Lubyanskaya Square, or Lubyanka in Moscow lies about 900 metres north-east of Red Square. History first records its name in 1480, when Grand Prince Ivan III of Moscow, who had conquered Novgorod in 1471, settled many Novgorodians in the area, they built the church of St Sophia, modelled after St Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod, called the area Lubyanka after the Lubyanitsy district of their native city. Lubyanka Square is best known for the monumental Lubyanka Building, designed by Aleksandr V. Ivanov and constructed from 1897 to 1898. Built for the insurance company Rossiya, it became better known for housing the headquarters of the KGB in its various incarnations; as of 2016 the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation occupies the building. The square was renamed Dzerzhinsky Square for many years in honor of the founder of the Soviet security service, Felix Dzerzhinsky. Yevgeny Vuchetich's monumental statue of Dzerzhinsky was erected in the center of the square in 1958. Opposite the FSB building stands the massive Detsky Mir, Europe's largest children's store, built between 1953 and 1957, restored in 2014.
It hosts in its main atrium the world's largest mechanical clock movement: Raketa Monumental. On October 30, 1990, the Memorial organization erected the Solovetsky Stone, a monument to the victims of the Gulag, a simple stone from the Solovki prison camp in the White Sea. In 1991 the statue of Dzerzhinsky was removed by liberal protesters following the failure of the coup attempt against Mikhail Gorbachev, the square's original name was restored; the Moscow Metro station Lubyanka operates under Lubyanka Square
Kazan Cathedral, Moscow
Kazan Cathedral Russian: Казанский собор, formally known as the "Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan", is a Russian Orthodox church located on the northeast corner of Red Square in Moscow, Russia. The current building is a reconstruction of the original church, destroyed at the direction of General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin, in 1936. Upon recovering Moscow from the armies of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1612 at the close of the Time of Troubles, Prince Dmitry Pozharsky attributed his success to the divine help of the icon Theotokos of Kazan, to whom he had prayed on several occasions. From his private funds, he financed construction of a wooden church to the Virgin of Kazan on Red Square in Moscow, first mentioned in historical records in 1625. After the diminutive shrine was destroyed by a fire in 1632, Tsar Michael I, ordered it replaced with a brick church; the one-domed edifice, featuring several tiers of kokoshniki, a wide gallery, a tented belfry, was consecrated in October 1636.
Kazan Cathedral was considered one of the most important churches in Moscow. Annually on the anniversary of the liberation of Moscow from Poland-Lithuania, a solemn parade led by the Patriarch and the Tsar carried a processional cross from the Kremlin. By the end of the 17th century, the church building was expanded and received a bell tower and a redesigned entrance. Numerous other renovations of the cathedral were undertaken during the imperial period, notably during 1801, 1805, 1865, much of the original design was lost behind additions; the history of the cathedral was tempestuous, as evidenced by the fact that its archpriest Avvakum led the party of religious dissenters, or Old Believers. The distinguished Russian restorer Peter Baranovsky supervised a complete reconstruction of the church's exterior to its original design in 1929–1932; some specialists, criticised the accuracy of this reconstruction. In 1936, when Red Square was being prepared for holding the military parades of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin ordered the square cleared of churches.
Although efforts were made by Baranovsky to save it, he could not prevent the Kazan Cathedral from being demolished. In its place a temporary building housing offices for the Communist International was erected, it was used as a summer café. After the fall of the Soviet Union, the Kazan Cathedral was the first church to be rebuilt after having been destroyed by the Communists; the cathedral's restoration was sponsored by the Moscow city branch of the All-Russian Society for Historic Preservation and Cultural Organization, was based on the detailed measurements and photographs of the original church. However, the icon of the Kazan Virgin in the restored cathedral is a copy. Kazan Cathedral, Moscow
Teatralnaya (Moscow Metro)
Teatralnaya is an underground metro station on the Zamoskvoretskaya line of the Moscow Metro, named for the nearby Teatralnaya Square, the location of numerous theaters, including the famed Bolshoi Theatre. The station is unique in; the north escalator leads to the south escalator to Ploshchad Revolyutsii. Ploshchad Sverdlova station opened on September 11, 1938 as part of the second stage of construction of the Moscow Metro system, it was the terminal station of the Zamoskvoretskaya line until the line was extended on January 1, 1943. Teatralnaya's architect was Ivan Fomin; the station is located at a depth of 33.9 meters. The central hall has a diameter of 9.5 meters, with an 8.5 meter lateral lining of cast-iron tubing. From its opening until 1990, the station's name was Ploshchad Sverdlova, named in honor of the prominent Bolshevik, Yakov Sverdlov. In 1990, the city changed the name of the square to Teatralnaya Ploshchad; the name of the station followed accordingly. Teatralnaya Station has fluted pylons faced with labradorite and white marble taken from the demolished Cathedral of Christ the Saviour.
Crystal lamps in bronze frames attached to the center of the room give the central hall a festive appearance. The vault of the central hall is decorated with caissons and majolica bas-reliefs by Natyla Danko on the theme of theatre arts of the USSR, manufactured by Leningrad Porcelain Factory; these bas-reliefs are a series of fourteen different figures, each representing music and dance from various nationalities of the Soviet Union. Seven male and seven female figures attired in their national costumes are either performing an ethnic dance or are playing a distinctively ethnic musical instrument; the series included Armenia, Georgia, Russia and Uzbekistan. Each figure is reproduced four times for a total of 56 figures; the floor was of black-and-yellow granite patterned as a chessboard. A bust of Yakov Sverdlov, for whom the station was named, was located at the end of the platform opposite the escalators. Only the base remains today. A bust of Vladimir Lenin was however, preserved. From this station it is possible to transfer to Okhotniy Ryad on the Sokolnicheskaya Line and Ploshchad Revolyutsii on the Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya line.
O'Mahony, Mike. Sport in the USSR: physical culture - visual culture. Reaktion Books ISBN 1-86189-267-5 Official Teatralnaya station webpage
The October Revolution known in Soviet historiography as the Great October Socialist Revolution and referred to as the October Uprising, the October Coup, the Bolshevik Revolution, the Bolshevik Coup or the Red October, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolshevik Party of Vladimir Lenin, instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd on 7 November 1917, it followed and capitalized on the February Revolution of the same year, which overthrew the Tsarist autocracy and resulted in a provisional government after a transfer of power proclaimed by Grand Duke Michael, the younger brother of Tsar Nicholas II, who declined to take power after the Tsar stepped down. During this time, urban workers began to organize into councils wherein revolutionaries criticized the provisional government and its actions. After the Congress of Soviets, now the governing body, had its second session, it elected members of the Bolsheviks and other leftist groups such as the Left Socialist Revolutionaries to important positions within the new state of affairs.
This initiated the establishment of the Russian Soviet Republic. On 17 July 1918, his family were executed; the revolution was led by the Bolsheviks, who used their influence in the Petrograd Soviet to organize the armed forces. Bolshevik Red Guards forces under the Military Revolutionary Committee began the occupation of government buildings on 7 November 1917; the following day, the Winter Palace was captured. The long-awaited Constituent Assembly elections were held on 12 November 1917. In contrast to their majority in the Soviets, the Bolsheviks only won 175 seats in the 715-seat legislative body, coming in second behind the Socialist Revolutionary Party, which won 370 seats, although the SR Party no longer existed as a whole party by that time, as the Left SRs had gone into coalition with the Bolsheviks from October 1917 to March 1918; the Constituent Assembly was to first meet on 28 November 1917, but its convocation was delayed until 5 January 1918 by the Bolsheviks. On its first and only day in session, the Constituent Assembly came into conflict with the Soviets, it rejected Soviet decrees on peace and land, resulting in the Constituent Assembly being dissolved the next day by order of the Congress of Soviets.
As the revolution was not universally recognized, there followed the struggles of the Russian Civil War and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922. At first, the event was referred to as the October coup or the Uprising of 3rd, as seen in contemporary documents. In Russian, however, "переворот" has a similar meaning to "revolution" and means "upheaval" or "overturn", so "coup" is not the correct translation. With time, the term October Revolution came into use, it is known as the "November Revolution" having occurred in November according to the Gregorian Calendar. The February Revolution had toppled Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, replaced his government with the Russian Provisional Government. However, the provisional government was riven by internal dissension, it continued to wage World War I, which became unpopular. A nationwide crisis developed in Russia, affecting social and political relations. Disorder in industry and transport had intensified, difficulties in obtaining provisions had increased.
Gross industrial production in 1917 had decreased by over 36% from what it had been in 1914. In the autumn, as much as 50% of all enterprises were closed down in the Urals, the Donbas, other industrial centers, leading to mass unemployment. At the same time, the cost of living increased sharply. Real wages fell about 50% from what they had been in 1913. Russia's national debt in October 1917 had risen to 50 billion rubles. Of this, debts to foreign governments constituted more than 11 billion rubles; the country faced the threat of financial bankruptcy. Throughout June and August 1917, it was common to hear working-class Russians speak about their lack of confidence and misgivings with those in power in the Provisional Government. Factory workers around Russia felt unhappy with the growing shortages of food and other materials, they blamed their own managers or foremen and would attack them in the factories. The workers blamed many rich and influential individuals, such as elites in positions of power, for the overall shortage of food and poor living conditions.
Workers labelled these rich and powerful individuals as opponents of the Revolution, called them words such as "bourgeois and imperialist."In September and October 1917, there were mass strike actions by the Moscow and Petrograd workers, miners in Donbas, metalworkers in the Urals, oil workers in Baku, textile workers in the Central Industrial Region, railroad workers on 44 railway lines. In these months alone, more than a million workers took part in strikes. Workers established control over production and distribution in many factories and plants in a social revolution. Workers were able to organize these strikes through factory committees; the factory committees represented the workers and were able to negotiate better working conditions and hours. Though workplace conditions may have been increasing in quality, the overall quality of life for workers was not improving. There were still shortages of food and the increased wages workers had obtained did little to provide for their families.
By October 1917, peasant uprisings were common. By autumn the peasant movement ag
Kitay-gorod referred to as the Great Possad in the 16th–17th centuries, is a cultural and historical area within the central part of Moscow in Russia, defined by the remnants of now entirely razed fortifications, narrow streets and densely built cityscape. It is separated from the Moscow Kremlin by Red Square. Kitay-gorod does not constitute a district, as there are no resident voters, municipal elections are not possible. Rather, the territory has been part of Tverskoy District, the Central Administrative Okrug authorities have managed the area directly since 2003; the origins of the name Kitay-gorod are unclear. Gorod is the Russian word for "city", derived from the ancient gord. Kita is a somewhat obsolete word for "plait" or "an item made by braiding". A 17th-century Russian source states "У шапок янычары имели киты", meaning "The Janissaries had braids hanging from their caps". Author Robert Wallace asserts in his 1967 book Rise of Russia the term might mean a rough-hewn defensive bulwark made from woven wicker baskets filled with earth or rock – and thus Kitay-gorod means "Basket city".
Kitay could be derived from an old word for the wooden stakes used in construction of the quarter's walls. Kitay is the modern Russian word for China. An article entitled "Kitay-gorod as part of Moscow" in the Imperial Russian Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary said: "At first this part was called New Town and Another Town, from the end of the 16th century onwards, – Middle Town or Kitay-gorod." The walls were erected from 1536 to 1539 by an Italian architect known under the Russified name Petrok Maly and featured 13 towers and six gates. They were as thick as they were high; the last of the towers were demolished in the 1930s. One of two remaining parts of the wall is located in Zaryadye and the other near the exit from the Okhotny Ryad station of Moscow Metro behind the Hotel Metropol; the mayor of Moscow announced plans for a full-scale restoration of the wall. City officials plan to close Kitay-gorod to automobile traffic. Since 1995 the wall has been extensively rebuilt, a new tower has been added.
Inside the tower are a couple of restaurants and bars. Apart from Red Square, the quarter is bordered by the chain of Central Squares of Moscow, notably Theatre Square, Lubyanka Square, Slavyanskaya Square. Bourse Square on Ilyinka Street is situated within Kitay-gorod. Kitay-gorod, developing as a trading area, was known as the most prestigious business area of Moscow, its three main streets — Varvarka and Nikolskaya — are lined with banks and storehouses like the historicistic shopping mall GUM which confines Kitay-gorod towards Red Square. One of the most beautiful churches in Moscow, St. Nicholas Church on the Ilyinka, informally known as the Great Cross, was a landmark in Kitay-gorod but was destroyed in 1933; this district features the Church of Cosmas and Damian and the Trinity Church of Nikitniki, which today is nestled among city buildings. It was built in Grigory Nikitnikov. Nikolskaya Street is famous for being the site of Moscow's first university, the Slavic Greek Latin Academy, housed in extant Zaikonospassky monastery.
Another monastery cathedral, the main church of Epiphany Monastery, stands in the middle of Kitay-gorod in the eponymous Bogoyavlensky Lane. The 18th century survives in the exterior walls of the otherwise rebuilt Gostiny Dvor by Giacomo Quarenghi. In the 19th century, Red Square was lined by a neoclassical domed structure of Upper Trade Rows by Joseph Bove. However, in the 1890s it was torn down and replaced with the new, eclectic Upper Trading Rows and the similar Middle Trading Rows; the rest of Kitay-gorod was densely filled with offices and hotels, to the point where real estate developers had to build streets, not buildings – like the Tretyakovsky Proyezd project by Pavel Tretyakov and Alexander Kaminsky. In the 1890s, developers consolidated large land lots on the perimeter of Kitay-gorod. Savva Mamontov launched an ambitious civic center, built around an opera hall, completed as the Metropol Hotel in 1907, the largest early Art Nouveau building in Moscow, containing artwork by Mikhail Vrubel, Alexander Golovin and Nikolai Andreev.
The eastern segment was rebuilt by the Moscow Merchant Society, with the late Art Nouveau Boyarsky Dvor offices and the neoclassical 4, Staraya Square which housed the Central Committee of the Communist Party. The present-day offices and clock tower of Constitutional Court of Russia were financed by the Northern Insurance Society and built by Ivan Rerberg, Marian Peretiatkovich and Vyacheslav Oltarzhevsky. Since the early 1990s, many historical buildings have been torn down or rebuilt by facadist methods, tearing down everything beyond the street facade. Apart from the Gostiny Dvor, recent losses include the Tyoplye Trade Rows and the reopened block at 10, Nikolskaya Street; the degree of destruction cannot be assessed in full, since many properties are operated by the federal government and closed to the general public. A whol
Tverskoy District is a district of Central Administrative Okrug of the federal city of Moscow, Russia. Population: 75,378 ; the district extends from Kitai-gorod northwest to Savyolovsky Rail Terminals. Its southern boundary runs two city blocks south from Tverskaya Street. Tverskoy District houses State Duma, Federation Council, the Mayor of Moscow, Moscow City Council, Moscow Police Headquarters, it contains Theatre Square, the business district of Tverskaya Street with Pushkin Square, Petrovka Street, Dmitrovka Street, the western part of Kuznetsky Most. It has the highest concentration of theatres, including Bolshoi Theatre and the historical Pillar Hall of the House of the Unions. Historical areas of Patriarshy Ponds, Malaya Bronnaya Street, most of Tverskoy Boulevard, while associated with Tverskaya Street belong to Presnensky District. Since 2002 Tverskoy District includes Kitai-gorod, once a separate territory managed directly by Central Administrative Okrug; this section is based on P. V. Sytin's "History of Moscow Streets" Tverskaya Street emerged, as the road to Tver, in the 12th century.
Dmitrovka Street, the road to Dmitrov, Petrovka Street, leading to Vysokopetrovsky Monastery, date back to the 14th century. Until the 1820s, the territory of what is now Tverskoy District was separated from the Moscow Kremlin by the Neglinnaya River; because of that, the city grew eastward in the Middle Ages—into the Red Square and Kitai-Gorod—while the development of western territories lagged behind. A stone bridge connecting Tverskaya with the Red Square was built in 1595. Urban development in the western part concentrated along Tverskaya Street. In the late 15th century, it was built out with country-like wooden homes to Pushkin Square, by the end of the 16th century the city extended beyond the present-day Garden Ring. First stone Boyar houses appeared in downtown Tverskaya around that time. In 1654, Strastnoy Monastery was set up in present-day Pushkin Square, three years Odoyevsky family set up a stone mansion on the site of present-day Museum of Modern History, beyond the Bely Gorod walls.
Dmitrovka Street developed after the fire of 1648, as marked by the one-of-a-kind eight-tented church of Nativity in Putinki. Unusually for Moscow outskirts, it was financed by the State, as the church was located near the Embassy Inn, home to foreign guests. Peter the Great's move of the national capital to Saint Petersburg improved the leading role of Tverskaya Street, as it became the main road of royal journeys between two capitals. Tverskaya acquired Moscow's first triumphal arch, Gagarin family palace, Zakhar Chernyshyov mansion; the Fire of 1812 wiped out wealthy mansions and peasant homes alike, sparing only the Pushkin Square. Northeastern side of Tverskoy District lagged behind Tverskaya Street and Moscow's east side due to frequent floods on the Neglinnaya River. First attempt to control the river, proposed in 1775 by Matvey Kazakov, materialized in 1792 Neglinnaya Canal, running parallel to the river. Once the canal was completed, the old river bed was filled with earth. In 1817–1819, the channel was covered with masonry vaults, locking the stream in an underground tunnel.
This created Neglinnaya Street, the youngest street inside Boulevard Ring, but did not rule out future floods. The most recent flood, in 1973, led to complete rebuilding of the aging tunnel Another legacy of the Neglinnaya river survives in Central Baths and Sandunovsky Baths; the first public theater, Petrovsky Teatr, was set up in 1780 by English entrepreneur Michael Maddox and Prince Urusov in present-day Theatre Square. It burned down in October 1805 after 425 successful shows. In 1825, Joseph Bove built a new, larger Bolshoi Theatre on the same site. By this time, downtown stretch of the Neglinnaya River was contained in an underground tunnel. In the same 1825, landowner Vargin built Maly Theatre on his own adjacent lot. For the first five years, the State leased the building from Vargin. Owners of the opposite land lots were obliged to build houses like Maly Theatre, forming a symmetrical neoclassical square with a parade ground and water fountain; the symmetry was ruined by expansions in the 1870s, which added the third theatre—originally Bronnikov private theater.
Another historical hall, the Assembly of Nobility stands on the corner of Bolshaya Dmitrovka and Okhotny Ryad streets since 1790. The building, designed by Matvey Kazakov, was rebuilt externally, but the Pillar Hall inside it, famous for its acoustics, remains close to Kazakov's original design; when the State lifted the ban on private theatres in 1882, tradition continued with Moscow Art Theatre in Kamergersky Lane, Yermolova Theatre and Aquarium park theatres, etc. Tverskoy District has nineteen repertory theatres, the Pillar Hall, Tchaikovsky Hall, Moscow Circus on Tsvetnoy Boulevard (originally Sala
Moscow Print Yard
The Moscow Print Yard was the first publishing house in Russia. It was established in Kitai-gorod at the behest of Ivan the Terrible in 1553; the historic headquarters of the Print Yard now house the Russian State University for the Humanities. Moscow Print Yard was first mentioned in Aufzeichnungen über den Moskauer Staat by Heinrich von Staden, it is known to have published Lenten Triodion, Triodion in Pictures, Gospel and other books, which didn't have any imprints. On March 1 of 1564, Ivan Fyodorov and Pyotr Timofeyev published the first dated book called Apostle at the Moscow Print Yard. In 1565, the printing house published Chasovnik and Psalter. In 1612, Moscow Print Yard was destroyed by fire. In 1620, they erected a two-story stone chamber for the Print Yard, moving seven typesetters and eighty employees from the Kremlin to the new premises. In 1625, they built several underground storage tunnels leading to the Kremlin; the fire of 1634 destroyed all of the buildings belonging to the Print Yard.
In 1642–1643, they built several new stone chambers for the publishing house under the supervision of an apprentice from Stoneworks Prikaz named T. Shaturin. In 1644, an apprentice I. Neverov and a foreigner named Christopher erected Gothic stone gates with towers, which divided the chambers of the Print Yard in two; these buildings housed the Bookprinting Proofreading Chamber. In 1679, they dismantled the so-called old "Big Chamber" building in the Print Yard, adjacent to the wall of Kitai-gorod. Stonemasons S. Dmitriyev and I. Artemyev supervised the erection of a new building over the old foundation, which would be painted by a court icon painter L. Ivanov and house the Proofreading Chamber and a library. In 1653, Patriarch Nikon sent a scientific expedition to the East, its leader A. Sukhanov brought five hundred Greek manuscripts from Mount Athos to Moscow; these books laid the foundation for the library of the Moscow Print Yard. In 1681, they opened a Greek school on the premises of the printing house.
By the end of the 17th century, the staff of the Print Yard had numbered 165 people. It was placed under the authority of the Big Palace Prikaz and published the so-called menology books, polemical works, textbooks. All in all, the Moscow Print Yard published 30 books between the late 16th – early 17th centuries. Proofreaders Andronik Timofeyev Nevezha and Ivan Andronikov Nevezha influenced the formation of a certain style of Moscow Cyrillic editions of the 17th century. Karion Istomin is known to have worked at the Print Yard first as a proofreader and its inspector. In 1703–1711, the Moscow Print Yard published the first Russian newspaper Vedomosti. In 1710, proofreader Fyodor Polikarpov-Orlov presented a copy of the Alphabet with the pictures of ancient and contemporary Slavonic letters to Peter the Great. In 1564–1711, the Moscow Print Yard published 700 kinds of books. In 1721, the Print Yard was transferred under the authority of Most Holy Synod, its publishing house being transformed into Synodal.
In the middle of the 18th century, they constructed the baroque-style side housing together with the printing and library premises, which would close the perimeter of the yard. In late 18th – early 19th century, the Print Yard building on Nikolskaya Street were dismantled and replaced with a monumental edifice of the Synodal Publishing House. In the 19th century, the buildings of the publishing house were perceived as a single architectural ensemble with the towers and walls of Kitai-gorod, with the add-ons and alterations by future generation architects; the state monopoly on publishing continued until 1783 when some private publishing was permitted with great reluctance, although the state continued to exercise complete control through censorship. Some reforms occurred in 1861, but it was not until 1905 that greater freedom of the press was granted