Sir Nikolaus Bernhard Leon Pevsner was a German-British art historian and architectural historian best known for his monumental 46-volume series of county-by-county guides, The Buildings of England. Nikolaus Pevsner was born in Leipzig, the son of Anna and her husband Hugo Pevsner, a Russian-Jewish fur merchant, he attended St. Thomas School and went on to study at several universities, Munich and Frankfurt am Main, before being awarded a doctorate by Leipzig in 1924 for a thesis on the Baroque architecture of Leipzig. In 1923, he married the daughter of distinguished Leipzig lawyer, Alfred Kurlbaum, he worked as an assistant keeper at the Dresden Gallery. He converted to Lutheranism early in life. During this period he became interested in establishing the supremacy of German modernist architecture after becoming aware of Le Corbusier's Pavillon de l'Esprit Nouveau at the Paris Exhibition of 1925. In 1928 he contributed the volume on Italian baroque painting to the Handbuch der Kunstwissenschaft, a multi-volume series providing an overview of the history of European art.
He taught at the University of Göttingen, offering a specialist course on English art and architecture. According to biographer Stephen Games, Pevsner welcomed many of the economic and cultural policies of the early Hitler regime. However, due to Nazi race laws he was forced to resign his lectureship in 1933; that year Pevsner moved to England, settling in Hampstead, where poet Geoffrey Grigson was his next-door neighbour in Wildwood Terrace. Pevsner's first post was an 18-month research fellowship at the University of Birmingham, found for him by friends in Birmingham and funded by the Academic Assistance Council. A study of the role of the designer in the industrial process, the research produced a critical account of design standards in Britain which he published as An Enquiry into Industrial Art in England, he was subsequently employed as a buyer of modern textiles and ceramics for the Gordon Russell furniture showrooms in London. By this time Pevsner had completed Pioneers of the Modern Movement: from William Morris to Walter Gropius, his influential pre-history of what he saw as Walter Gropius's dominance of contemporary design.
Pioneers ardently championed Gropius's first two buildings on the grounds that they summed up all the essential goals of 20th-century architecture. In spite of that, the book remains an important point of reference in the teaching of the history of modern design, helped lay the foundation of Pevsner's career in England as an architectural historian. Since its first publication by Faber & Faber in 1936, it has gone through several editions and been translated into many languages; the English-language edition has been renamed Pioneers of Modern Design. Pevsner was "more German than the Germans" to the extent that he supported "Goebbels in his drive for'pure' non-decadent German art", he was reported as saying of the Nazis: "I want this movement to succeed. There is no alternative but chaos.... There are things worse than Hitlerism." Nonetheless, he was included in the Nazi Black Book as hostile to the Hitler regime. In 1940, Pevsner was taken to the internment camp at Liverpool, as an enemy alien.
Geoffrey Grigson wrote in his Recollections: "When at last two hard-faced Bow Street runners arrived in the early hours of the morning to take... I managed, clutching my pyjama trousers, to catch them up with the best parting present I could think of, an elegant little edition, a new edition, of Shakespeare's Sonnets." Pevsner was released after three months on the intervention of, among others, Frank Pick Director-General of the Ministry of Information. He spent some time in the months after the Blitz clearing bomb debris, wrote reviews and art criticism for the Ministry of Information's Die Zeitung, an anti-Nazi publication for Germans living in England, he completed for Penguin Books the Pelican paperback An Outline of European Architecture, which he had begun to develop while in internment. Outline would go into seven editions, be translated into 16 languages, sell more than half a million copies. In 1942, Pevsner secured two regular positions. From 1936 onwards he had been a frequent contributor to the Architectural Review and from 1943 to 1945 he stood in as its acting editor while the regular editor J. M. Richards was on active service.
Under the AR's influence, Pevsner's approach to modern architecture became more complex and more moderate. Early signs of a lifelong interest in Victorian architecture influenced by the Architectural Review, appeared in a series written under the pseudonym of "Peter F. R. Donner": Pevsner's "Treasure Hunts" guided readers down selected London streets, pointing out architectural treasures of the 19th century, he was closely involved with the Review's proprietor, H. de C. Hastings, in evolving the magazine's theories on picturesque planning. In 1942, Pevsner was appointed a part-time lecturer at Birkbeck College, London, he lectured at Cambridge University for 30 years, having been Slade professor there for a record six years from 1949 to 1955, would become the Slade professorship at Oxford in 1968. Framing all this was his career as a writer and editor. After moving to England, Pevsner had found that the study of architectural history had little
Román Rodríguez Rodríguez is a Canarian politician, the president of the Canary Islands between 1999 and 2003. He was licensed in medicine at the University of La Laguna, he worked as a medical assistant as a university professor. During the 1980s, he took part in social movements. In 1991, he joined Iniciativa Canaria, an organization which in 1993 merged with the Canarian Coalition, he was director general of the Sanitary Assistance between 1993 and 1995. In 1995, he was elected as general director of the Canarian Health Service. In the 2004 general election, he represented the Canarian Coalition. In 2004, as the internal tensions within the Canarian Coalition became more evident, Román Rodríguez Rodríguez headed a faction critical of the coalition, forming a new political group called Nueva Canarias. In the Spanish Congress of Deputies, he continues to sit as a member of the parliamentary group of the Canarian Coalition. Since 18 July 2019 is the Vicepresident of Canary Islands as newly elected President Ángel Víctor Torres appointed him for a progressist coalition government.
"Diputados - Excmo. Sr. Diputado Román Rodríguez Rodríguez". Parlamento de Canarias. Retrieved 10 July 2010
The Niagara and Lake Erie Railway operated a streetcar service in Welland, Ontario from 1912 until 1930. On July 4, 1910, the Niagara and Lake Erie Railway Company was granted a 20-year franchise to operate a street railway in the Town of Welland. On April 4, 1911, the company was federally incorporated to construct an interurban railway linking Welland with Niagara Falls, Fort Erie, Port Colborne, Port Dover, as well as to operate ferries across the Niagara River. However, this large interurban network was never constructed. Had such a network been built, it would have been in direct competition with the established Niagara, St. Catharines and Toronto Railway; the only portion completed was the local Welland streetcar line. The first spike for the railway was driven by Welland mayor George Sutherland on October 4, 1911, service began March 22, 1912; the single track line operated on 1.74 miles of track from the crossing with the Grand Trunk Railway line on East Main Street, along East Main to South Main Street.
It operated along this street to the Canada Southern Railway station. In 1912 and 1913, additional tracks were laid on North Main Street. However, these tracks were not operated due to weight restrictions on the Alexandra Bridge over the Welland Canal. While permission was obtained in 1915 to operate lighter cars over this bridge, such vehicles were not obtained until 1922. Service on the west side of the canal operated for only about 6 months; the distance travelled was so short that the majority of people preferred to walk, service was cut back to the original line on the east side of the canal. Workers traveling to the Page Hersey Tubes Ltd. located in the south end of Welland, provided much of the railway's traffic, it is that Page Hersey contributed to its operating expenses. The railway had offices at 30 South Main Street in a building known as the Weller Block. C. J. Laughlin is listed as the superintendent. A single fare on the service was 6 tickets for 25 cents; this fare remained unchanged for the entire existence of the line.
The line never operated at a loss. In its peak year of 1917, the line carried over 693,000 passengers and earned profits in excess of $16,000. At the expiry of the franchise, the City of Welland was not willing to take over the service; the line ceased to operate on July 4, 1930