily digestible starch, and high levels of slowly digested starch, the remaining 65% of the starch is a resistant starch classified as RS1. A minimum of 10% in starch from lentils escapes digestion and absorption in the small intestine, lentils have anti-nutrient factors, such as trypsin inhibitors and a relatively high phytate content. Trypsin is an involved in digestion, and phytates reduce the bioavailability of dietary minerals. The phytates can be reduced by prolonged soaking and fermentation or sprouting, lentils are relatively tolerant to drought, and are grown throughout the world. FAOSTAT reported that the production of lentils for calendar year 2013 was 4,975,621 metric tons, primarily coming from Canada. About a quarter of the production of lentils is from India. Canada is the largest export producer of lentils in the world, Statistics Canada estimates that Canadian lentil production for the 2009/10 year was a record 1.5 million metric tons. The most commonly grown type is the Laird lentil, the Palouse region of eastern Washington and the Idaho panhandle, with its commercial center at Pullman, constitute the most important lentil-producing region in the United States
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953. Holding the post of the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, he was effectively the dictator of the state. Stalin was one of the seven members of the first Politburo, founded in 1917 in order to manage the Bolshevik Revolution, alongside Lenin, Kamenev, Trotsky and Bubnov. Among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who took part in the Russian Revolution of 1917 and he managed to consolidate power following the 1924 death of Vladimir Lenin by suppressing Lenins criticisms and expanding the functions of his role, all the while eliminating any opposition. He remained General Secretary until the post was abolished in 1952, the economic changes coincided with the imprisonment of millions of people in Gulag labour camps. The initial upheaval in agriculture disrupted food production and contributed to the catastrophic Soviet famine of 1932–33, major figures in the Communist Party and government, and many Red Army high commanders, were arrested and shot after being convicted of treason in show trials.
Stalins invasion of Bukovina in 1940 violated the pact, as it went beyond the Soviet sphere of influence agreed with the Axis, Germany ended the pact when Hitler launched a massive invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. Despite heavy human and territorial losses, Soviet forces managed to halt the Nazi incursion after the decisive Battles of Moscow, after defeating the Axis powers on the Eastern Front, the Red Army captured Berlin in May 1945, effectively ending the war in Europe for the Allies. The Soviet Union subsequently emerged as one of two recognized world superpowers, the other being the United States, Communist governments loyal to the Soviet Union were established in most countries freed from German occupation by the Red Army, which constituted the Eastern Bloc. Stalin had relations with Mao Zedong in China and Kim Il-sung in North Korea. On February 9,1946, Stalin delivered a public speech in which he explained the fundamental incompatibility of communism and capitalism. He stressed that the system needed war for raw materials.
The Second World War was but the latest in a chain of conflicts which could be broken only when the economy made the transformation into communism. Stalin led the Soviet Union through its post-war reconstruction phase, which saw a significant rise in tension with the Western world that would be known as the Cold War, Stalin remains a controversial figure today, with many regarding him as a tyrant. However, popular opinion within the Russian Federation is mixed, the exact number of deaths caused by Stalins regime is still a subject of debate, but it is widely agreed to be in the order of millions. Joseph Stalin was born Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili, the Russian-language version of his birth name is Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili. Ioseb was born on 18 December 1878 in the town of Gori and his father was Besarion Jughashvili, a cobbler, while his mother was Ekaterine Keke Geladze, a housemaid. As a child, Ioseb was plagued with health issues
Ukraine is currently in territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula which Russia annexed in 2014 but which Ukraine and most of the international community recognise as Ukrainian. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making it the largest country entirely within Europe and it has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC, during the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, two brief periods of independence occurred during the 20th century, once near the end of World War I and another during World War II.
Before its independence, Ukraine was typically referred to in English as The Ukraine, following independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. Nonetheless it formed a limited partnership with the Russian Federation and other CIS countries. In the 2000s, the government began leaning towards NATO, and it was agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered by a national referendum at some point in the future. Former President Viktor Yanukovych considered the current level of co-operation between Ukraine and NATO sufficient, and was against Ukraine joining NATO and these events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, and the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic part of the Deep, Ukraine has long been a global breadbasket because of its extensive, fertile farmlands and is one of the worlds largest grain exporters. The diversified economy of Ukraine includes a heavy industry sector, particularly in aerospace.
Ukraine is a republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers, executive. Its capital and largest city is Kiev, taking into account reserves and paramilitary personnel, Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia. Ukrainian is the language and its alphabet is Cyrillic. The dominant religion in the country is Eastern Orthodoxy, which has strongly influenced Ukrainian architecture, there are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older and most widespread hypothesis, it means borderland, while more recently some studies claim a different meaning, homeland or region. The Ukraine now implies disregard for the sovereignty, according to U. S. ambassador William Taylor. Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites include a mammoth bone dwelling
Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region but now cultivated worldwide. In 2016, world production of wheat was 749 million tonnes, making it the second most-produced cereal after maize, since 1960, world production of wheat and other grain crops has tripled and is expected to grow further through the middle of the 21st Century. This grain is grown on land area than any other commercial food. World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined, wheat is the leading source of vegetal protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, which is relatively high compared to other major cereals and staple foods. The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE. In a small part of the population, gluten – the major part of wheat protein – can trigger coeliac disease, non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia. Cultivation and repeated harvesting and sowing of the grains of wild grasses led to the creation of domestic strains, in domesticated wheat, grains are larger, and the seeds remain attached to the ear by a toughened rachis during harvesting.
In wild strains, a more fragile rachis allows the ear to easily shatter, as the traits that improve wheat as a food source involve the loss of the plants natural seed dispersal mechanisms, highly domesticated strains of wheat cannot survive in the wild. Cultivation of wheat began to spread beyond the Fertile Crescent after about 8000 BCE, jared Diamond traces the spread of cultivated emmer wheat starting in the Fertile Crescent sometime before 8800 BCE. Archaeological analysis of wild emmer indicates that it was first cultivated in the southern Levant with finds dating back as far as 9600 BCE, Genetic analysis of wild einkorn wheat suggests that it was first grown in the Karacadag Mountains in southeastern Turkey. Dated archeological remains of wheat in settlement sites near this region, including those at Abu Hureyra in Syria. With the anomalous exception of two grains from Iraq ed-Dubb, the earliest carbon-14 date for einkorn wheat remains at Abu Hureyra is 7800 to 7500 years BCE. Remains of harvested emmer from several sites near the Karacadag Range have been dated to between 8600 and 8400 BCE, that is, in the Neolithic period and these remains were dated by Willem van Zeist and his assistant Johanna Bakker-Heeres to 8800 BCE.
They concluded that the settlers of Tell Aswad did not develop this form of emmer themselves, the cultivation of emmer reached Greece and India by 6500 BCE, Egypt shortly after 6000 BCE, and Germany and Spain by 5000 BCE. The early Egyptians were developers of bread and the use of the oven, by 3000 BCE, wheat had reached the British Isles and Scandinavia. A millennium it reached China, the oldest evidence for hexaploid wheat has been confirmed through DNA analysis of wheat seeds, dating to around 6400-6200 BCE, recovered from Çatalhöyük. The first identifiable bread wheat with sufficient gluten for yeasted breads has been identified using DNA analysis in samples from a dating to approximately 1350 BCE at Assiros in Macedonia. From Asia, wheat continued to spread throughout Europe, in the British Isles, wheat straw was used for roofing in the Bronze Age, and was in common use until the late 19th century
Snail is a common name that is applied most often to land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod molluscs. However, the common name snail is applied to most of the members of the molluscan class Gastropoda that have a shell that is large enough for the animal to retract completely into. When the word snail is used in this most general sense, it not just land snails but thousands of species of sea snails. Occasionally a few other molluscs that are not actually gastropods, such as the Monoplacophora, snail-like animals that naturally lack a shell, or have only an internal shell, are mostly called slugs, and land snails that have only a very small shell are often called semi-slugs. Even a few species have lungs. Snails can be found in a wide range of environments, including ditches, deserts. Although land snails may be familiar to laymen, marine snails constitute the majority of snail species, and have much greater diversity. Numerous kinds of snail can be found in fresh water, most snails have thousands of microscopic tooth-like structures located on a banded ribbon-like tongue called a radula.
The radula works like a file, ripping food into small pieces, many snails are herbivorous, eating plants or rasping algae from surfaces with their radulae, though a few land species and many marine species are omnivores or predatory carnivores. Several species of the genus Achatina and related genera are known as giant African land snails, some grow to 15 in from snout to tail, and weigh 1 kg. The largest living species of sea snail is Syrinx aruanus, its shell can measure up to 90 cm in length, and the whole animal with the shell can weigh up to 18 kg. The snail Lymnaea makes decisions by using two types of neuron, one deciding whether the snail is hungry, and the other deciding whether there is food in the vicinity. Named Gee Geronimo, this snail was owned by Christopher Hudson of Hove, East Sussex, UK, gastropods that lack a conspicuous shell are commonly called slugs rather than snails. Some species of slug have a red shell, some have only a vestige that serves mainly as a calcium repository.
Other than that there is little difference between slugs and snails. There are however important differences in habitats and behavior, slugs squeeze themselves into confined spaces such as under loose bark on trees or under stone slabs, logs or wooden boards lying on the ground. In such retreats they are in danger from either predators or desiccation. Slugs as a group are far from monophyletic, biologically speaking slug is a term of convenience with little taxonomic significance, the reduction or loss of the shell has evolved many times independently within several very different lineages of gastropods