Pandalur is a head quarters of neliyalam municipality and pandalur taluk Pandalur is located at 11° 29' 0" N, 76° 20' 0" E, at an altitude of 1100 metres. Its standard time zone is UTC/GMT+05:30. Pandalur is the headquarters of the Pandalur taluk, it is categorised as a third-grade municipality. One roadway is the only access to the town. A number of government bus services are available from: Ooty, the district headquarters Gudalur, the nearest township The nearest international airport, Calicut International Airport, Coimbatore International Airport Sulthan Bathery - Nearest town in Kerala state. Public and private transportation is available from Pandalur to the nearest villages of the Pandalur Taluk. During the mid-19th century, English companies began mining for gold in the area in Devala and Pandalur. A London-based mining company created a township in Pandalur that began with a church, post office, a race course. After the gold boom, the mining business fell into decline because the percentage of gold ore was below the average.
So, mining was continued until the beginning of the 20th century. Once the British companies had determined that gold mining would not succeed in this area, thus changing to agricultural industries and created tea plantations on a massive scale; the climate and soil were well suited for tea, which helped to ensure the success of the new industry. Coffee and tea plantation started at Pandalur area in the early eighteenth century during this time many European planters settled in the Nilgiris and Wyanad to establish tea and coffee estates. D. H. McLeod and Henry Atzenwiler are few among them. Kunjalikutty Haji of Pandalur was one of the leading manpower suppliers for British estates, he brought a large number of people from Malabar to work on the estates, became close to the British administration, being recognized as Khan Bahadur Kunajalikutty. During this period in India, the non-cooperation movement against the British was in full swing; the Mappila rebels were agitated over the Khilafat issue, determined to eliminate the people among the community who supported the British Raj.
A group of Khilafat rebels went to Pandalur and destroyed the shop owned by Kunalikutty Haji, though his life was saved by his friend Malla Gawdar, chief of the Badagas community in Pandalur. Most of the land in this area was the property of the princely states of Nilambur and Mysoor Maharaj; the Nelliyalam Rani administered the region for Mysoor Maharaj and enjoyed the highest rank in society. The remains of the Nelliayalam Ranis fort can still be viewed in the Nelliayalam village. Pandalur was believed to be a sacred place for the aboriginal communities such as the Paniyas and Kattu Nayakkans, it was dominated by the Gowdar community. In Ponnani, near the village of Nelliyalkam, there is a century-old temple constructed in the unique Kerala temple architecture; the migration of Malabar people had a major impact on the area, including the social, cultural and environmental systems. M.thiravidamani is the incumbent member of the Legislative Assembly from the Gudalur Assembly constituency. M. Thiravidamani Vazhikkadavu Nilambur Edakkara Gudalur Mango Orange Devala, Nilgris Pandalur.com My visit to the goldfields in south east wynaad -Samuel Jennings
New Amarambalam Reserved Forest
New Amarambalam Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary in the Western Ghats, situated in the Malappuram District of Kerala state in South India. It extends till Silent Valley National Park of the Palakkad District to the south and to Nadugani in the Nilgiri District of Tamil Nadu to the North. Comprising an area of 265.72 square kilometres, The New Amarambalam Wildlife Sanctuary is the largest wildlife sanctuary of Kerala in South India. Since it shows high altitudinal gradation from 40 metres to 2,554 metres, the protected area is coupled with high rainfall and thick forest cover. Amarambalam continues with the Silent Valley National Park, forms a part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve; the Indian Bird Conservation Network has identified 212 species of birds from the Nilambur and Amarambalam forests. Amarambalam is classified as an Important Bird Area of the Western Ghats Endemic Bird Area where 16 restricted range species have been identified. Beside the RRS's, there are two vulnerable species.
In 2001 BirdLife International has identified 52 near threatened species of India. Three of the NTS bird species are found in the IBA, but more are to be found once detailed studies are conducted. Classified by BirdLife International, Amarambalam Reserve Forest lies in the Indian Peninsula Tropical Moist Forest: 15 bird species have been identified as typical biome assemblage, 12 species are found in this IBA. In 2003, Professor PO Nameer, Kerala Agricultural University, reported to have seen 11 species of woodpeckers, 11 species of flycatchers, nine species of babblers, seven species of bulbuls, three species of barbets; as of 2004, there were populations of 10 IBA trigger species ranging from critically endangered/vulnerable to least concern according to IUCN categorisation and A1 to A3 according to IBA, namely Lesser adjutant, White-rumped vulture, Nilgiri wood-pigeon, Malabar parakeet, Malabar grey-hornbill, White-bellied treepie, Grey-headed bulbul, Rufous babbler, White-bellied blue-flycatcher and Crimson-backed sunbird.
The bird community showed high evenness. Maximum species richness was obtained during November and highest diversity index was recorded during April; as of 2000, Amarambalam comprises all mammals found in the Western Ghats: 25 mammals, including the endemic and threatened Lion-tailed macaque and Nilgiri tahr. BirdLife International: Threatened Birds of Asia; the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U. K. 2001. Sharma, J. K. Ramachandran, K. K. Nair. K. K. N. Mathew, G. Mohandas, K. Jayson, E. A. and Nair, P. V.: Studies on the Biodiversity of New Amarambalam Reserved Forest of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. In: Biosphere Reserves in India and their Management. Proceedings of the Review Meeting: Biosphere and their Management, 8–11 September 2000, Kerala. Nameer, P. O.: Birds of Nilambur Forest Division - a survey report. NEST & Kerala Forest Department, 1993. Saneesh, C. S.: New Amarambalam Valley: an IBA of Kerala. MISTNET, 2009
A bungalow is a type of building developed in the Bengal region of the subcontinent. The meaning of the word bungalow varies internationally. Common features of many bungalows include verandas and being low-rise. In Australia, the California bungalow associated with the United States was popular after the First World War. In North America and the United Kingdom, a bungalow today is a house detached, that may contain a small loft, it is either single-story or has a second story built into a sloping roof with dormer windows. The term originated in the Indian subcontinent, deriving from the Hindi word "बंगला", meaning "Bengali" and used elliptically for a "house in the Bengal style"; this Asian architectural form and design originated in the countryside of Bengal region in the Indian subcontinent. Such houses were traditionally small, of one story and detached, had a wide veranda; the term was first found in English from 1696, where it was used to describe "bungales or hovells" in India for English sailors of the East India Company.
It became used for the spacious homes or official lodgings of officials of the British India, was so known in Britain and America, where it had high status and exotic connotations. The style began to be used in the late 19th century for large country or suburban residential buildings built in an Arts and Crafts or other Western vernacular style—essentially as large cottages, a term sometimes used. Developers began to use the term for smaller buildings. Bungalows are convenient for the homeowner in that all living areas are on a single-story and there are no stairs between living areas. A bungalow is well suited to persons with impaired mobility, such as the elderly or those in wheelchairs. Neighborhoods of only bungalows offer more privacy than similar neighborhoods with two-story houses; as bungalows are one or one and a half stories, strategically planted trees and shrubs are sufficient to block the view of neighbors. With two-story houses, the extra height requires much taller trees to accomplish the same, it may not be practical to place such tall trees close to the building to obscure the view from the second floor of the next door neighbor.
Bungalows provide cost-effective residences. On the other hand closely spaced bungalows make for quite low-density neighborhoods, contributing to urban sprawl. In Australia, bungalows have broad verandas to shade the interior from intense sun, but as a result they are excessively dark inside, requiring artificial light in daytime. On a per unit area basis, bungalows are more expensive to construct than two-story houses, because a larger foundation and roof area is required for the same living area; the larger foundation will translate into larger lot size requirements, as well. Due to this, bungalows are fully detached from other buildings and do not share a common foundation or party wall: if the homeowner can afford the extra expense of a bungalow relative to a two-story house, they can afford a detached property as well. Although the'footprint' of a bungalow is a simple rectangle, any foundation is theoretically possible. For bungalows with brick walls, the windows are positioned high, are close to the roof.
This architectural technique avoids the need for special arches or lintels to support the brick wall above the windows. However, in two-story houses, there is no choice but to continue the brick wall above the window In rural Bangladesh, the concept is called Bangla ghar and remain popular. Today's main construction material is corrugated steel sheets or red clay tiles, while past generations used wood and khar straw; this straw was used keeping the house cooler during hot summer days. From 1891 the Federation Bungalow style swept across Australia, first in Camberwell and through Sydney's northern suburbs after 1895; the developer Richard Stanton built in Federation Bungalow style first in Haberfield, New South Wales, the first Garden Suburb, in Rosebery, New South Wales. Beecroft and Lindfield contain many examples of Federation Bungalows built between 1895 and 1920. From about 1910 until 1930, the California Bungalow style was popular in Australia and New Zealand; the style seems to have first been imported in Sydney and spread throughout the Australian states and New Zealand.
In South Australia, the suburb of Colonel Light Gardens contains many well-preserved bungalow developments. The first two bungalows in England were built in Westgate-on-Sea in 1869 or 1870. A bungalow was a prefabricated single-story building used as a seaside holiday home. Manufacturers included Boulton & Paul Ltd, who made corrugated iron bungalows as advertised in their 1889 catalogue, which were erected by their men on the purchaser's light brickwork foundation. Examples include Woodhall Spa Cottage Museum, Castle Bungalow at Peppercombe, North Devon, owned by the Landmark Trust. Construction of this type of bungalow peaked towards the end of the decade, to be replaced by brick construction. Bungalows became popular in the United Kingdom between the two World Wars and large numbers were built in coastal resorts, giving rise to the pejorative adjective, "bungaloid", first found in the Daily Express from 1927: "Hideous allotments and bungaloid growth make the approaches to any city repulsive".
Many villages and seaside resorts have large estates of 1960s bungalows occupied by retired people. The typical 1930s bungalow is square
Karulai is a small town and panchayath in Nilambur Taluk of Malappuram district. It is situated on the banks of the Karimpuzha River. Edakkara, Nilambur and Vaniyambalam are the nearest towns. Karulai is the "gods' own village" in Kerala State with green forest and having a variety of animals and fish in the River Karimpuzha. Nedumkayam is 14 km from Nilambur town, in Malappuram district, India. Nedumkayam is noted for its rich rain forests; the wooden resthouse built here by the British offers a panoramic view of the elephant and deer grazing in the forest nearby. One has to get prior permission from the Indian Forest Service to enter the forest zone. Heavy restrictions are imposed as a measure to save the existing forest land. An elephant taming center is located here. Nilambur including Nedumkayam has been selected for being developed as Kerala's second ecotourism destination, it is beautiful and good tourist center. There is a huge demand for the last several years to create he Nilambur - Karulai - Silent Valley - Coimbatore road.
Nilambur to Karulayi. 10 km Karulayi to Nedungayam. 7 km karulai to pookottumpadam 9 km karulai to Edakkara 9 km In 24 November 2016, three naxalites were killed in an encounter with Kerala police. Naxalite leader Kappu Devaraj from Andhra Pradesh is included in the list of killed in the incident. Villages like Mundakkadavu and Uchakkulam near Karulai are threatened by Naxalite attacks. Naxalites visit the locality and ask for food and shelter from the tribals; the police are combing the area but have not arrested any naxalites. On 27 September 2016, there was firing between the Maoists and the Kerala police in this area and no one was injured in this incident. Nedumkayam Mancheeri Mundakkadavu Uchakkulam Kalkkulam Chandakkunnu, Mukkatta and VEllappuzha Mutheeri, Nallamthanni Pulliyil and valavu Mailampara. Varikkal. Chettiyil. Kottuppara. Cherupuzha Karulayi Orphanage Tharbiyathul Ouladh Madhrassa Kunhamutty Memorial Higher Secondary School Organic Vegetable Cluster, Krishi Bhavan Karulayi Panchayath Office, School Road.
Town Juma Masjid SYS. SSF. Karulai. Sector. S B S. karulai juma masjid pallipadi SKSSF town unit pallipadi Nambola footwear karulai M D I Public School Karulai Burma Petrolium Pallippadi. Karulai. Jubilee Medicals. Karulai
The wild boar known as the wild swine, Eurasian wild pig, or wild pig, is a suid native to much of Eurasia, North Africa, the Greater Sunda Islands. Human intervention has spread its distribution further, making the species one of the widest-ranging mammals in the world, as well as the most spread suiform, its wide range, high numbers, adaptability mean that it is classed as least concern by the IUCN and it has become an invasive species in part of its introduced range. The animal originated in Southeast Asia during the Early Pleistocene, outcompeted other suid species as it spread throughout the Old World; as of 1990, up to 16 subspecies are recognized, which are divided into four regional groupings based on skull height and lacrimal bone length. The species lives in matriarchal societies consisting of their young. Grown males are solitary outside the breeding season; the grey wolf is the wild boar's main predator throughout most of its range, except in the Far East and the Lesser Sunda Islands, where it is replaced by the tiger and Komodo dragon, respectively.
It has a long history of association with humans, having been the ancestor of most domestic pig breeds and a big-game animal for millennia. Boars have re-hybridized in recent decades with feral pigs; as true wild boars became extinct in Great Britain before the development of Modern English, the same terms are used for both true wild boar and pigs large or semi-wild ones. The English'boar' stems from the Old English bar, thought to be derived from the West Germanic *bairaz, of unknown origin. Boar is sometimes used to refer to males, may be used to refer to male domesticated pigs breeding males that have not been castrated.'Sow', the traditional name for a female, again comes from Old English and Germanic. The young may be called'piglets'; the animals' specific name scrofa is Latin for'sow'. In hunting terminology, boars are given different designations according to their age: MtDNA studies indicate that the wild boar originated from islands in Southeast Asia such as Indonesia and the Philippines, subsequently spread onto mainland Eurasia and North Africa.
The earliest fossil finds of the species come from both Europe and Asia, date back to the Early Pleistocene. By the late Villafranchian, S. scrofa displaced the related S. strozzii, a large swamp-adapted suid ancestral to the modern S. verrucosus throughout the Eurasian mainland, restricting it to insular Asia. Its closest wild relative is the bearded pig of Malacca and surrounding islands; as of 2005, 16 subspecies are recognised, which are divided into four regional groupings: Western: Includes S. s. scrofa, S. s. meridionalis, S. s. algira, S. s. attila, S. s. lybicus and S. s. nigripes. These subspecies are high-skulled, with thick underwool and poorly developed manes. Indian: Includes S. s. davidi and S. s. cristatus. These subspecies have sparse or absent underwool, with long manes and prominent bands on the snout and mouth. While S. s. cristatus is high-skulled, S. s. davidi is low-skulled. Eastern: Includes S. s. sibiricus, S. s. ussuricus, S. s. leucomystax, S. s. riukiuanus, S. s. taivanus and S. s. moupinensis.
These subspecies are characterised by a whitish streak extending from the corners of the mouth to the lower jaw. With the exception of S. s. ussuricus, most are high-skulled. The underwool is thick, except in S. s. moupinensis, the mane is absent. Indonesian: Represented by S. s. vittatus, it is characterised by its sparse body hair, lack of underwool long mane, a broad reddish band extending from the muzzle to the sides of the neck. It is the most basal of the four groups, having the smallest relative brain size, more primitive dentition and unspecialised cranial structure. With the exception of domestic pigs in Timor and Papua New Guinea, the wild boar is the ancestor of most pig breeds. Archaeological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated from wild boar as early as 13,000–12,700 BC in the Near East in the Tigris Basin being managed in the wild in a way similar to the way they are managed by some modern New Guineans. Remains of pigs have been dated to earlier than 11,400 BC in Cyprus.
Those animals must have been introduced from the mainland, which suggests domestication in the adjacent mainland by then. There was a separate domestication in China, which took place about 8,000 years ago. DNA evidence from sub-fossil remains of teeth and jawbones of Neolithic pigs shows that the first domestic pigs in Europe had been brought from the Near East; this stimulated the domestication of local European wild boars, resulting in a third domestication event with the Near Eastern genes dying out in European pig stock. Modern domesticated pigs have involved complex exchanges, with European domesticated lines being exported in turn to the ancient Near East. Historical records indicate that Asian pigs were introduced into Europe during the 18th and early 19th centuries. Domestic pigs tend to have much more developed hindquarters than their wild boar ancestors, to the point where 70% of their body weight is concentrated in the posterior, the opposite of wild boar, where most of the muscles are concentrated on the head and shoulders.
The wild boar is a bulky, massively built suid with short and thin legs. The trunk is short and massive, w
Edakkara is a town located in the Malappuram district of the Indian state of Kerala. Edakkara is located near Malappuram District, in Kerala State, it is 15 km from Nilambur and about 37 km apart from Gudallur on the Ooty Guruvayoor State Highway 17 between Gudallor and Manjeri. The town is emerging as a hub in the East Eranad region within the Nilambur Taluk and Malappuram districts; the town faces mountainous areas to its east. Edakkara got its name said to have from a Malayalam word "Edathavalam" it means a place where somebody stays for rest. So in the end the place got its name as Edakkara. Years ago Edakkara was a place for resting those; the place is said to have got its name from a Malayalam word. So in the end the place got its name as Edakkara. Another story believed is that it is a place between two rivers and Punnapuzha, it is hard to trace the history of nomenclature of this place. Edakkara’s history is intertwined with the history of Nilambur Kovilakkam, their land was divided into 18 Cherikkals.
Edakkara panchayath was in East cherikkal. That time people were forest dwellers, their main income came from the forest. Muslims migrated to Edakkara for to collect bamboos from the forest. At about the same time Nair and Theyyer sects migrated to Edakkara for agriculture. People still believe. People who migrated to Edakkara followed the rules and regulations of thamburan of Nilambur Kovilakam in spite of the religious and cultural differences. An increase in agricultural production brought other professionals to this land, they were blacksmiths and workers for land cultivation. In 1920 Edakkara became a migrator's heaven. First Edakkara public school was established in 1932. Edakkara High become one of the best government schools in Malappuram. Ayurvedic healing system and food distribution and health specialty center for maternity and child welfare was helpful for the society. Meanwhile, Raja Lakshmi buses started bus service via Kozhikode-Ooty road, built by the British government. After India’s Independence people started to migrate here from Thiruvathamkoor.
Instead of police station a police outpost was started in May–June 1964. Edakkara post office’s inception was in 1940. Navodhaya library still plays a pivotal role in Edakkara culture, started in 1957. Edakkara village was formed during 1963-1964. Health centre, Registration office and Electricity office became a reality in 1981. A small L P school which started in 1963 became a big private institution with several courses still functioning well by the name of Sree Vivekanadha in Palemadu. 1963 is the memorable year of Edakkara Panchayath because of its first election. Savious master became the first President. Vazhikkadavu Panchayath was formed by dividing Edakkara Panchayath in 1969. In 1978 it divided again and Moothedam Panchayath became a reality. Today Mr. O T James is the president and Mrs Sareena Muhammed is the vice president. Karimpuzha and Chungathara Palunda and Palathingal Machu Kuzhiyil and Nellikuth The town has bus services to four nearby panchayats, to most districts in Kerala, Mysore and Ooty.
Two bus stations serve Edakkara. Many minibuses connect Edakkara to towns such as Barbarmukk, Palemad and Shankaramkulam, it is a stop for Super-Fast Buses that connect the area with Nilambur, Manjeri and Perinthalmanna. You get Train From Railway station Nilambur Road, 14Km only From Edakkara It is administered under the Wayanad Loksabha constituency. A circle office and police station situated in Edakkara; the Panchayat President is Srmt Alis Ambat. Trade is the primary occupation in textiles and automobiles. Rubber and pepper are the primary crops along with coconut. Remitted income from Persian Gulf countries has supported the development of Edakkara; the Government High School is situated in the heart of Edakkara. The other schools in and near Edakkara include the Guidance public school. Eranad Hospital is the most developed Hospital. Upcoming shopping mall in heart of the town create big hike in economy of edakkara, trying to change degitalised transactions Four temples, the Sree Krishna Temple and Durgha Devi Kshethram are situated in Edakkara Town and two ayyappa temples - one at Kawkkad and another at palemad.
Four mosques, one in Musliyarangadi, one on Post Office Road, one School Road and one on KPM General Hospital Road. Four Christian churches which are Marthoma Church munda, Fellowship Church Pallunda and the other two are Pothkal and Palemad. Edakkara town connects to other parts of India through Nilambur town. State Highway No.28 starts from Nilambur and connects to Ooty and Bangalore through Highways.12,29 and 181. National highway No.66 passes through Ramanattukara and the northern stretch connects to Goa and Mumbai. The southern stretch connects to Trivandrum. State; the nearest airport is at Kozhikode. Nilambur town Vazhikkadavu border town Gudalur Mango Orange village Pandalur town Devala, Nilgris Nilambur-Shoranur railway line
Gray langurs, sacred langurs, Indian langurs or Hanuman langurs are a group of Old World monkeys native to the Indian subcontinent constituting the entirety of the genus Semnopithecus. Most taxa have traditionally been placed in the single species Semnopithecus entellus. In 2001, it was recommended that several distinctive former subspecies should be given the status of species, so that seven species are recognized. A taxonomic classification with fewer species has been proposed. Genetic evidence suggests that the Nilgiri langur and purple-faced langur, which are placed in the genus Trachypithecus belong in Semnopithecus. Gray langurs are terrestrial, inhabiting forest, open wooded habitats, urban areas on the Indian subcontinent. Most species are found at low to moderate altitudes, but the Nepal gray langur and Kashmir gray langur occur up to 4,000 m in the Himalayas; the word Semnopithecus is derived from Ancient Greek σεμνός semnós, “revered, holy”, πίθηκος píthēkos, “ape, monkey”. These langurs are gray, with a black face and ears.
Externally, the various species differ in the darkness of the hands and feet, the overall color and the presence or absence of a crest. All north Indian gray langurs have their tail tips looping towards their head during a casual walk whereas all south Indian and Sri Lankan gray langurs have an inverted "U" shape or a "S" tail carriage pattern. There are significant variations in the size depending on the sex, with the male always larger than the female; the head-and-body length is from 51 to 79 cm. Their tails, at 69 to 102 cm are never longer than their bodies. Langurs from the southern part of their range are smaller than those from the north. At 26.5 kg, the heaviest langur recorded was a male Nepal gray langur. The larger gray langurs are rivals for the largest species of monkey found in Asia; the average weight of gray langurs is 11 kg in the females. Langurs walk quadrupedally and spend half their time on the ground and the other half in the trees, they will make bipedal hops and descending supports with the body upright, leaps.
Langurs can leap 3.6 -- 4.7 m 10.7 -- 12.2 m in descending. Traditionally, only Semnopithecus entellus was recognized as a species, the remainder all being treated as subspecies. In 2001, it was proposed that seven species should be recognized, with the majority considered monotypic; this was followed in Mammal Species of the World in 2005, though several of the seven species intergrade, alternative treatments exist where only two species are recognized. Phylogenetic evidence supports at least three species: a north Indian, a south Indian and a Sri Lankan one, it has been suggested that the Semnopithecus priam thersites is worthy of treatment as a species rather than a subspecies, but at present this is based on limited evidence. During a study based on external morphology and ecological niche modelling in Peninsular India six main types were found, but continued to label all as subspecies. Coat color is variable, possible due to phenotypic plasticity and therefore of questionable value in species delimitation.
It has been suggested. If maintaining the two as separate monophyletic genera, the purple-faced langur and Nilgiri langur belong in Semnopithecus instead of the their former genus Trachypithecus. At present it is unclear where the T. pileatus species group belongs, as available mtDNA data place it in Semnopithecus, while Y chromosome data place it in Trachypithecus. A possible explanation for this is that the T. pileatus species group is the result of recent hybridization between Semnopithecus and Trachypithecus. As of 2005, the authors of Mammal Species of the World recognize the following seven Semnopithecus species Nepal gray langur Semnopithecus schistaceus Kashmir gray langur Semnopithecus ajax Tarai gray langur Semnopithecus hector Northern plains gray langur Semnopithecus entellus Black-footed gray langur Semnopithecus hypoleucos Southern plains gray langur Semnopithecus dussumieri Tufted gray langur Semnopithecus priamSince two other species have been moved from Trachypithecus to Semnopithecus: Purple-faced langur Semnopithecus vetulus Nilgiri langur Semnopithecus johniiIn addition, Semnopithecus dussumieri has been determined to be invalid.
Most of the range, considered S. dussumieri is now considered S. entellus. Thus the current accepted species within the genus Semnopithecus are: Northern plains gray langur Semnopithecus entellus Kashmir gray langur Semnopithecus ajax Tarai gray langur Semnopithecus hector Black-footed gray langur Semnopithecus hypoleucos Tufted gray langur Semnopithecus priam Nepal gray langur Semnopithecus schistaceus Purple-faced langur Semnopithecus vetulus Nilgiri langur Semnopithecus johniiA 2013 genetic study indicated that while S. entellus, S. hypoleucos, S. priam and S. johnii are all valid taxa, there has been hybridization between S. priam and S. johnii. It indicated that there has been some hybridization between S. entellus and S. hypoleucos where their ranges overlap, a small amount of hybridization between S. hypoleucos and S. priam. It suggested that S. priam and S. johnii diverged from each other recently. The entire distribution of all gray langur species stretches from the Himalayas in the north to Sri Lanka in the south, from Bangladesh in the east to Pakistan in the west.
They occur in Afghanistan. The bul