Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Danger Mouse (musician)
Brian Joseph Burton, better known by his stage name Danger Mouse, is an American musician and record producer. He came to prominence in 2004 when he released The Grey Album, which combined vocal performances from Jay-Z's The Black Album with instrumentals from The Beatles' The Beatles, he produced its albums St. Elsewhere and The Odd Couple. In 2009 he collaborated with James Mercer of the indie rock band The Shins to form the band Broken Bells. In addition, Burton worked with rapper MF Doom as Danger Doom and released the album The Mouse and the Mask; as a producer Danger Mouse produced the second Gorillaz album, 2005's Demon Days, as well as Beck's 2008 record Modern Guilt and four albums with The Black Keys. In 2016, Danger Mouse produced, performed on and co-wrote songs for the eleventh studio album by the Red Hot Chili Peppers titled The Getaway. Danger Mouse has produced and co-written albums by Norah Jones, Electric Guest, Portugal; the Man, ASAP Rocky's. He has won six. He's been nominated in the Producer of the Year category five times, won the award in 2011.
Brian Joseph Burton was born in New York. He spent much of his childhood in New York. Burton moved to Georgia, a suburb of Atlanta, he lived in Athens, where he pursued a degree in telecommunications at the University of Georgia on scholarship, where his Trip hop works were released while he was still a student. While at the University of Georgia he met Nirvana, Pink Floyd, Portishead, came to know the indie rock scene in Athens, remixed work by several local artists, including Neutral Milk Hotel, DJ'd for University of Georgia radio station WUOG-FM. From 1998 to 2003, Burton created a series of remix CDs and records under the stage name Danger Mouse, he performed in a mouse outfit because he was too shy to show his face, took his name from the British cartoon series Danger Mouse. While in Athens, Burton took second place in a 1998 talent contest and was asked to open for a concert at the University of Georgia featuring OutKast and Goodie Mob. Afterwards, Burton approached CeeLo Green, a member of Goodie Mob, gave him an instrumental demo tape.
It would be several years before the pair made contact again, but the two would collaborate as Gnarls Barkley. Burton moved to Britain for a couple of years, living in New Cross in London and working at the Rose pub near London Bridge. While there, he sent a demo to Lex Records. Burton relocated to Los Angeles. While the Danger Mouse debut was well received by critics, he did not rise to fame until he created The Grey Album, mixing a cappella versions of Jay-Z's The Black Album over beats crafted from samples of The Beatles"White Album'; the remix album created just for his friends, spread over the Internet and became popular with both the general audience and critics, with Rolling Stone calling it the ultimate remix record and Entertainment Weekly ranking it the best record of that year. He discussed his feelings about any controversy the album may have created in the documentary Alternative Freedom. Danger Mouse was named among the Men of the Year by GQ in 2004 and won a 2005 Wired Rave Award.
The Grey Album got the attention of Damon Albarn, who enlisted Danger Mouse to produce the Gorillaz' second studio album, Demon Days. Demon Days earned Burton a Grammy Award nomination for Producer of the Year. Danger Mouse's next project was The Mouse and the Mask, a collaboration with MF DOOM about and for Cartoon Network's Adult Swim; the two had collaborated on the Danger Mouse remix of Zero 7's "Somersault", on the Prince Po track "Social Distortion", on Gorillaz' "November Has Come". A year DANGERDOOM released a follow-up EP called Occult Hymn; the 7-track EP featured new songs as well as remixes of tracks from The Mouse & The Mask and was released as a free download on Adult Swim's site. In 2006, Danger Mouse and CeeLo released their first album, St. Elsewhere, which included the international hit single "Crazy". "Crazy" became the first UK number-one single based on downloads. Gnarls Barkley set out on tour and was one of the main opening acts on the Red Hot Chili Peppers' Stadium Arcadium World Tour.
The Gnarls Barkley touring lineup featured future Chili Peppers guitarist, Josh Klinghoffer. He produced two tracks on The Rapture's 2006 album Pieces of the People We Love. In the autumn of 2006, Sparklehorse released his fourth album, Dreamt for Light Years in the Belly of a Mountain, a collaboration with Danger Mouse and Steven Drozd of The Flaming Lips. In August and September 2006, Danger Mouse collaborated with British graffiti artist Banksy to replace 500 copies of Paris Hilton's album Paris in English music stores with altered album artwork and a 40-minute instrumental song containing various statements she had made. Danger Mouse gave a rare interview to Charlie Rose on August 31, 2006. In January 2007, Danger Mouse produced another collaboration with Damon Albarn on The Good, the Bad and the Queen, along with Clash bassist Paul Simonon, former Verve guitarist Simon Tong and Afrobeat pioneer and Africa 70 drummer Tony Allen. In March 2008, The Odd Couple, the second album of his and Cee
Compact disc is a digital optical disc data storage format, co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982. The format was developed to store and play only sound recordings but was adapted for storage of data. Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage, rewritable media, Video Compact Disc, Super Video Compact Disc, Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, Enhanced Music CD; the first commercially available audio CD player, the Sony CDP-101, was released October 1982 in Japan. Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about 700 MiB of data; the Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres. At the time of the technology's introduction in 1982, a CD could store much more data than a personal computer hard drive, which would hold 10 MB. By 2010, hard drives offered as much storage space as a thousand CDs, while their prices had plummeted to commodity level. In 2004, worldwide sales of audio CDs, CD-ROMs and CD-Rs reached about 30 billion discs.
By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide. From the early 2000s CDs were being replaced by other forms of digital storage and distribution, with the result that by 2010 the number of audio CDs being sold in the U. S. had dropped about 50% from their peak. In 2014, revenues from digital music services matched those from physical format sales for the first time. American inventor James T. Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record digital information on an optical transparent foil, lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp. Russell's patent application was filed in 1966, he was granted a patent in 1970. Following litigation and Philips licensed Russell's patents in the 1980s; the compact disc is an evolution of LaserDisc technology, where a focused laser beam is used that enables the high information density required for high-quality digital audio signals. Prototypes were developed by Sony independently in the late 1970s. Although dismissed by Philips Research management as a trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for Philips as the LaserDisc format struggled.
In 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the Red Book CD-DA standard was published in 1980. After their commercial release in 1982, compact discs and their players were popular. Despite costing up to $1,000, over 400,000 CD players were sold in the United States between 1983 and 1984. By 1988, CD sales in the United States surpassed those of vinyl LPs, by 1992 CD sales surpassed those of prerecorded music cassette tapes; the success of the compact disc has been credited to the cooperation between Philips and Sony, which together agreed upon and developed compatible hardware. The unified design of the compact disc allowed consumers to purchase any disc or player from any company, allowed the CD to dominate the at-home music market unchallenged. In 1974, Lou Ottens, director of the audio division of Philips, started a small group with the aim to develop an analog optical audio disc with a diameter of 20 cm and a sound quality superior to that of the vinyl record.
However, due to the unsatisfactory performance of the analog format, two Philips research engineers recommended a digital format in March 1974. In 1977, Philips established a laboratory with the mission of creating a digital audio disc; the diameter of Philips's prototype compact disc was set at 11.5 cm, the diagonal of an audio cassette. Heitaro Nakajima, who developed an early digital audio recorder within Japan's national public broadcasting organization NHK in 1970, became general manager of Sony's audio department in 1971, his team developed a digital PCM adaptor audio tape recorder using a Betamax video recorder in 1973. After this, in 1974 the leap to storing digital audio on an optical disc was made. Sony first publicly demonstrated an optical digital audio disc in September 1976. A year in September 1977, Sony showed the press a 30 cm disc that could play 60 minutes of digital audio using MFM modulation. In September 1978, the company demonstrated an optical digital audio disc with a 150-minute playing time, 44,056 Hz sampling rate, 16-bit linear resolution, cross-interleaved error correction code—specifications similar to those settled upon for the standard compact disc format in 1980.
Technical details of Sony's digital audio disc were presented during the 62nd AES Convention, held on 13–16 March 1979, in Brussels. Sony's AES technical paper was published on 1 March 1979. A week on 8 March, Philips publicly demonstrated a prototype of an optical digital audio disc at a press conference called "Philips Introduce Compact Disc" in Eindhoven, Netherlands. Sony executive Norio Ohga CEO and chairman of Sony, Heitaro Nakajima were convinced of the format's commercial potential and pushed further development despite widespread skepticism; as a result, in 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. Led by engineers Kees Schouhamer Immink and Toshitada Doi, the research pushed forward laser and optical disc technology. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the task force produced the Red Book CD-DA standard. First published in 1980, the stand
First Love, Last Rites
First Love, Last Rites is a collection of short stories by Ian McEwan. It was first re-issued in 1997 by Vintage; the collection is McEwan's first published work and was regarded by the author as an opportunity to experiment and find his voice as a writer. In an interview with Christopher Ricks in 1979, McEwan commented, "They were a kind of laboratory for me, they allowed me to try out different things, to discover myself as a writer." As a piece of work that portrays McEwan, the writer, at his youngest, it is fitting that the dominant theme is that of adolescence, of the blurry and perilous divide between childhood and adulthood. The book is composed of eight short stories, with the title story coming seventh: "Last Day of Summer" is an eerily haunting story of a twelve-year-old boy who, having lost his own mother, finds another mother figure in Jenny, a large woman who comes to stay with him. On one of their many journeys in his rowing boat on the Thames, however and the baby Alice drown and die.
The event is described hauntingly by McEwan "Jenny is big and my boat is small...it goes over like a camera shutter" and we hear no moral judgement, no remorse, just the narrator "hanging on to the green shell with nothing in my mind." The significance seems all the more heavy because of this, Kiernan Ryan believing it to in fact suggest a "matricidal fantasy." "Homemade", the second story in the collection, is an unsettling tale of a self-satisfied teenager, confident in his ability to outperform his friend in every'adult' discipline: drinking, etc. until he realises he is still a virgin. The protagonist sets out to have sex with his ten-year-old sister, whom he does not find in the least attractive, under the grotesque pretence of playing'Mummies and Daddies". We get the impression that the narrator wants to lose the shameful tag of virginity above everything else, is desperate to assert his masculinity on something, anything; this criticism of male thinking is best summed up in the narrator's thoughts as he "felt proud, proud to be fucking if it were only Connie, my ten-year-old sister if it had been a crippled mountain goat..."
"Butterflies" again sails close to the wind of obscenity, being told through the eyes of a isolated man, not remarkable in any positive way. On one of his walks into his town's decaying underbelly, he walks with her. On arrival at a deserted dry canal, he demands that she touch his penis, after this sordid encounter, drowns her. Most harrowing is the way the protagonist describes the murder, "My mind was clear, my body was relaxed and I was thinking of nothing... I... eased her into the canal." Again morality is detached and the reader is made to squirm at the lack of remorse or feeling shown. "Solid Geometry" takes a narrator who shuns his wife, Maisie in favour of reading his great-grandfather's eventful diary. Ryan sees the diary as a'symbol of patriarchal heritage," and it is fitting that it should provide the means for the protagonist to dispose of his wife once and for all, he reads a section in which his great-grandfather sees a scientist contort his body in a way that makes him disappear inside himself, applies this to his wife.
The murder is disturbingly clean, just as is the case with many of McEwan's atrocities, "As I drew her arms and legs through, Maisie appeared to turn in on herself like a sock.... All that remained was the echo of her question above the deep-blue sheets." "Conversation with a Cupboard Man" takes the form of a confessional by a man, treated as a baby by his mother until the age of seventeen, when he was thrown out due to his mother remarrying and forced to fend for himself. The narrator is torn between knowing how wrong his mother's actions were "I could hardly move without her, she loved it, the bitch" and still yearning for them "I don't want to be free." "Cocker at the Theatre" is the shortest story. It is an account of some acting couples who simulate sex, only to be interrupted by a couple who are having sex for real. "First Love, Last Rites" the title story tells the tale of a narrator and his teenage lover, who enjoy a long summer of love making. As well as acknowledging the immense gratification he gains from satisfying his most base instincts "sperms... inches from my cock's end... the unstoppable chemistry of a creature growing out of dark red slime" the narrator details the temptation he and his lover have of wallowing in animalistic decadence.
This is personified by a giant pregnant rat whose presence is felt more and more, until it bursts out from its den and attacks. The narrator bludgeons it to death and realises the significance of it when he sees "a translucent purple bag, inside five pale crouching shapes" i.e. the baby rats. Again a female has been killed and the reader must determine the relevance themselves. "Disguises" involves a boy, taken under the wing of his eccentric aunt, who puts Henry in elaborate costumes for their evening meals. Things turn strange when Henry is faced with a costume consisting of a girl's frock; the odd pressure on his sexuality is released when he falls in love with Linda, McEwan seems to dissolve the boy's masculinity by having him revel in the girl's dress "invisible inside this girl." The ending is far from conclusive and we do not learn what becomes Henry. It has been suggested by any critics that as well as adolescence, the stories revolve around the difficulty of becoming a'man,' whatever society deem
Sparklehorse was an American indie rock band, led by singer and multi-instrumentalist Mark Linkous. Sparklehorse was active from 1995 until Linkous' 2010 death by suicide. Sparklehorse's first album, Vivadixiesubmarinetransmissionplot, was a modest college radio success. In 1996, while touring Europe with Radiohead shortly after the album's release, Mark Linkous consumed a combination of anti-depressants, valium and heroin in a London hotel room. Unconscious and with his legs pinned beneath him for fourteen hours, the resulting potassium build-up caused his heart to stop for several minutes after his body was lifted up; the ensuing surgery caused him to lose the use of both legs and as a result he needed to use a wheelchair for six months and he required dialysis for acute kidney failure. Good Morning Spider was recorded following this incident. Critics have conjectured that Linkous's brush with death inspired the sombre tone of the album, though Linkous stated that much of the material on GMS had been written.
One song that did result from it is "St. Mary", dedicated to the nurses at the eponymous hospital in Paddington where Linkous recuperated. In 1999 Sparklehorse performed at the Horseshoe Tavern in Toronto. 2001 saw the release of It's a Wonderful Life, featuring appearances by Tom Waits, PJ Harvey, Bob Rupe, Nina Persson and Dave Fridmann. Whereas much of Vivadixie... and Spider were recorded by Linkous on his Virginia farm, the new album was a more collaborative work. Linkous expressed his satisfaction with the overall sound of It's a Wonderful Life, engineered by Joel Hamilton, while claiming that he would have preferred to include more experimental and instrumental material. On September 25, 2006, Sparklehorse released their fourth album, Dreamt for Light Years in the Belly of a Mountain, collaborating with Danger Mouse, Christian Fennesz, Steven Drozd; this album featured the radio release "Don't Take My Sunshine Away" and a remastered version of "Shade And Honey", which Linkous wrote for Alessandro Nivola to sing in the 2003 movie Laurel Canyon, as well as a unchanged re-release of "Morning Hollow," the bonus track from It's a Wonderful Life.
In 2008, Sparklehorse recorded a cover of the song "Jack's Obsession," from Tim Burton's The Nightmare Before Christmas for the official compilation album Nightmare Revisited. In 2009, Sparklehorse teamed up with Danger Mouse and David Lynch in the project Dark Night of the Soul. In 2009, Linkous teamed up with electronic ambient-music artist Christian Fennesz to create In the Fishtank 15, a wafting album EP of experimentation and dreamy atmospherics; the last four live shows, Linkous did together with Fennesz during a European tour, held during October 2009. Linkous died by suicide in Knoxville, Tennessee, on March 6, 2010. Vivadixiesubmarinetransmissionplot Good Morning Spider It's a Wonderful Life Dreamt for Light Years in the Belly of a Mountain Dark Night of the Soul Chords I've Known EP Distorted Ghost EP In the Fishtank 15 EP Chest Full of Dying Hawks "Stained Glass Tears" "Spirit Ditch" / "Waiting for Nothing" "Hammering the Cramps" / "Too Late" "Someday I Will Treat You Good" / "Rainmaker" "Someday I Will Treat You Good" / "London" / "In The Dry" "Hammering the Cramps" / "Spirit Ditch" / "Dead Opera Star" / "Midget In A Junkyard" "Rainmaker" / "I Almost Lost My Mind" / "Intermission" / "Homecoming Queen" / "Gasoline Horseys" "Come On In" / "Blind Rabbit Choir" "Maria's Little Elbows" / "Painbirds" / "Wish You Were Here" / "Haint" "Sick of Goodbyes" / "Good Morning Spider" "Sick of Goodbyes" / "Happy Place" / "Happy Pig" / "Shot A Dog" / "Gasoline Horseys" "Gold Day" / "Heloise" / "Devil's New" / Maxine" "Don't Take My Sunshine Away" / "Ghost In The Sky" / "Knives of Summertime" "Don't Take My Sunshine Away" / "Galveston" "Ghost in the Sky" / "Marigold" "Knives of Summertime" / "Caroline" "Heart of Darkness" on "Dear Charlottesville" "Heart of Darkness" on "Cowpunks" "Sad & Beautiful World" on "Boys Soundtrack" "West of Rome" on "Sweet Relief II: Gravity of the Situation" "Hammering The Cramps" on "Chicago Cab Soundtrack" "Sad & Beautiful World" on "Dreamworld: Essential Late Night Listening" "Galveston" on "New Sounds Of The Old West Volume Three" "Shade And Honey" on "Devil In The Woods Magazine 3.3" "It's A Wonderful Life" on "Laurel Canyon Soundtrack" "Go" on "The Late Great Daniel Johnston: Discovered Covered" "Wish You Were Here" on "Lords of Dogtown: Music from the Motion Picture" "Dark as a Dungeon" on "Cash Covered" "Jack's Obsession" on "Nightmare Revisited" "Eyes of Mary" on "Garage D'Or" "Rainy Days and Mondays" on
Dagens Nyheter, abbreviated DN, is a daily newspaper in Sweden. It is published in aspires to full national and international coverage. Dagens Nyheter was founded by Rudolf Wall in December 1864; the first issue was published on 23 December 1864. During its initial period the paper was published in the morning. In 1874 the paper became a joint stock company, its circulation in 1880 was 15,000 copies. In the 1890s, Wall left Dagens Nyheter and soon after, the paper became the organ of the Liberal Party. From 1946 to 1959 Herbert Tingsten was the executive editor; the newspaper is owned by the Bonnier Group. Dagens Nyheter operates from the so-called "DN-skrapan" in Stockholm; this was designed by the architect Paul Hedqvist. It has 27 floors, none of which are underground. In 1996, the entire enterprise moved to its current location on Gjörwellsgatan, adjacent to the old tower; the newspaper Expressen owned by the Bonnier Group, is located in this building as well. Opinion leaders choose Dagens Nyheter as the venue for publishing major opinion editorials.
The stated position of the editorial page is "independently liberal". However, it left its formal alliance with the liberal establishment in the country in 1972. In the 1960s the circulation of Dagens Nyheter was much higher than that of other Swedish dailies; the paper has the largest circulation among the Swedish morning newspapers followed by Göteborgs-Posten and Svenska Dagbladet, is the only morning newspaper, distributed to subscribers across the whole country. In 2001 its circulation was 361,000 copies; the 2004 circulation of the paper was 363,000 copies. The circulation of the paper was 363,100 copies in weekdays in 2005 and had dropped to 292,300 copies in 2010. In 2013, the print edition of Dagens Nyheter had a circulation of 282,800 copies, reaching an approximate 758,000 persons every day; the web edition, dn.se, had on average 1.5 million unique visitors per week during 2013. List of newspapers in Sweden Official website in Swedish