Herodotus was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire and lived in the fifth century BC, a contemporary of Socrates. The Histories is the work which he is known to have produced. Despite Herodotus historical significance, little is known of his personal life and his place in history and his significance may be understood according to the traditions within which he worked. His work is the earliest Greek prose to have survived intact, of these only fragments of Hecataeuss work survive yet they allow us glimpses into the kind of tradition within which Herodotus wrote his own Histories. In his introduction to Hecataeus’s work, This points forward to the ‘folksy’ yet ‘international’ outlook typical of Herodotus. Yet, one scholar has described the work of Hecataeus as “a curious false start to history” since despite his critical spirit. It is possible that Herodotus borrowed much material from Hecataeus, as stated by Porphyry in a recorded by Eusebius. But Hecataeus did not record events that had occurred in living memory, unlike Herodotus, Herodotus claims to be better informed than his predecessors by relying on empirical observation to correct their excessive schematism.
For example, He argues for continental asymmetry as opposed to the theory of a perfectly circular earth with Europe. Yet, he retains idealizing tendencies, as in his notions of the Danube. His debt to previous authors of prose ‘histories’ might be questionable, this point is one of the most contentious issues in modern scholarship. It is on account of the strange stories and the folk-tales he reported that his critics in early modern times branded him “The Father of Lies”. Even his own contemporaries found reason to scoff at his achievement, the Athenian historian Thucydides dismissed Herodotus as a “logos-writer”. Moreover, Thucydides developed a historical topic more in keeping with the Greek world-view, the interplay of civilizations was more relevant to Greeks living in Anatolia, such as Herodotus himself, for whom life within a foreign civilization was a recent memory. Modern scholars generally turn to Herodotus’s own writing for reliable information about his life, supplemented with ancient yet much sources, modern accounts of his life typically go something like this, Herodotus was born at Halicarnassus around 484 BC.
His name is not mentioned in the tribute list of the Athenian Delian League, the epic poet Panyassis – a relative of Herodotus – is reported to have taken part in a failed uprising. Herodotus expresses affection for the island of Samos, and this is an indication that he might have lived there in his youth. So it is possible that his family was involved in an uprising against Lygdamis, leading to a period of exile on Samos, Herodotus wrote his Histories in the Ionian dialect, yet he was born in Halicarnassus, which was a Dorian settlement
Lake Manzala, Manzaleh, is a brackish lake, sometimes called a lagoon, in northeastern Egypt on the Nile Delta near Port Said and a few miles from the ancient ruins at Tanis. It is the largest of the northern lakes of Egypt. As of 2008 it is 47 km long and 30 km wide, Lake Manzala is long but quite shallow. Before construction of the Suez Canal, Lake Manzala was separated from the Mediterranean Sea by a strip of sand 200 to 300 yards wide, Port Said was established adjacent to Lake Manzala during the nineteenth century to support canal construction and related travel. The lakes location directly south of the Port Said Airport restricts the capacity for growth. Lake Manzala is the northernmost of three natural lakes intersected by the Suez Canal, the two being Lake Timsah and the Great Bitter Lake. Construction of the canal proceeded from north to south, reaching Manzala first, due to the lakes shallowness, it was necessary to dig a banked channel for ships to pass. Lake Manzala served as a significant source of fish for human consumption in Egypt.
In 1985, the fishery was an open area of 89,000 ha. The government of Egypt drained substantial portions of the lake in an effort to convert its rich Nile deposits to farmland. The project was unprofitable, crops did not grow well in the salty soil, by 2001, Lake Manzala had lost approximately 80 percent of its former area through the effects of drainage efforts. Restoring and protecting the lakes and reservoirs. Penn, James R. Rivers of the world
Sea level rise
Sea level rise refers to an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans, resulting in an increase in global mean sea level. Sea level rise is attributed to global climate change by thermal expansion of the water in the oceans and by melting of Ice sheets. Melting of floating ice shelves or icebergs at sea raises sea levels only slightly, Sea level rise at specific locations may be more or less than the global average. Local factors might include tectonic effects, subsidence of the land, currents, Sea level rise is expected to continue for centuries. IPCC Summary for Policymakers, AR5,2014, indicated that the mean sea level rise will continue during the 21st century, very likely at a faster rate than observed from 1971 to 2010. A January 2017 NOAA report suggests a range of GMSL rise of 0.3 –2.5 m possible during the 21st century, Sea level rises can considerably influence human populations in coastal and island regions and natural environments like marine ecosystems. On the timescale of centuries to millennia, the melting of ice sheets could result in even higher sea level rise, partial deglaciation of the Greenland ice sheet, and possibly the West Antarctic ice sheet, could contribute 4 to 6 m or more to sea level rise.
Various factors affect the volume or mass of the ocean, leading to changes in eustatic sea level. The two primary influences are temperature, and the mass of water locked up on land and sea as water in rivers, glaciers. Over much longer timescales, changes in the shape of oceanic basins. Since the Last Glacial Maximum about 20,000 years ago, sea level has risen by more than 125 m, with rates varying from tenths of a mm/yr to 10+mm/year, as a result of melting of major ice sheets. During the rest of the early Holocene, the rate of sea level rise varied from a low of about 6.0 -9.9 mm/yr to as high as 30 -60 mm/yr during brief periods of accelerated sea level rise. In sharp contrast, the period between 14,300 and 11,100 calendar years ago, which includes the Younger Dryas interval, was an interval of reduced sea level rise at about 6.0 -9.9 mm/yr. Meltwater pulse 1C was centered at 8,000 calendar years, such rapid rates of sea level rising during meltwater events clearly implicate major ice-loss events related to ice sheet collapse.
The primary source may have been meltwater from the Antarctic ice sheet, other studies suggest a Northern Hemisphere source for the meltwater in the Laurentide ice sheet. For example, this research included studies of Roman wells in Caesarea and these methods in combination suggest a mean eustatic component of 0.07 mm/yr for the last 2000 years. Since 1880, as the Industrial Revolution took center stage, the ocean began to rise briskly, climbing a total of 210 mm through 2009 causing extensive erosion worldwide, Sea level rose by 6 cm during the 19th century and 19 cm in the 20th century. Evidence for this includes geological observations, the longest instrumental records, for example, geological observations indicate that during the last 2,000 years, sea level change was small, with an average rate of only 0. 0–0.2 mm per year
Port Said is a city that lies in north east Egypt extending about 30 kilometres along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, north of the Suez Canal, with an approximate population of 603,787. The city was established in 1859 during the building of the Suez Canal, Port Said is an important harbour for exports of Egyptian products like cotton and rice, but a fueling station for ships that pass through the Suez Canal. It thrives on being a port, as well as a tourist resort especially during summer. It is home to the Lighthouse of Port Said, there are numerous old houses with grand balconies on all floors, giving the city a distinctive look. Port Saids twin city is Port Fuad, which lies on the bank of the canal. The two cities coexist, to the extent that there is hardly any town centre in Port Fuad, the only other metropolitan area in the world that spans two continents is Istanbul. Most of them were from Mediterranean countries, and they coexisted in tolerance, the name of Port Said first appeared in 1855, It was chosen by an International committee composed of Great Britain, the Russian Empire, Austria and Piedmont.
It is a name which composed of two parts and Said, who granted Ferdinand de Lesseps the concession to dig the Suez Canal. Port Said was founded by Said of Egypt on Easter Monday, April 25,1859, the first problem encountered was the difficulty for ships to drop anchor nearby. Luckily, a rocky outcrop flush with the shoreline was discovered a few hundred meters away. Equipped with a wharf, it served as a mooring berth for the boats. Soon after, a jetty was built, connecting the departure islet, as it quickly became known. This rock could be considered the heart of the city, and it was on this highly symbolic site, forty years later. There were no local resources here, everything Port Said needed had to be imported, stone, machinery, housing and even water. Giant water storage containers were erected to supply fresh water until the Sweet Water Canal could be completed, one of the most pressing problems was the lack of stone. Early buildings were imported in kit form and made great use of wood. A newly developed technique was used to construct the jetties called conglomerate concrete or Beton Coignet, artificial blocks of concrete were sunk into the sea to be the foundations of the jetties.
Still more innovative was the use of the concrete for the lighthouse of Port Said
Lake Mariout, spelled Maryut or Mariut, is a brackish lake in northern Egypt. The lake area covered 200 km² and had a canal at the beginning of the 20th century. The name derives from Mareotis or Marea, the name of the lake in ancient times and it is separated from the Mediterranean Sea by the narrow isthmus on which the city of Alexandria was built. The lake shore is home to fisheries and saltworks, as far back as the early 1900s, it was documented that salt was being refined from the western part of the lake. Some of the areas around the lake have been reclaimed for new building as the city grows. According to some records, a homonymous nome was located on the shores of this lake, the diocese was nominally restored in 1933 as Titular bishopric of Mareotes / Mareotes / Mareoten. Although technically a Latin titular see, it has had several Eastern Catholic incumbents, in 2015 a stele, resembling the Rosetta Stone and dating back some 2,200 years, was discovered in ancient ruins called Taposiris Magna Temple site at Lake Mariout.
Measuring 41 inches by 25.6 inches by 7 inches, there are ancient tombs located on the shores of the lake. The fish species Nile perch lives in the lake, although it principally needs fresh water to live in, in 1939, a small lake, called the Nozha Hydrodrome was isolated from Lake Mariout and this allowed for the Nile perch to flourish there. List of Catholic dioceses in Egypt GCatholic Bishopric of Mareotes
Zagazig is a city in Lower Egypt. Situated in the part of the Nile delta, it is the capital of the governorate of Sharqia. In 1999, its population was approximately 279,000, which increased to 302,611 in 2006 and it is built on a branch of the Sweet Water Canal and on al-Muˤizz Canal, and is 47 miles by rail north-northeast of Cairo. Situated on the Nile Delta in the midst of a district, Zagazig is a centre of the cotton. It has large factories and used to have offices of numerous European merchants. It is located on the Muweis Canal and is the hub of the corn. There is a museum of antiquities, the Sharkeya National Museum that contains many important archaeological exhibits, Zagazig University, one of the largest universities in Egypt, is located in the city, with colleges in different fields of science and arts. The Archaeological Museum of the University of Zagazig exhibits significant finds from the sites, Bubastis. Also there is a branch for Al-Azhar University, the largest Islamic university in the world, Zagazig is the birthplace of famous Coptic Egyptian journalist and social critic, Salama Moussa.
The ruins of the ancient Egyptian city of Bubastis are located 3 km southeast of town, Bubastis was the ancient capital of the 18th nome, and is home to the feast celebrating the cat-goddess Bastet. Bubastis is the Greek name of the Egyptian Per-Bastet, Bubastis became the capital of Egypt in the 22nd and 23rd Dynasties. There are remains of the built by Osorkon II and Nectanebo II. Catacombs where the cats were buried are located behind an Old Kingdom chapel remains that are from the period of Pepi I. Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot desert, as the rest of Egypt, abaza family, the largest family in Sharqia and Egypts largest Circassian community
The Aswan Dam, or more specifically since the 1960s, the Aswan High Dam, is an embankment dam built across the Nile in Aswan, Egypt between 1960 and 1970. Its significance largely eclipsed the previous Aswan Low Dam initially completed in 1902 downstream, like the earlier implementation, the High Dam has had a significant effect on the economy and culture of Egypt. Since this natural flooding varied however, high-water years could destroy the crop, while low-water years could create widespread drought. Both these events had continued to occur periodically, with the greatly increased reservoir storage provided by the High Aswan Dam, the floods could be controlled and the water could be stored for release over multiple years. His field work convinced him of the impracticality of this scheme, the British began construction of the first dam across the Nile in 1898. Construction lasted until 1902, and the dam was opened on 10 December 1902, the project was designed by Sir William Willcocks and involved several eminent engineers, including Sir Benjamin Baker and Sir John Aird, whose firm, John Aird & Co. was the main contractor.
In 1912, the Greek-Egyptian engineer Adrian Daninos began to develop the plan of the new Aswan Dam, although the Low Dam was almost overtopped in 1946, the Egyptian government of King Farouk showed no interest in Daninoss plans. Instead the Nile Valley Plan by the British hydrologist Harold Edwin Hurst to store water in Sudan and Ethiopia, the Egyptian position changed completely with the overthrow of the monarchy, led by the Free Officers Movement including Gamal Abdel Nasser. The Free Officers were convinced that the Nile Waters had to be stored in Egypt for political reasons, and within two months, the plan of Daninos was accepted. Initially, both the U. S. A. and the USSR were interested in helping the development of the dam, but this movement happened in the midst of the Cold War, as well as of growing intra-Arab rivalries. At that time the U. S. feared that communism would spread to the Middle East and Britain offered to help finance construction of the High Dam, with a loan of $270 million, in return for Nassers leadership in resolving the Arab-Israeli conflict.
While opposed both to communism and imperialism, Nasser presented himself as a tactical neutralist, in addition to his development plans, he looked to quickly modernize his military, and he turned first to the U. S. Nasser did not accept these conditions, but he looked to the USSR for support, on 27 September 1955, Nasser announced an arms deal, with Czechoslovakia acting as a middleman for the Soviet support. Instead of attacking Nasser for turning to the Soviets, Dulles sought to improve relations with him and this explains the offer of December 1955, in which the U. S. and Britain pledged $56 and $14 million respectively towards the construction of the dam. Though the Czech arms deal actually increased the American willingness to invest at Aswan, what angered Dulles much more was Nassers diplomatic recognition of China, which was in direct conflict with Dulless policy of containment. There are several reasons why the U. S. decided to withdraw its offer of funding. Dulles believed that the USSR would not fulfill its commitment to help the Egyptians and he was irritated by Nassers neutrality and attempts to play both sides of the Cold War.
At the time, other western allies in the Middle East, including Turkey and Iraq, were irritated and jealous that Egypt, in June 1956, the Soviets offered Nasser $1.12 billion at 2% interest for the construction of the dam
The Nile is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa. It is generally regarded as the longest river in the world, in particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Egypt and Sudan. The Nile has two tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile. The White Nile is considered to be the headwaters and primary stream of the Nile itself, the Blue Nile, however, is the source of most of the water and silt. The White Nile is longer and rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa and it flows north through Tanzania, Lake Victoria and South Sudan. The Blue Nile begins at Lake Tana in Ethiopia and flows into Sudan from the southeast, the two rivers meet just north of the Sudanese capital of Khartoum. The northern section of the river flows north almost entirely through the Sudanese desert to Egypt, ends in a large delta, Egyptian civilization and Sudanese kingdoms have depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan, in the ancient Egyptian language, the Nile is called Ḥpī or Iteru, meaning river.
In Coptic, the words piaro or phiaro meaning the river come from the ancient name. The English name Nile and the Arabic names en-Nîl and an-Nîl both derive from the Latin Nilus and the Ancient Greek Νεῖλος, beyond that, the etymology is disputed. One possible etymology derives it from a Semitic Nahal, meaning river, the standard English names White Nile and Blue Nile, to refer to the rivers source, derive from Arabic names formerly applied only to the Sudanese stretches which meet at Khartoum. Above Khartoum, the Nile is known as the White Nile, at Khartoum the river is joined by the Blue Nile. The White Nile starts in equatorial East Africa, and the Blue Nile begins in Ethiopia, both branches are on the western flanks of the East African Rift. The drainage basin of the Nile covers 3,254,555 square kilometers, the source of the Nile is sometimes considered to be Lake Victoria, but the lake has feeder rivers of considerable size. It is either the Ruvyironza, which emerges in Bururi Province, Burundi, or the Nyabarongo, the two feeder rivers meet near Rusumo Falls on the Rwanda-Tanzania border.
Gish Abay is reportedly the place where the water of the first drops of the Blue Nile develop. The Nile leaves Lake Nyanza at Ripon Falls near Jinja, Uganda and it flows north for some 130 kilometers, to Lake Kyoga. For the remaining part it flows westerly through the Murchison Falls until it reaches the very northern shores of Lake Albert where it forms a significant river delta
Cyperus papyrus is a species of aquatic flowering plant belonging to the sedge family Cyperaceae. It is a herbaceous perennial, native to Africa. Papyrus sedge has a long history of use by humans, notably by the Ancient Egyptians—it is the source of papyrus paper. Parts of the plant can be eaten, and the highly buoyant stems can be made into boats and it is now often cultivated as an ornamental plant. In nature, it grows in sun, in flooded swamps, and on lake margins throughout Africa, Madagascar. C. papyrus and the dwarf cultivar C. papyrus Nanus have gained the Royal Horticultural Societys Award of Garden Merit and this tall, leafless aquatic plant can grow 4 to 5 m high. It forms a clump of triangular green stems that rise up from thick. Each stem is topped by a cluster of thin, bright green, thread-like stems around 10 to 30 cm in length. Greenish-brown flower clusters eventually appear at the ends of the rays, giving way to brown, the younger parts of the rhizome are covered by red-brown, triangular scales, which cover the base of the culms.
Botanically, these represent reduced leaves, so strictly it is not quite correct to call this plant fully leafless, Egyptians used the plant for many purposes, most famously for making papyrus. Its name in Greek and in English is widely believed to have come from Egyptian, Cyperus papyrus is now used mainly for decoration, as it is nearly extinct in its native habitat in the Nile Delta, where in ancient times it was widely cultivated. Theophrastus History of Plants states that it grew in Syria, and according to Plinys Natural History, it was a plant of the Niger River. Aside from papyrus, several members of the genus Cyperus may have been involved in the multiple uses Egyptians found for the plant. Its flowering heads were linked to make garlands for the gods in gratitude, the pith of young shoots was eaten both cooked and raw. Its woody root made bowls and other utensils and was burned for fuel, from the stems were made reed boats, mats, cloth and sandals. The rush or reed basket in which the Biblical figure Moses was abandoned may have made from papyrus.
The adventurer Thor Heyerdahl built two boats from papyrus, Ra and Ra II, in an attempt to demonstrate that ancient African or Mediterranean people could have reached America and he succeeded in sailing Ra II from Morocco to Barbados. Fishermen in the Okavango Delta use small sections of the stem as floats for their nets, papyrus can be found in tropical rain forests, tolerating annual temperatures of 20 to 30 °C and a pH of 6.0 to 8.5
Pliny the Elder
In the latter number will be my uncle, by virtue of his own and of your compositions. Pliny is referring to the fact that Tacitus relied on his uncles now missing work on the History of the German Wars. The wind caused by the sixth and largest pyroclastic surge of the eruption would not allow his ship to leave the shore, and Pliny probably died during this event. Plinys dates are pinned to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD79 and a statement of his nephew that he died in his 56th year, Pliny was the son of an equestrian, Gaius Plinius Celer, and his wife, Marcella. Neither the younger nor the elder Pliny mention the names and their ultimate source is a fragmentary inscription found in a field in Verona and recorded by the 16th century Augustinian monk Onofrio Panvinio at Verona. The reading of the inscription depends on the reconstruction, but in all cases the names come through, whether he was an augur and whether she was named Grania Marcella are less certain. Jean Hardouin presents a statement from a source that he claims was ancient, that Pliny was from Verona.
Hardouin cites the conterraneity of Catullus, additional efforts to connect Celer and Marcella with other gentes are highly speculative. Hardouin is the scholar to use his unknown source. He kept statues of his ancestors there, a statue of Pliny on the facade of the Duomo of Como celebrates him as a native son. He had a sister, who married into the Caecilii and was the mother of his nephew, Pliny the Younger, whose letters describe his work and study regimen in detail. In one of his letters to Tacitus, Pliny the Younger details how his uncles breakfasts would be light and simple following the customs of our forefathers. This shows that Pliny the Younger wanted it to be conveyed that Pliny the Elder was a good Roman and this statement would have pleased Tacitus. Two inscriptions identifying the hometown of Pliny the Younger as Como take precedence over the Verona theory, one commemorates the youngers career as imperial magistrate and details his considerable charitable and municipal expenses on behalf of the people of Como.
Another identifies his father Lucius village as Fecchio near Como and it is likely therefore that Plinia was a local girl and Pliny the Elder, her brother, was from Como. Gaius was a member of the Plinii gens and he did not take his fathers cognomen, but assumed his own, Secundus. As his adopted son took the same cognomen, Pliny founded a branch, no earlier instances of the Plinii are known. In 59 BC, only about 82 years before Plinys birth, Julius Caesar founded Novum Comum as a colonia to secure the region against the Alpine tribes, whom he had been unable to defeat
The whiskered tern is a seabird of the tern family, Sternidae. The genus name is from Ancient Greek khelidonios, swallow-like, from khelidon, the specific hybridus is Latin for hybrid, Pallas thought it might be a hybrid of white-winged black tern and common tern, writing Sterna fissipes et Hirundine natam”. This bird has a number of races, differing mainly in size. C. h. hybrida breeds in parts of Europe. The smaller-billed and darker C. h. delalandii is found in east and south Africa, the tropical forms are resident, but European and Asian birds winter south to Africa and the Indian Subcontinent. This species breeds in colonies on inland marshes, sometimes amongst black-headed gulls, the scientific name arises from the fact that this, the largest marsh tern, show similarities in appearance to both the white Sterna terns and to black tern. The summer adult has white cheeks and red legs and bill, the crown is flecked with white in the juvenile, and the hindcrown is more uniformly blackish, though in the winter adult this too is flecked with white.
The black ear-coverts are joined to the black of the hindcrown, the sides of the neck are white, this sometimes continues across the nape. The collar is less sharply defined, all through the year the rump is pale grey. In the juvenile, the mantle has a variegated pattern, the feathers of the back and scapulars are dark brown, with prominent broad buff edgings and often subterminal buff bars or centers. There is usually an admixture of new gray feathers, especially on the mantle, the mantle is silvery-gray in the adult. The call is a characteristic krekk, in winter, the forehead becomes white and the body plumage a much paler grey. Juvenile whiskered terns have a scaly back, and otherwise look much like winter adults. The first winter plumage is intermediate between juvenile and adult winter, with patchy ginger on the back, the whiskered tern eats small fish, amphibians and crustaceans. Whiskered tern - Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or standing water. This occurs where a river enters an ocean, estuary, reservoir, River deltas are ecologically important as they provide coastline defense, are home to many species, and can impact drinking water supply. The tidal currents cannot be too strong, as sediment would wash out into the body faster than the river deposits it. Of course, the river must carry enough sediment to layer into deltas over time, the rivers velocity decreases rapidly, causing it to deposit the majority, if not all, of its load. This alluvium builds up to form the river delta, when the flow enters the standing water, it is no longer confined to its channel and expands in width. This flow expansion results in a decrease in the flow velocity, as a result, sediment drops out of the flow and deposits. Over time, this single channel builds a deltaic lobe, pushing its mouth into the standing water, as the deltaic lobe advances, the gradient of the river channel becomes lower because the river channel is longer but has the same change in elevation.
As the slope of the channel decreases, it becomes unstable for two reasons. First, gravity makes the flow in the most direct course down slope. If the river breaches its natural levees, it out onto a new course with a shorter route to the ocean. Second, as its slope gets lower, the amount of stress on the bed decreases, which results in deposition of sediment within the channel. This makes it easier for the river to breach its levees, often when the channel does this, some of its flow remains in the abandoned channel. When these channel-switching events occur, a mature delta develops a distributary network, another way these distributary networks form is from deposition of mouth bars. When this mid-channel bar is deposited at the mouth of a river and this results in additional deposition on the upstream end of the mouth-bar, which splits the river into two distributary channels. A good example of the result of this process is the Wax Lake Delta, in both of these cases, depositional processes force redistribution of deposition from areas of high deposition to areas of low deposition.
This results in the smoothing of the shape of the delta as the channels move across its surface. Because the sediment is laid down in fashion, the shape of these deltas approximates a fan. The more often the flow changes course, the shape develops as closer to an ideal fan, the Mississippi and Ural River deltas, with their birds-feet, are examples of rivers that do not avulse often enough to form a symmetrical fan shape