Nilgiri Mountain Railway X class

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Nilgiri Mountain Railway X class
NMR 37385 in Delhi 05-02-17 M49.jpeg
Nilgiri Mountain Railway locomotive No.37385 preserved in the Delhi Railway Museum.
Type and origin
Power type Steam
Builder Swiss Locomotive and Machine Works, Winterthur, Switzerland (17)
Golden Rock Railway Workshop, Golden Rock, Tiruchirappalli, India (4)
Build date 1914, 1920, 1925, 1952, 2011-2014
Total produced 21
 • Whyte 0-8-2T
Gauge 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in)
Driver dia. 815 mm (32.09 in)
Fuel type Coal or Oil
Fuel capacity 2011: 850 litres (190 imp gal; 220 US gal) of diesel and 2,250 litres (490 imp gal; 590 US gal) of fuel oil
Cylinders Four, outside, compound
High-pressure cylinder Adhesion: 450 mm × 410 mm (17.72 in × 16.14 in)
Low-pressure cylinder Rack: 450 mm × 430 mm (17.72 in × 16.93 in)
Valve gear Walschaerts
Performance figures
Maximum speed Adhesion: 30 km/h (19 mph)
Rack: 15 km/h (9 mph)

The X class locomotives are a class of metre gauge 0-8-2T rack and pinion compound locomotives working on the Nilgiri Mountain Railway in the Nilgiri Hills of southern India. They are used on the 20 km section between Coonoor and Mettupalayam where the gradient of the track can be as steep as 1 in 12.5. At these steep sections, the railway uses the Abt system. The X class locomotives are compound locomotives with two high-pressure and two low-pressure cylinders. All cylinders are outside the locomotive's frames. The two low-pressure cylinders drive the rack wheels. These cylinders are positioned above the two main high-pressure cylinders that drive the main wheels.

Engines of this class were first bought as replacements for the line's original Beyer-Peacock 2-4-0 engines, whose traction power was too weak for the traffic.[1][2] The X class locomotives were bought in two batches from the Swiss Locomotive and Machine Works, Winterthur, Switzerland. The first batch (12-nos.) were introduced into operation between 1920 and 1925, with the later batch being introduced (5-nos.) in 1952.[1][3]

SLM orders[edit]

Table of SLM orders[4][5]
SLM Works Nos. Year Quantity NMR No. All India No. Notes
2456–2459, 2469–2470 1914 6 1–6 37384 ex-No. 1
2734–2736, 2733 1920 4 7–10 37385–37388
3000–3001 1925 2 11–12 37389–37390
4069–4073 1952 5 13–17 37391–37395
unknown 2011 - 2014 4 18-21 37396-37399 Non-SLM

Conversion to oil[edit]

Nilgiri Mountain Railway locomotive No.37395 at Coonor Shed, February 2005

Locomotive No. 37395 was modified from being coal to oil-fired in 2002, followed by another one that was modified. The Railway is looking to retrofit further locomotives to oil-firing. Conversion to an oil-fired system has the potential to reduce the danger of forest fires caused by ash flying out from the locomotive. Additionally, the effort involved in the manual lifting of coal and putting it into the boiler is eliminated. The current oil-fired locomotives need only one fireman to accompany the driver, whilst coal-fired engines need two.[6][7]

New builds[edit]

Four new oil-fired steam locomotives have been ordered to ease the load on the existing X class locomotives. Their design is almost the same as the design of the older locomotives. The first of these, No. X 37396, arrived in February 2011 and entered service on March 24, 2011. The second oil-fired steam engine, No. X 37397, was rolled out at Golden Rock in Feb. 2012, and is to enter service on NMR in March 2012. The third indigenous steam engine built by Golden Rock Workshop, Trichy, X 37398 entered service in March 2013. The last of four oil-fired steam engines of X Class 0-8-2T rack and pinion compound engine bearing road number X 37399 was rolled out on March 5, 2014 at the Central Workshop, Ponmalai, Tiruchirapalli. It is expected to join the fleet after trials on the rack railway.

In fiction[edit]

In the 2016 animated film Thomas & Friends: The Great Race, a character named Ashima was based on the Nilgiri Mountain Railway X Class.[8][9] She was voiced by Tina Desai, an Indian actress and model.[10]


  1. ^ a b Bhandari, R. R. (2008). "Steam in history". IRFCA. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  2. ^ "Blue Mountain Railway". India for Visitors. 2003. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  3. ^ "National Railway Museum". Rail in India. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  4. ^ Hughes 1992, p. 98
  5. ^ Hughes 1996, p. 58
  6. ^ Rajaram, R. (21 December 2009). "Work for manufacturing four new oil-fired steam locos begins". The Hindu. Chennai, India: The Hindu Group. Archived from the original on 31 December 2009. 
  7. ^ "Oil fired Steam engine on Nilagiri Railway , India". HighBeam. 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  8. ^ "Meet Ashima, and Her Impact on Child Product Sales to India". India Briefing. March 31, 2016. Archived from the original on December 7, 2016. Retrieved July 13, 2017. 
  9. ^ "Ashima - Character Profile & Bio". Thomas & Friends - Official Website. Retrieved August 26, 2017. 
  10. ^ "Flying Scotsman on track to star in new 'more diverse' Thomas the Tank Engine film". ITV News. April 6, 2016. Archived from the original on August 11, 2016. Retrieved July 13, 2017. 

External links[edit]