Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt

The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt is classified as the second Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1292 BC to 1189 BC. The 19th Dynasty and the 20th Dynasty furthermore together constitute an era known as the Ramesside period; this Dynasty was founded by Vizier Ramesses I, whom Pharaoh Horemheb chose as his successor to the throne. The warrior kings of the early 18th Dynasty had encountered only little resistance from neighbouring kingdoms, allowing them to expand their realm of influence but the international situation had changed radically towards the end of the dynasty; the Hittites had extended their influence into Syria and Canaan to become a major power in international politics, a power that both Seti I and his son Ramesses II would confront in the future. New Kingdom Egypt reached the zenith of its power under Seti I and Ramesses II, who campaigned vigorously against the Libyans and the Hittites; the city of Kadesh was first captured by Seti I, who decided to concede it to Muwatalli of Hatti in an informal peace treaty between Egypt and Hatti.

Ramesses II attempted unsuccessfully to alter this situation in his fifth regnal year by launching an attack on Kadesh in his Second Syrian campaign in 1274 BC. Ramesses II profited from the Hittites' internal difficulties, during his eighth and ninth regnal years, when he campaigned against their Syrian possessions, capturing Kadesh and portions of Southern Syria, advancing as far north as Tunip, where no Egyptian soldier had been seen for 120 years, he accepted that a campaign against the Hittites was an unsupportable drain on Egypt's treasury and military. In his 21st regnal year, Ramesses signed the earliest recorded peace treaty with Urhi-Teshub's successor, Hattusili III, with that act Egypt-Hittite relations improved significantly. Ramesses II married two Hittite princesses, the first after his second Sed Festival; this dynasty declined. Amenmesse usurped the throne from Merneptah's son and successor, Seti II, but he ruled Egypt for only four years. After his death, Seti destroyed most of Amenmesse's monuments.

Seti was served at court by Chancellor Bay, just a'royal scribe' but became one of the most powerful men in Egypt, gaining the unprecedented privilege of constructing his own tomb in the Valley of the Kings. Both Bay and Seti's chief wife, had a sinister reputation in Ancient Egyptian folklore. After Siptah's death, Twosret ruled Egypt for two more years, but she proved unable to maintain her hold on power amid the conspiracies and powerplays being hatched at the royal court, she was ousted in a revolt led by Setnakhte, founder of the 20th Dynasty. The pharaohs of the 19th Dynasty ruled for 110 years: from c. 1292 to 1187 BC. Many of the pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes. More information can be found on the Theban Mapping Project website. Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt Family Tree


Bromopride is a dopamine antagonist with prokinetic properties used as an antiemetic related to metoclopramide. It is not available in the United States. Bromopride appears to be effective for use in pregnancy. Bromopride is indicated in the treatment of nausea and vomiting, including postoperative nausea and vomiting; the manufacturer claims it is valuable in, among other indications and gastrointestinal adverse effects of radiation therapy. Bromopride is well tolerated. Bromopride may cause extrapyramidal symptoms and, as with metoclopramide, may increase prolactin levels. Bromopride is a substituted benzamide related to metoclopramide, it is identical to metoclopramide except for the presence of a bromine atom where metoclopramide has a chlorine substituent. Bromopride is not available in the United Kingdom, it is marketed in Brazil by Sanofi-Synthélabo under the trade name Digesan, by LIBBS under the name Plamet, as a generic drug

Skip Groff

Frank "Skip" Groff was an American record producer, DJ, owner of Yesterday and Today record store in Rockville, Maryland, at the center of much of Washington D. C.'s punk and alternative music scenes. Groff was born in Waltham and moved to Suitland, Maryland, as a child. Groff operated the independent record label Limp Records from 1978 to 1982. Called "a respected guru" of the DC punk and indie music scene, Groff was a radio DJ for WINX, WAVA, WPGC, did promotional work for RCA, before opening Yesterday and Today in 1977. Groff was credited with helping Dischord Records get started, his record store was an early retail outlet for their titles; the store, named for the Beatles album Yesterday and Today, accumulated over a million 45s. It was the site of record signings and performances by local and visiting bands, became a hangout for local musicians and music fans. Howard Wuelfing of the Slickee Boys and Half Japanese was the store's first employee; when the band Minor Threat broke up, its frontman Ian MacKaye worked at the store for five years.

Other employees at Yesterday and Today included: Kim Kane of the Slickee Boys, Bert Queiroz and Danny Ingram of Youth Brigade, Brendan Canty and Guy Picciotto of Rites of Spring and Fugazi, Sharon Cheslow of Chalk Circle, Tommy Keene and Ted Niceley of The Razz, Shirley Sexton, Amanda MacKaye who ran Slowdime Records, Archie Moore and Jim Spellman of Velocity Girl. Groff met future wife and co-owner Kelly when she was a customer at Yesterday and Today, their daughter Kirsty was named after British pop star Kirsty MacColl; the store closed in 2002. Groff produced albums for many of the DC area's punk bands including the Slickee Boys, Bad Brains, Teen Idles, S. O. A. Dark, Youth Brigade, Black Market Baby, Velvet Monkeys, Minor Threat, he died at Maryland's MedStar Montgomery Medical Center at the age of 70. Yesterday and Today Records