SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Nile

The Nile is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, is the longest river in Africa and the disputed longest river in the world, as the Brazilian government says that the Amazon River is longer than the Nile. The Nile, about 6,650 km long, is an "international" river as its drainage basin covers eleven countries: Tanzania, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Republic of the Sudan, Egypt. In particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Sudan; the Nile has two major tributaries -- the Blue Nile. The White Nile is considered to be the headwaters and primary stream of the Nile itself; the Blue Nile, however, is the source of most of the silt. The White Nile is longer and rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa, with the most distant source still undetermined but located in either Rwanda or Burundi, it flows north through Tanzania, Lake Victoria and South Sudan. The Blue Nile flows into Sudan from the southeast; the two rivers meet just north of the Sudanese capital of Khartoum.

The northern section of the river flows north entirely through the Sudanese desert to Egypt ends in a large delta and flows into the Mediterranean Sea. Egyptian civilization and Sudanese kingdoms have depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan, nearly all the cultural and historical sites of Ancient Egypt are found along river banks; the standard English names "White Nile" and "Blue Nile", to refer to the river's source, derive from Arabic names applied only to the Sudanese stretches which meet at Khartoum. In the ancient Egyptian language, the Nile is called Ḥ'pī or Iteru, meaning "river". In Coptic, the word ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, pronounced piaro or phiaro, means "the river", comes from the same ancient name. In Egyptian Arabic, the Nile is called en-Nīl while in Standard Arabic. In Biblical Hebrew: הַיְאוֹר, Ha-Ye'or or הַשִׁיחוֹר, Ha-Shiḥor; the English name Nile and the Arabic names en-Nîl and an-Nîl both derive from the Latin Nilus and the Ancient Greek Νεῖλος.

Beyond that, the etymology is disputed. Hesiod at his Theogony refers that Nilus was one of son of Oceanus and Tethys. Another derivation of Nile might be related to the term Nil, which refers to Indigofera tinctoria, one of the original sources of indigo dye. Another possible etymology derives it from a Semitic Nahar, meaning "river". With a total length of about 6,650 km between the region of Lake Victoria and the Mediterranean Sea, the Nile is the longest river on the African continent; the drainage basin of the Nile covers about 10 % of the area of Africa. Compared to other major rivers, the Nile carries little water; the Nile basin is complex, because of this, the discharge at any given point along the mainstem depends on many factors including weather, diversions and evapotranspiration, groundwater flow. Above Khartoum, the Nile is known as the White Nile, a term used in a limited sense to describe the section between Lake No and Khartoum. At Khartoum the river is joined by the Blue Nile.

The White Nile starts in equatorial East Africa, the Blue Nile begins in Ethiopia. Both branches are on the western flanks of the East African Rift; the source of the Nile is sometimes considered to be Lake Victoria, but the lake has feeder rivers of considerable size. The Kagera River, which flows into Lake Victoria near the Tanzanian town of Bukoba, is the longest feeder, although sources do not agree on, the longest tributary of the Kagera and hence the most distant source of the Nile itself, it is either the Ruvyironza, which emerges in Bururi Province, Burundi, or the Nyabarongo, which flows from Nyungwe Forest in Rwanda. The two feeder rivers meet near Rusumo Falls on the Rwanda-Tanzania border. In 2010, an exploration party went to a place described as the source of the Rukarara tributary, by hacking a path up steep jungle-choked mountain slopes in the Nyungwe forest found an appreciable incoming surface flow for many kilometres upstream, found a new source, giving the Nile a length of 6,758 km.

Gish Abay is the place where the "holy water" of the first drops of the Blue Nile develop. The Nile leaves Lake Nalubaale at Ripon Falls near Uganda, as the Victoria Nile, it flows north for some 130 kilometers, to Lake Kyoga. The last part of the 200 kilometers river section starts from the western shores of the lake and flows at first to the west until just south of Masindi Port, where the river turns north makes a great half circle to the east and north until Karuma Falls. For the remaining part it flows westerly through the Murchison Falls until it reaches the northern shores of Lake Albert where it forms a significant river delta; the lake itself is on the border of DR Congo. After leaving Lake Albert, the river is known as the Albert Nile; the Nile river flows into South Sudan just south of Nimule. Just south

John Osborn (politician)

Sir John Holbrook Osborn was a British Conservative politician. Osborn was educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, he was Member of Parliament for Sheffield Hallam from 1959 to 1987, preceding Irvine Patnick. Sir John was a Member of the European Parliament from 1975 to 1979, he was knighted in the 1983 Birthday Honours. Osborn was interviewed in 2012 as part of The History of Parliament's oral history project. Times Guide to the House of Commons 1983 http://www.leighrayment.com/commons.htm Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by John Osborn

Bronwydd Castle

Bronwydd Castle was a Welsh country house in Cardiganshire, owned by the Lloyd family. It is just south of Llangynllo/Llangunllo, halfway between Lampeter. Sir Thomas Lloyd, 1st Baronet rebuilt the original 18th-century house in the Gothic Revival style in the 1850s; the family sold the house in 1937 after the death of Sir Thomas' daughter-in-law. Bronwydd replaced Cilrhiwe as the main family home in the 1850s, at which time it was rebuilt in the fashionable gothic revival style by Sir Thomas Lloyd, 1st Baronet; the architect was Richard Kyrke Penson, who skillfully adapted an existing 18th-century house to create an elaborate Victorian gothic'castle' suitable for the'Marcher Lord' of Cemais. The 18th-century house contained a private chapel, the Lloyds of that era having been converts to Methodism, while the reconstructed Bronwydd included a baronial hall, containing the family muniments and serving as entrance hall; the exterior of the building included a slim round tower and a square tower with bell-turret.

Part of the house is supposed to have been modelled on the cathedral transept and tower of the Rock of Cashel, although Thomas Lloyd described the whole as'a romantic Rhineland castle with patterned roof-tiling.' The stables and service block were rendered in mock half-timber, similar to the streets of Chester. The house was sited on a bluff overlooking the river Afon Cynllo; the interiors were splendid, with painted mottoes above the doors, a profusion of carved stone, stained glass and mural paintings. The expense of such medieval fantasies rested heavy on the estate, in debt to the tune of £100,000 when Sir Thomas' son, Sir Marteine Lloyd inherited the estate in 1877. Prudent management and the sale of outlying lands restored some solvency to the estate in the years prior to the First World War; the death of Sir Marteine's son, Arundel Keymes Lloyd in the Great War doomed the estate, however. The Inland Revenue demanded death duties on the estate, made over to Arundel Lloyd in order to avoid those same duties.

For much of the post-war period, Sir Marteine and Lady Lloyd lived away from Bronwydd, although they celebrated their Golden Wedding in 1928 in some style. Sir Marteine Lloyd died in 1933, Lady Lloyd attempted to let the house, which ended up housing illegal aliens. On Lady Lloyd's death in 1937, the house and grounds were sold; the sale of land close to the mansion for forestry work doomed the house. After housing a Jewish boarding school, Aryeh House School, in the Second World War, aliens thereafter, the house known as Bronwydd Castle, was stripped. Substantial parts of the house remained roofed into the 1980s; the round tower fell in the early years of the 21st century, much of the house has disappeared. Leslie Baker-Jones: The Wolf and the Boar Thomas Lloyd, Lost Houses of Wales Derelict Miscellany has pictures of the ruins in 2009