Ilya Yefimovich Repin was a Russian realist painter. He was the most renowned Russian artist of the 19th century, when his position in the world of art was comparable to that of Leo Tolstoy in literature, he played a major role in bringing Russian art into the mainstream of European culture. His major works include Barge Haulers on the Volga, Religious Procession in Kursk Province and Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks. Repin was born in Chuguyev, in Kharkov Governorate, Russian Empire into a family of "military settlers", his father traded his grandmother ran an inn. He entered military school to study surveying. Soon after the surveying course was cancelled, his father helped Repin to become an apprentice with Ivan Bunakov, a local icon painter, where he restored old icons and painted portraits of local notables through commissions. In 1863 he went to St. Petersburg Art Academy to study painting but had to enter Ivan Kramskoi preparatory school first, he met fellow artist Ivan Kramskoi and the critic Vladimir Stasov during the 1860s, his wife, Vera Shevtsova in 1872.
In 1874–1876 he showed at the Salon in Paris and at the exhibitions of the Itinerants' Society in Saint Petersburg. He was awarded the title of academician in 1876. In 1880 Repin travelled to Zaporizhia to gather material for the 1891 Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks, his Religious Procession in Kursk Province was exhibited in 1883, Ivan the Terrible and His Son Ivan in 1885. In 1892 he published the Letters on Art collection of essays, he taught at the Higher Art School attached to the Academy of Arts from 1894. In 1898 he purchased Penaty, in Kuokkala, Finland. In 1901 he was awarded the Legion of Honour. In 1911 he traveled with his common-law wife Natalia Nordman to the World Exhibition in Italy, where his painting 17 October 1905 and his portraits were displayed in their own separate room. In 1916 Repin worked on his book of reminiscences and Near, with the assistance of Korney Chukovsky, he welcomed the February Revolution of 1917, but was rather skeptical towards the October Revolution. Soviet authorities asked him a number of times to come back, he remained in Finland for the rest of his life.
Celebrations were held in 1924 in Kuokkala to mark Repin's 80th birthday, followed by an exhibition of his works in Moscow. In 1925 a jubilee exhibition of his works was held in the Russian Museum in Leningrad. Repin was buried at the Penates. Repin was born in the town of Chuguyev, in the Kharkov Governorate of the Russian Empire, in the heart of the historical region of the Sloboda Ukraine, his father Yefim Vasilyevich Repin was a private in the Uhlan Regiment of the Imperial Russian Army. As a boy Ilya was educated at the local school. From 1854 he attended a military Cantonist school, he did not have fond recollections of his childhood due to the military settlements his family lived in. In 1856 he became a student of a local icon painter. In 1859–1863 he painted icons and wall-paintings by commission for the Society for the Encouragement of Artists. In 1864 he began attending the Imperial Academy of Arts, met the painter Ivan Kramskoi. In 1869 he was awarded a small gold medal for His Friends.
He met the critic Vladimir Stasov and painted a portrait of Vera Shevtsova, his future wife. Repin traveled to the Volga River in 1870 to sketch studies of barge haulers; the following year he was awarded a large gold medal for his painting The Raising of Jairus' Daughter. He married Vera Shevtsova in 1872 and met Pavel Tretyakov, who purchased some of Repin's first works. Repin's first daughter, was born the same year. During this time, he worked on the painting Barge Haulers on the Volga, commissioned by Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich; the painting was completed in 1873. In an 1872 letter to Stasov, Repin wrote: "Now it is the peasant, the judge and so it is necessary to represent his interests." In 1873 Repin traveled to France with his family. His second daughter, was born in 1874. In 1874–1876 he contributed to the Salon in Paris and to the exhibitions of the Itinerants' Society in Saint Petersburg. While in France he became familiar with the impressionists and the debate over a new direction in art.
Though he admired some impressionist techniques their depictions of light and color, he felt their work lacked moral or social purpose, key factors in his own art. Repin earned the title of academician in 1876 for his painting Sadko in the Underwater Kingdom, his son Yury was born the following year. He moved to Moscow that year, produced a wide variety of works including portraits of Arkhip Kuindzhi and Ivan Shishkin. In 1878 he befriended the painter Vasily Surikov, his third daughter, was born in 1880. He frequented the art circle of Savva Mamontov, which gathered at Abramtsevo, his estate near Moscow. Here Repin met many of the leading painters of the day, including Vasily Polenov, Valentin Serov, Mikhail Vrubel. In 1882 he and Vera divorced. Repin's contemporaries commented on his special ability of capturing peasant life in his works. In an 1876 letter to Stasov, Kramskoi wrote: "Rep
The Crimean War was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France and Sardinia. The immediate cause involved the rights of Christian minorities in the Holy Land, a part of the Ottoman Empire; the French promoted the rights of Roman Catholics, while Russia promoted those of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The longer-term causes involved the decline of the Ottoman Empire and the unwillingness of Britain and France to allow Russia to gain territory and power at Ottoman expense, it has been noted that the causes, in one case involving an argument over a key, have never revealed a "greater confusion of purpose", yet they led to a war noted for its "notoriously incompetent international butchery". While the churches worked out their differences and came to an agreement, Nicholas I of Russia and the French Emperor Napoleon III refused to back down. Nicholas issued an ultimatum that the Orthodox subjects of the Ottoman Empire be placed under his protection.
Britain arranged a compromise that Nicholas agreed to. When the Ottomans demanded changes, Nicholas prepared for war. Having obtained promises of support from France and Britain, the Ottomans declared war on Russia in October 1853; the war started in the Balkans in July 1853, when Russian troops occupied the Danubian Principalities, which were under Ottoman suzerainty began to cross the Danube. Led by Omar Pasha, the Ottomans fought a strong defensive campaign and stopped the advance at Silistra. A separate action on the fort town of Kars in eastern Anatolia led to a siege, a Turkish attempt to reinforce the garrison was destroyed by a Russian fleet at Sinop. Fearing an Ottoman collapse and Britain rushed forces to Gallipoli, they moved north to Varna in June 1854, arriving just in time for the Russians to abandon Silistra. Aside from a minor skirmish at Köstence, there was little for the allies to do. Karl Marx quipped, "there they are, the French doing nothing and the British helping them as fast as possible".
Frustrated by the wasted effort, with demands for action from their citizens, the allied force decided to attack Russia's main naval base in the Black Sea at Sevastopol on the Crimean peninsula. After extended preparations, the forces landed on the peninsula in September 1854 and marched their way to a point south of Sevastopol after the successful Battle of the Alma; the Russians counterattacked on 25 October in what became the Battle of Balaclava and were repulsed, but at the cost of depleting the British Army forces. A second counterattack, at Inkerman, ended in stalemate; the front led to brutal conditions for troops on both sides. Smaller military actions took place in the Baltic, the Caucasus, the White Sea, the North Pacific. Sevastopol fell after eleven months, neutral countries began to join the Allied cause. Isolated and facing a bleak prospect of invasion from the west if the war continued, Russia sued for peace in March 1856. France and Britain welcomed this development; the Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 March 1856, ended the war.
It forbade Russia from basing warships in the Black Sea. The Ottoman vassal states of Wallachia and Moldavia became independent. Christians there were granted a degree of official equality, the Orthodox Church regained control of the Christian churches in dispute; the Crimean War was one of the first conflicts in which the military used modern technologies such as explosive naval shells and telegraphs. The war was one of the first to be documented extensively in written photographs; as the legend of the "Charge of the Light Brigade" demonstrates, the war became an iconic symbol of logistical and tactical failures and mismanagement. The reaction in the UK was a demand for professionalisation, most famously achieved by Florence Nightingale, who gained worldwide attention for pioneering modern nursing while treating the wounded; the Crimean War proved to be the moment of truth for Nikolaevan Russia. The humiliation forced Russia's educated elites to identify the Empire's problems and to recognize the need for fundamental transformations aimed at modernizing and restoring Russia's position in the ranks of European powers.
Historians have studied the role of the Crimean War as a catalyst for the reforms of Russia's social institutions: serfdom, local self-government and military service. More scholars have turned their attention to the impact of the Crimean War on the development of Russian nationalistic discourse; as the Ottoman Empire weakened during the 19th century, Russia stood poised to take advantage by expanding south. In the 1850s, the British and the French, who were allied with the Ottoman Empire, were determined not to allow this to happen. A. J. P. Taylor argues that the war resulted not from aggression but from the interacting fears of the major players: In some sense the Crimean war was predestined and had deep-seated causes. Neither Nicholas I nor Napoleon III nor the British government could retreat in the conflict for prestige once it was launched. Nicholas needed a subservient Turkey for the sake of Russian security. Mutual fear, not mutual aggression, caused the Crimean war. In the early 1800s, the Ottoman Empire
Triage is the process of determining the priority of patients' treatments based on the severity of their condition. This rations patient treatment efficiently when resources are insufficient for all to be treated immediately; the term comes from the French verb trier, meaning to separate, sift or select. Triage may result in determining the order and priority of emergency treatment, the order and priority of emergency transport, or the transport destination for the patient. Triage may be used for patients arriving at the emergency department, or telephoning medical advice systems, among others; this article deals with the concept of triage as it occurs in medical emergencies, including the prehospital setting and emergency department treatment. Modern medical triage was invented by Dominique Jean Larrey, a surgeon during the Napoleonic Wars, who "treat the wounded according to the observed gravity of their injuries and the urgency for medical care, regardless of their rank or nationality", though the general concept of prioritizing by prognosis is foreshadowed in a 17th century BC Egyptian document.
Triage was used further during World War I by French doctors treating the battlefield wounded at the aid stations behind the front. Those responsible for the removal of the wounded from a battlefield or their care afterwards would divide the victims into three categories: Those who are to live, regardless of what care they receive. For many emergency medical services systems, a similar model may sometimes still be applied. In the earliest stages of an incident, such as when one or two paramedics exist to twenty or more patients, practicality demands that the above, more "primitive" model will be used. However, once a full response has occurred and many hands are available, paramedics will use the model included in their service policy and standing orders; as medical technology has advanced, so have modern approaches to triage, which are based on scientific models. The categorizations of the victims are the result of triage scores based on specific physiological assessment findings; some models, such as the START model may be algorithm-based.
As triage concepts become more sophisticated, triage guidance is evolving into both software and hardware decision support products for use by caregivers in both hospitals and the field. This section is for concepts in triage. See other sections for specific triage tools and systems Simple triage is used in a scene of an accident or "mass-casualty incident", in order to sort patients into those who need critical attention and immediate transport to the hospital and those with less serious injuries; this step can be started. Upon completion of the initial assessment by physicians, nurses or paramedical personnel, each patient may be labelled which may identify the patient, display assessment findings, identify the priority of the patient's need for medical treatment and transport from the emergency scene. At its most primitive, patients may be marked with coloured flagging tape or with marker pens. Pre-printed cards for this purpose are known as a triage tags. A triage tag is a prefabricated label placed on each patient that serves to accomplish several objectives: identify the patient.
Bear record of assessment findings. Identify the priority of the patient's need for medical treatment and transport from the emergency scene. Track the patients' progress through the triage process. Identify additional hazards such as contamination. Triage tags may take a variety of forms; some countries use a nationally standardized triage tag, while in other countries commercially available triage tags are used, these will vary by jurisdictional choice. The most used commercial systems include the METTAG, the SMARTTAG, E/T LIGHT tm and the CRUCIFORM systems. More advanced tagging systems incorporate special markers to indicate whether or not patients have been contaminated by hazardous materials, tear off strips for tracking the movement of patients through the process; some of these tracking systems are beginning to incorporate the use of handheld computers, in some cases, bar code scanners. For classifications, see the specific section for that topic. In advanced triage, specially trained doctors and paramedics may decide that some injured people should not receive advanced care because they are unlikely to survive.
It is used to divert scarce resources away from patients with little chance of survival in order to increase the chances for others with higher likelihoods. The use of advanced triage may become necessary when medical professionals decide that the medical resources available are not sufficient to treat all the people who need help; the treatment being prioritized can include the time spent on medical care, or drugs or other limited resources. This has happened in disasters such as terrorist attacks, mass shootings, volcanic eruptions, tornadoes and rail accidents. In these cases some percentage of patients will die regardless of medical care because of the severity of their injuries. Others would die without it. In these extreme situations, any medical care given to people who will die anyway can be considered to be care withdrawn from others who might have survived had they been treated instead, it becomes the task of the disaster medical authorities to set aside some victims as hopeless, to avoid trying to save one life at the expense of several others.
If immediate t
Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania and Montenegro. Fought in the Balkans and in the Caucasus, it originated in emerging 19th-century Balkan nationalism. Additional factors combined Russian goals of recovering territorial losses endured during the Crimean War, re-establishing itself in the Black Sea and supporting the political movement attempting to free Balkan nations from the Ottoman Empire; the Russian-led coalition won the war. As a result, Russia succeeded in claiming several provinces in the Caucasus, namely Kars and Batum, annexed the Budjak region; the principalities of Romania and Montenegro, each of whom had de facto sovereignty for some time, formally proclaimed independence from the Ottoman Empire. After five centuries of Ottoman domination, the Bulgarian state was re-established as the Principality of Bulgaria, covering the land between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains, as well as the region of Sofia, which became the new state's capital.
The Congress of Berlin in 1878 allowed Austria-Hungary to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland to take over Cyprus. The initial Treaty of San Stefano, signed on 3 March, is today celebrated as Liberation Day in Bulgaria, although it somewhat fell out of favour during years of Socialist rule. Article 9 of the 1856 Paris Peace Treaty, concluded at the end of the Crimean War, obliged the Ottoman Empire to grant Christians equal rights with Muslims. Before the treaty was signed, the Ottoman government issued an edict, the Edict of Gülhane, which proclaimed the principle of the equality of Muslims and non-Muslims, produced some specific reforms to this end. For example, the jizya tax was abolished and non-Muslims were allowed to join the army. However, some key aspects of dhimmi status were retained, including that the testimony of Christians against Muslims was not accepted in courts, which granted Muslims effective immunity for offenses conducted against Christians.
Although local level relations between communities were good, this practice encouraged exploitation. Abuses were at their worst in regions with a predominantly Christian population, where local authorities openly supported abuse as a means to keep Christians subjugated. In 1858, the Maronite peasants, stirred by the clergy, revolted against their Druze feudal overlords and established a peasant republic. In southern Lebanon, where Maronite peasants worked for Druze overlords, Druze peasants sided with their overlords against the Maronites, transforming the conflict into a civil war. Although both sides suffered, about 10,000 Maronites were massacred at the hands of the Druze. Under the threat of European intervention, Ottoman authorities restored order. French and British intervention followed. Under further European pressure, the Sultan agreed to appoint a Christian governor in Lebanon, whose candidacy was to be submitted by the Sultan and approved by the European powers. On May 27, 1860 a group of Maronites raided a Druze village.
Massacres and reprisal massacres followed, not only in the Lebanon but in Syria. In the end, between 7,000 and 12,000 people of all religions had been killed, over 300 villages, 500 churches, 40 monasteries, 30 schools were destroyed. Christian attacks on Muslims in Beirut stirred the Muslim population of Damascus to attack the Christian minority with between 5,000 and 25,000 of the latter being killed, including the American and Dutch consuls, giving the event an international dimension. Ottoman foreign minister Mehmed Fuad Pasha came to Syria and solved the problems by seeking out and executing the culprits, including the governor and other officials. Order was restored, preparations made to give Lebanon new autonomy to avoid European intervention. In September 1860 France sent a fleet, Britain joined to prevent a unilateral intervention that could help increase French influence in the area at Britain's expense; the Cretan Revolt, which began in 1866, resulted from the failure of the Ottoman Empire to apply reforms for improving the life of the population and the Cretans' desire for enosis — union with Greece.
The insurgents gained control over the whole island, except for five fortified cities where the Muslims took refuge. The Greek press claimed that Muslims had massacred Greeks and the word was spread throughout Europe. Thousands of Greek volunteers were sent to the island; the siege of Moni Arkadiou monastery became well known. In November 1866, about 250 Cretan Greek combatants and around 600 women and children were besieged by about 23,000 Cretan Muslims aided by Ottoman troops, this became known in Europe. After a bloody battle with a large number of casualties on both sides, the Cretan Greeks surrendered when their ammunition ran out but were killed upon surrender. By early 1869, the insurrection was suppressed, but the Porte offered some concessions, introducing island self-rule and increasing Christian rights on the island. Although the Cretan crisis ended better for the Ottomans than any other diplomatic confrontation of the century, the insurrection, the brutality with which it was suppressed, led to greater public attention in Europe to the oppression of Christians in the Ottoman Empire.
Small as the amount of attention is which can be given by the people of England to the affairs of Turkey... enough was tra
A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people. A monument without the interment is a cenotaph. A mausoleum may be considered a type of tomb, or the tomb may be considered to be within the mausoleum; the word derives from the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, the grave of King Mausolus, the Persian satrap of Caria, whose large tomb was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Mausolea were, still may be, large and impressive constructions for a deceased leader or other person of importance. However, smaller mausolea soon became popular with the nobility in many countries. In the Roman Empire, these were ranged in necropoles or along roadsides: the via Appia Antica retains the ruins of many private mausolea for miles outside Rome. However, when Christianity became dominant, mausoleums were out of use. Mausolea became popular in Europe and its colonies during the early modern and modern periods.
A single mausoleum may be permanently sealed. A mausoleum encloses a burial chamber either wholly above ground or within a burial vault below the superstructure; this contains the body or bodies within sarcophagi or interment niches. Modern mausolea may act as columbaria with additional cinerary urn niches. Mausolea may be located on private land. In the United States, the term may be used for a burial vault below a larger facility, such as a church; the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in Los Angeles, for example, has 6,000 sepulchral and cinerary urn spaces for interments in the lower level of the building. It is known as the "crypt mausoleum". In Europe, these underground vaults are sometimes called catacombs. Mausoleum of Mohammed V Bourguiba mausoleum El Alia Cemetery, Mausoleum of the Late President, Algeria; the Dr. John Garang De Mabior mausoleum in South Sudan. Mastabas dating from ancient Egypt. Agostinho Neto's Mausoleum in Angola. Mausolée du Président Mathieu Kerekou, Benin. Omar Bongo's Mausoleum in Gabon.
Léon M'ba's Memorial Mausoleum in Gabon. Kwame Nkrumah Mausoleum Mausoleum of Late President Levy Mwanawasa, Frederick Chiluba and Michael Sata at Embassy Park in Lusaka, Zambia. Domoni Mosque Mausoleum Indoor inside first president of Comoros, Ahmed Abdallah's Mausoleum. Marien Ngouabi's mausoleum and Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza's mausoleum in Brazzaville, The Republic of Congo. Mausoleum of the late president Felix Houphouet-Boigny in Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire. Laurent Kabila's mausoleum in Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of Congo; the pyramids of ancient Egypt and Nubian pyramids are types of mausolea. Gamal Abdel Nasser Mosque, is the Mausoleum of Gamal Abdel Nasser, in Egypt. Unknown Soldier Memorial Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania Al Hussein Mosque, Cairo – Holy Shrine and mausoleum, purported grave of the Islamic prophet Muhammad's grandson. Qalawun Mausoleum is the Mausoleum of Qalawun, Located in Cairo, Egypt, it was regarded by scholars as the second most beautiful medieval mausoleum to be built.
Jedars - thirteen ancient monumental Berber mausoleums located south of Tiaret. Palm Grove Cemetery, Liberia. National Hall, Mausoleum of the Late President William Tubman in Monrovia, Liberia. Late President Eyadema's Family Mausoleum in Togo. Kamuzu Banda Mausoleum, in Lilongwe, Malawi. Dr. Bingu wa Mutharika, President of Malawi built a mausoleum in which his late first wife and Bingu himself are buried. Meles Zenawi's grave in Holy Trinity Cathedral, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. King Sobhuza II Memorial Park, Swaziland. Julius Nyerere's mausoleum in Tanzania. Amilcar Cabral's mausoleum in Guinea-Bissau. Mausoleum of the Late President of Kenya Mzee Jomo Kenyatta in Nairobi, Kenya. Camayanne Mausoleum and contains the tombs of Guinea national hero Samori Ture, Sekou Toure and Alfa Yaya. Nnamdi Azikiwe's Burial Site In Onitsha, Nigeria. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa's tomb, Nigeria. Mausoleum of Obafemi Awolowo, Ogun State, Nigeria. Mausoleum of Sani Abacha, Nigeria. National Heroes Acre in Harare, Zimbabwe. Taj Mahal at Agra, India Qutb Shahi Tombs at Hyderabad, India Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur, India Humayun's Tomb at Delhi, India Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor biggest underground mausoleum The pyramids of ancient China are types of mausolea.
Qianling Mausoleum in China, houses the remains of Emperor Gaozong of Tang and the ruling Empress Wu Zetian, along with 17 others in auxiliary tombs. Mausoleum of Genghis Khan in Ordos City, Inner Mongolia. Thirteen Imperial Mausoleums of Ming Dynasty Emperors, Beijing Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum, Nanjing Fuling Tomb, Shenyang Zhao Mausoleum Eastern Qing Tombs Western Qing Tombs Tomb of Jahangir at Shahdara, near Lahore, Pakistan. Mazar-e-Quaid at Karachi, Pakistan Data Durbar at Lahore, Pakistan Mausoleum of Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in Gopalganj, Bangladesh. Bandaranaike family Estate in Horagolla Bandaranaike Samadhi, Sri Lanka Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum, Hanoi Kumsusan Palace of the Sun or Kim Il-sung Mausoleum, Democratic People's Republic of Korea Mausoleum of Mao Zedong, Beijing. Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum, Nanjing. National Dr. Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, Taipei. National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Taipei. Mausoleum of Late President Lord Chiang Kai-shek, Taoyuan. Mausoleum of Late President Chiang Ching-kuo, Taoyuan.
Astana Giribangun Suharto family complex in traditional Javanese architectural style in Matesih, Karanganyar Regency, Central Java Imogiri co
Odessa is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea. It is the administrative center of the Odessa Oblast and a multiethnic cultural center. Odessa is sometimes called the "pearl of the Black Sea", the "South Capital", "Southern Palmyra". Before the Tsarist establishment of Odessa, an ancient Greek settlement existed at its location as elsewhere along the northwestern Black Sea coast. A more recent Tatar settlement was founded at the location by Hacı I Giray, the Khan of Crimea in 1440, named after him as "Hacıbey". After a period of Lithuanian Grand Duchy control and surroundings became part of the domain of the Ottomans in 1529 and remained there until the empire's defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of 1792. In 1794, the city of Odessa was founded by a decree of the Russian empress Catherine the Great. From 1819 to 1858, Odessa was a free port. During the Soviet period it was the most important port of trade in the Soviet Union and a Soviet naval base.
On 1 January 2000, the Quarantine Pier at Odessa Commercial Sea Port was declared a free port and free economic zone for a period of 25 years. During the 19th century, Odessa was the fourth largest city of Imperial Russia, after Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Warsaw, its historical architecture has a style more Mediterranean than Russian, having been influenced by French and Italian styles. Some buildings are built in a mixture of different styles, including Art Nouveau and Classicist. Odessa is a warm-water port; the city of Odessa hosts both the Port of Odessa and Port Yuzhne, a significant oil terminal situated in the city's suburbs. Another notable port, Chornomorsk, is located to the south-west of Odessa. Together they represent a major transport hub integrating with railways. Odessa's oil and chemical processing facilities are connected to Russian and European networks by strategic pipelines; the city was named in compliance with the Greek Plan of Catherine the Great. It was named after the ancient Greek city of Odessos, mistakenly believed to have been located here.
Odessa is located in between the ancient Greek cities of Tyras and Olbia, different from the ancient Odessos's location further west along the coast, at present day Varna, Bulgaria. Catherine's secretary of state Adrian Gribovsky claimed in his memoirs that the name was his suggestion; some expressed doubts about this claim, while others noted the reputation of Gribovsky as an honest and modest man. Odessa was the site of a large Greek settlement no than the middle of the 6th century BC; some scholars believe it to have been a trade settlement established by the Greek city of Histria. Whether the Bay of Odessa is the ancient "Port of the Histrians" cannot yet be considered a settled question based on the available evidence. Archaeological artifacts confirm extensive links between the Odessa area and the eastern Mediterranean. In the Middle Ages successive rulers of the Odessa region included various nomadic tribes, the Golden Horde, the Crimean Khanate, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Ottoman Empire.
Yedisan Crimean Tatars traded there in the 14th century. During the reign of Khan Hacı I Giray of Crimea, the Khanate was endangered by the Golden Horde and the Ottoman Turks and, in search of allies, the khan agreed to cede the area to Lithuania; the site of present-day Odessa was a fortress known as Khadjibey. It was part of the Dykra region. However, most of the rest of the area remained uninhabited in this period. Khadjibey came under direct control of the Ottoman Empire after 1529 as part of a region known as Yedisan, was administered in the Ottoman Silistra Province. In the mid-18th century, the Ottomans rebuilt the fortress at Khadjibey, named Yeni Dünya. Hocabey was a sanjak centre of Silistre Province; the sleepy fishing village that Odessa had been saw a step-change in its fortunes when the wealthy magnate and future Voivode of Kiev, Antoni Protazy Potocki, set up trade routes through the port for the Polish Black Sea Trading Company and set up the infrastructure in the 1780s. During the Russian-Turkish War of 1787–1792, on 25 September 1789, a detachment of the Russian forces including Zaporozhian Cossacks under Alexander Suvorov and Ivan Gudovich took Khadjibey and Yeni Dünya for the Russian Empire.
One part of the troops came under command of a Spaniard in Russian service, Major General José de Ribas, the main street in Odessa today, Deribasivska Street, is named after him. Russia formally gained possession of the area as a result of the Treaty of Jassy in 1792 and it became a part of Novorossiya; the city of Odessa, founded by Catherine the Great, Russian Empress, centers on the site of the Turkish fortress Khadzhibei, occupied by Russian Army in 1789. Flemish engineer working for the empress, Franz de Volan recommended the area of Khadzhibei fortress as the site for the region's basic port: it had an ice-free harbor, breakwaters could be cheaply constructed and would render the harbor safe and it would have the capacity to accommodate large fleets; the Governor General of Novorossiya, Platon Zubov supported this proposal, in 1794 Catherine approved the foundi
Florence Nightingale, was an English social reformer and statistician, the founder of modern nursing. Nightingale came to prominence while serving as a manager and trainer of nurses during the Crimean War, in which she organised care for wounded soldiers, she gave nursing a favourable reputation and became an icon of Victorian culture in the persona of "The Lady with the Lamp" making rounds of wounded soldiers at night. Recent commentators have asserted Nightingale's Crimean War achievements were exaggerated by media at the time, but critics agree on the importance of her work in professionalising nursing roles for women. In 1860, Nightingale laid the foundation of professional nursing with the establishment of her nursing school at St Thomas' Hospital in London, it was the first secular nursing school in the world, is now part of King's College London. In recognition of her pioneering work in nursing, the Nightingale Pledge taken by new nurses, the Florence Nightingale Medal, the highest international distinction a nurse can achieve, were named in her honour, the annual International Nurses Day is celebrated around the world on her birthday.
Her social reforms included improving healthcare for all sections of British society, advocating better hunger relief in India, helping to abolish prostitution laws that were harsh for women, expanding the acceptable forms of female participation in the workforce. Nightingale was a versatile writer. In her lifetime, much of her published work was concerned with spreading medical knowledge; some of her tracts were written in simple English so that they could be understood by those with poor literary skills. She was a pioneer in the use of infographics using graphical presentations of statistical data. Much of her writing, including her extensive work on religion and mysticism, has only been published posthumously. Florence Nightingale was born on 12 May 1820 into a rich, upper-class, well-connected British family at the Villa Colombaia, in Florence, Tuscany and was named after the city of her birth. Florence's older sister Frances Parthenope had been named after her place of birth, Parthenope, a Greek settlement now part of the city of Naples.
The family moved back to England in 1821, with Nightingale being brought up in the family's homes at Embley and Lea Hurst, Derbyshire. Florence inherited a liberal-humanitarian outlook from both sides of her family, her parents were William Edward Nightingale, born William Edward Shore and Frances Nightingale née Smith. William's mother Mary née Evans was the niece of Peter Nightingale, under the terms of whose will William inherited his estate at Lea Hurst, assumed the name and arms of Nightingale. Fanny's father was Unitarian William Smith. Nightingale's father educated her. In 1838, her father took the family on a tour in Europe where he was introduced to the English-born Parisian hostess Mary Clarke, with whom Florence bonded, she recorded that "Clarkey" was a stimulating hostess who did not care for her appearance, while her ideas did not always agree with those of her guests, "she was incapable of boring anyone." Her behaviour was said to be exasperating and eccentric and she had no respect for upper-class British women, whom she regarded as inconsequential.
She said that if given the choice between being a woman or a galley slave she would choose the freedom of the galleys. She rejected female company and spent her time with male intellectuals. However, Clarkey made an exception in the case of Florence in particular, she and Florence were to remain close friends for 40 years despite their 27-year age difference. Clarke demonstrated that women could be equals to men, an idea that Florence had not obtained from her mother. Nightingale underwent the first of several experiences that she believed were calls from God in February 1837 while at Embley Park, prompting a strong desire to devote her life to the service of others. In her youth she was respectful of her family's opposition to her working as a nurse, only announcing her decision to enter the field in 1844. Despite the intense anger and distress of her mother and sister, she rebelled against the expected role for a woman of her status to become a wife and mother. Nightingale worked hard to educate herself in the art and science of nursing, in the face of opposition from her family and the restrictive social code for affluent young English women.
As a young woman, Nightingale was described as attractive and graceful. While her demeanour was severe, she was said to be charming and to possess a radiant smile, her most persistent suitor was the politician and poet Richard Monckton Milnes, but after a nine-year courtship she rejected him, convinced that marriage would interfere with her ability to follow her calling to nursing. In Rome in 1847, she met Sidney Herbert, a politician, Secretary at War, on his honeymoon, he and Nightingale became lifelong close friends. Herbert would be Secretary of War again during the Crimean War, when he and his wife would be instrumental in facilitating Nightingale's nursing work in the Crimea, she became Herbert's key adviser throughout his political career, though she was accused by some of having hastened Herbert's death from Bright's Disease in 1861 because of the pressure her programme of reform placed on him. Nightingale much had strong relations with academic Benjamin Jowett, who may have wanted to marry her.
Nightingale continued her travels as far as Egypt. Her writings on Egypt in particular are testimony to her learn