Kingdom of Hungary
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century. The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the coronation of the first king Stephen I at Esztergom around the year 1000. By the 12th century, the kingdom became a European middle power within the Western world. Due to the Ottoman occupation of the central and southern territories of Hungary in the 16th century, the country was partitioned into three parts: the Habsburg Royal Hungary, Ottoman Hungary, the semi-independent Principality of Transylvania; the House of Habsburg held the Hungarian throne after the Battle of Mohács until 1918 and played a key role in the liberation wars against the Ottoman Empire. From 1867, territories connected to the Hungarian crown were incorporated into Austria-Hungary under the name of Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen; the monarchy ended with the deposition of the last king Charles IV in 1918, after which Hungary became a republic.
The kingdom was nominally restored during the "Regency" of 1920–46, ending under the Soviet occupation in 1946. The Kingdom of Hungary was a multiethnic state from its inception until the Treaty of Trianon and it covered what is today Hungary, Slovakia and other parts of what is now Romania, Carpathian Ruthenia, Vojvodina and other smaller territories surrounding present-day Hungary's borders. From 1102 it included Croatia, being in personal union with it, united under the King of Hungary. Today, the feast day of the first king Stephen I is a national holiday in Hungary, commemorating the foundation of the state; the Latin forms Ungarie. The German name Königreich Ungarn was used from 1784 to 1790 and again between 1849 and the 1860s; the Hungarian name was used in the 1840s, again from the 1860s to 1946. The unofficial Hungarian name of the kingdom was Magyarország, still the colloquial, the official name of Hungary; the names in the other native languages of the kingdom were: Polish: Królestwo Węgier, Romanian: Regatul Ungariei, Serbian: Kraljevina Ugarska, Croatian: Kraljevina Ugarska, Slovene: Kraljevina Ogrska, Slovak: Uhorské kráľovstvo, Italian, Regno d'Ungheria.
In Austria-Hungary, the unofficial name Transleithania was sometimes used to denote the regions of the Kingdom of Hungary. The term Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen was included for the Hungarian part of Austria-Hungary, although this term was in use prior to that time; the Hungarians led by Árpád settled the Carpathian Basin in 895, established Principality of Hungary. The Hungarians led several successful incursions to Western Europe, until they were stopped by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor in Battle of Lechfeld; the principality was succeeded by the Christian Kingdom of Hungary with the coronation of St Stephen I at Esztergom on Christmas Day 1000. The first kings of the kingdom were from the Árpád dynasty, he fought with Bavarian help, defeated him near Veszprém. The Catholic Church received powerful support from Stephen I, who with Christian Hungarians and German knights wanted a Christian kingdom established in Central Europe. Stephen I of Hungary was canonized as a Catholic saint in 1083 and an Orthodox saint in 2000.
After his death, a period of revolts and conflict for supremacy ensued between the royalty and the nobles. In 1051 armies of the Holy Roman Empire tried to conquer Hungary, but they were defeated at Vértes Mountain; the armies of the Holy Roman Empire continued to suffer defeats. Before 1052 Peter Orseolo, a supporter of the Holy Roman Empire, was overthrown by king Samuel Aba of Hungary; this period of revolts ended during the reign of Béla I. Hungarian chroniclers praised Béla I for introducing new currency, such as the silver denarius, for his benevolence to the former followers of his nephew, Solomon; the second greatest Hungarian king from the Árpád dynasty, was Ladislaus I of Hungary, who stabilized and strengthened the kingdom. He was canonized as a saint. Under his rule Hungarians fought against the Cumans and acquired parts of Croatia in 1091. Due to a dynastic crisis in Croatia, with the help of the local nobility who supported his claim, he managed to swiftly seize power in northern parts of the Croatian kingdom, as he was a claimant to the throne due to the fact that his sister was married to the late Croatian king Zvonimir who died childless.
However, kingship over all of Croatia would not be achieved until the reign of his successor Coloman. With the coronation of King Coloman as "King of Croatia and Dalmatia" in Biograd in 1102, the two kingdoms of Croatia and Hungary were united under one crown. Although the precise terms of this relationship became a matter of dispute in the 19th century, it is believed that Coloman created a kind of personal union between the two kingdoms; the nature of the relationship varied through time, Croatia retained a large degree of internal autonomy overall, while the real power rested in the hands of the local nobility. Modern Croatian and Hungarian historiographies view the relations between Kingdom of Croatia and Kingdom of Hungary from 1102 as a form of a personal union, i.e. that
Esterházy is a Hungarian noble family with origins in the Middle Ages. Since the 17th century, they were among the great landowner magnates of the Kingdom of Hungary during the time it was part of the Habsburg Empire and Austria-Hungary. During the history of the Habsburg empire, the Esterházys were loyal to the Habsburg rulers, they received the title of count in 1626 and the Forchtenstein line received the title of Fürst from the Holy Roman Emperor in 1712. The Esterházys arose among the minor nobility of the northern part of the Kingdom of Hungary a branch of the Salamon clan by the name Zerházi, their first known ancestor was Mokud from the Salamon clan, a military serviceman and landowner in the Csallóköz region of Western Hungary, Pristaldus, a judicial office-holder in the court of Béla III of Hungary. The name Esterházy was first used by Benedict Zerhas de Zerhashaz, who in 1539 took over the wealth of his wife, Ilona Bessenyei de Galántha, their son, Ferenc Esterházy inherited the coat of arms and title of his mother and the full name of the family became Eszterházy de Galántha, Galanta being a small town east of Bratislava, now capital of Slovakia.
The family rose to prominence under his son, Prince Paul Esterházy. In the 17th century, after Nikolaus' acquisitions, the family split into four main family lines: the older Forchtenstein line: founded by Nikolaus Esterházy, main seat: Eisenstadt the younger Forchtenstein line the Zólyom line: founded by Paul Esterházy the Csesznek line: founded by Daniel Esterházy In 1626 the Esterházys were granted the title of Count and in 1712, the older Forchtenstein line received the title of Prince by the Holy Roman Emperor; the success of the family arose from the steady accumulation of land, loyalty both to the Roman Catholic Church and to the Habsburg Emperor. The latter factor was the most important. A consistent theme of Hungarian history was an ardent and sometimes violent wish to become free of Austrian rule, a wish, fulfilled at the end of the First World War; the Esterházy princes were loyal to the Habsburg monarchy, on several occasions rendered vital services to it in times of crisis. These included the Turkish siege of Vienna in 1683, the outright occupation of Vienna by Napoleon in 1809.
The family acquired its property in three principal ways: redistribution of land taken from Protestants in the Counter-Reformation, redistribution of land conquered from the Turks, felicitous marriages. Most of these lands were situated in present-day Austria and Hungary; the family became the largest landowners in the Habsburg Empire, their income sometimes exceeded that of the Emperor. The family derived its name from Kingdom of Hungary; the settlement no longer exists, is not to be confused with the castle of the same name which they inhabited since the Middle Ages. Since 1421 they have been the owners of a property in Galánta; the most important seat of the Esterházys was Eisenstadt, since the heads of the family chose to make a castle in this tiny village their primary residence. A fortified stronghold had been built there in the 14th century, their practical reason for choosing to create and maintain the princely court at Eisenstadt may have been that while the region was in Hungary, it had been settled by Germans, was situated rather close to the Habsburgs' Imperial residence, Vienna.
The Esterházys maintained a number of other residences throughout the Kingdom of Hungary and Transylvania, those Esterházy princes who preferred the stylish life of the capital spent most of their time in Vienna. In the 1770s, Prince Nikolaus Esterházy, who disliked Vienna, had a magnificent new palace constructed in Fertőd, Hungary, it was built on the site of a former hunting lodge. This is the most admired of the Esterházy homes called the "Hungarian Versailles." The main line of the Esterházy family was bilingual, in Hungarian and German. Esterházys living in parts of the Kingdom of Hungary where other languages were spoken by the population spoke those languages Slavic languages in Slavic areas; some family members went by both German names. Thus, Pál Antal was the same person as Paul Anton, Miklós József was the same person as Nikolaus Josef. In discussions written in English, the Esterházy princes are given English versions of their names, as in "Nicholas"; the family name is rendered variously: Eszterházy, Esterházy, Esterhazy.
The full family name since the 16th century was Eszterházy de Galántha. The Latinised form of the family name, Estoras, in 2009 is used to label fine Esterházy wines; the Esterházy family is known for its association with the composer Joseph Haydn, who served as their Kapellmeister. Haydn was hired by Prince Paul Anton in 1761, from 1762 to 1790 served under Paul Anton's succe
Forchtenstein is a town in the district of Mattersburg in the Austrian state of Burgenland. It is the location of one of the many palaces of the famous Esterházy family, it consists of two subdivisions which were separate towns: Forchtenau and Neustift an der Rosalia. The castle gained a nickname as the "Castle of Fear"; the castle has one black tower. The castle boasted many torture chambers including one called the Pit of Oblivion, a deep pit where torture victims would be strung upside down and deprived of food and water until they died; the Pit of Oblivion is located in the black tower. Although many of the rooms are now available to the public either for rental or visitation, one room still remains private and inaccessible and is the treasure room of the castle. Medieval Warfare: Castles of Fear
Baron Péter Révay de Szklabina et Blathnicza was a Hungarian nobleman, Royal Crown Guard for the Holy Crown of Hungary, state official and historian. He was the grandson of Ferenc Révay. Péter Révay was born in a member of an old family from the Turóc region, he was the third child of his mother Anna Bakics. He received his education in Bártfa, Jihlava also in Vienna, between 1589 and 1591 in Strasbourg, where he was awarded the title of a Master of Philosophy. In 1598 he became the hereditary county head of the Turóc Comitatus. From 1601 he discharged the duties of a Royal Commissary, he became Royal Crown Guard in 1608. In 1610 he became the Royal Courtmaster, from 1615 the Chief Doormaster, from 1619 a Tablemaster, he had a wide-reaching knowledge of philosophy and history, mastered the art of oration, several languages, built a rich library, thanks to the above became a respected political and cultural personality. He fought in a war with the Ottoman empire, he became one of the leading representatives of Lutheran nobility, supporting sacral literature.
He was buried in Turócszentmárton. His poetry and historical works influenced the Slovak historical literature and patriotic works. Révay started producing literature during his studies in Strasbourg, his first work was published in 1592. As one of the first historian in the territory of Hungary, he argued for the ancientness of the Slavs, his works presented Hungary as a multi-national state. His correspondence with the officials of his county was conducted in a cultivated Slovak. 1591 - De laudibus Ciceronis, a lecture advocating oration 1591 - De quattuor virtutibus cardinalibus, a tractate 1591 - Disputatio de mutuo materiae 1592 - De parricidio, article 1613 - De sacra corona regni Hungariae ortu, victoria, fortuna… brevis commentarius, A discourse of the Holy Crown of Hungary. 1659 - De monarchia et sacra corona regni hungariae centuriae septem a more comprehensive work about the history of the Kingdom of Hungary and the Holy Crown of Hungary. Révay
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Ladislaus, Count Esterházy
Count Ladislaus Esterházy de Galánta was a Hungarian noble, son of Nikolaus, Count Esterházy, who served as Palatine of Hungary. He fought against the Ottoman Empire, his older brother, István Esterházy died in 1641, as a result Ladislaus succeeded his father as head of the Esterházy family in 1645. He married Eleonóra Batthyány, daughter of Imperial and Royal Chamberlain Ádám Batthyány, in 1650. However, the marriage remained childless, as Ladislaus was killed in the Battle of Vezekény, along with three other members of the family, he was succeeded by his younger brother Paul as Count Esterházy of Galánta and inherited the family's vast wealth and landholdings at the age of 17. Paul became the 1st Prince of Galánta; the four Esterházy brothers were buried on November 26, 1652 in the crypt of Nagyszombat's University Church. The battlefield was marked by a 5 metre tall obelisk commemorating the victory and the sacrifice of the four brothers, erected in 1734. In 1896 it was replaced by the memorial, still visible — a white travertine pedestal with a bronze sculpture of a lion crushing a Turkish battle flag.
The pedestal bears a Latin inscription that reads: “Hold on, read!“
Ivan III Drašković
Ivan III Drašković (English: John III Drashkovich of Trakoshtyan. He served as Palatine of Hungary from 1646 until his death. Count Ivan III Drašković was a son of Ivan II Petar Drašković and his wife Eva Drašković née Istvánffy. Educated in Graz, where he finished philosophy studies, in Bologna, where he graduated in law, Drašković spoke several foreign languages, he was enrolled at the Classical gymnasium in Zagreb. On January 29, 1629 he married Barbara Thurzó, a Hungarian countess, they had five children, among which two sons, John IV and Nicholas II. During his lifetime, the Drašković family achieved the highest point of its power and influence. Due to his successes in battles against the Ottomans, Ivan III Drašković was well known as defensor Croatiae, having organised the Croatian defence forces, fortified the towns and castles, as well as built border military strongholds at the same time. On September 4, 1631 he was given the title count by the Croato-Hungarian king Ferdinand II. In his career Drašković was, among other duties, a cavalry captain, master of king's chamberlains and king's secret advisor.
On July 10, 1640 he was appointed ban of Croatia and superior commander of Karlovac military frontier. Thus he was the third member of the family sitting on the ban's throne, after his father Ivan II and his grandfather's brother Juraj. On September 22, 1640 the king Ferdinand III summoned a diet in Pressburg where Drašković was appointed palatine of Hungary, the highest dignitary in that country after the king. Having performed the high function of palatine, Drašković died on August 5, 1648 in his new domain Óvár, Nógrád County, he had been given a short time before his death by the king Ferdinand III, he was buried during a solemn funeral rite in the St. Martin's Cathedral in Pressburg, which served as the coronation church of the Kingdom of Hungary between 1563 and 1830, his grave is situated next to the grave of his father. House of Drašković List of rulers of Croatia Croatian nobility Trakošćan Castle Ivan III Drašković – a distinguished member of his family Rudolf Horvat: History of Croatia Data on Drašković's mother Portrait of Ivan III Drašković List of rulers of Croatia