SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ninety-five Theses

The Ninety-five Theses or Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences is a list of propositions for an academic disputation written in 1517 by Martin Luther, professor of moral theology at the University of Wittenberg, Germany. They advance Luther's positions against what he saw as the abuse of the practice of clergy selling plenary indulgences, which were certificates believed to reduce the temporal punishment in purgatory for sins committed by the purchasers or their loved ones. In the Theses, Luther claimed that the repentance required by Christ in order for sins to be forgiven involves inner spiritual repentance rather than external sacramental confession, he argued that indulgences led Christians to avoid true repentance and sorrow for sin, believing that they could forgo it by purchasing an indulgence. These indulgences, according to Luther, discouraged Christians from giving to the poor and performing other acts of mercy, believing that indulgence certificates were more spiritually valuable.

Though Luther claimed that his positions on indulgences accorded with those of the Pope, the Theses challenge a 14th-century papal bull stating that the pope could use the treasury of merit and the good deeds of past saints to forgive temporal punishment for sins. The Theses are framed as propositions to be argued in debate rather than representing Luther's opinions, but Luther clarified his views in the Explanations of the Disputation Concerning the Value of Indulgences. Luther sent the Theses enclosed with a letter to Albert of Brandenburg, Archbishop of Mainz, on 31 October 1517, a date now considered the start of the Reformation and commemorated annually as Reformation Day. Luther may have posted the Theses on the door of All Saints' Church and other churches in Wittenberg, in accordance with University custom, on 31 October or in mid-November; the Theses were reprinted and distributed throughout Germany and Europe. They initiated a pamphlet war with the indulgence preacher Johann Tetzel, which spread Luther's fame further.

Luther's ecclesiastical superiors had him tried for heresy, which culminated in his excommunication in 1521. Though the Theses were the start of the Reformation, Luther did not consider indulgences to be as important as other theological matters which would divide the church, such as justification by faith alone and the bondage of the will, his breakthrough on these issues would come and he did not see the writing of the Theses as the point at which his beliefs diverged from those of the Roman Catholic Church. Martin Luther, professor of moral theology at the University of Wittenberg and town preacher, wrote the Ninety-five Theses against the contemporary practice of the church with respect to indulgences. In the Roman Catholic Church the only Christian church in Western Europe at the time, indulgences are part of the economy of salvation. In this system, when Christians sin and confess, they are forgiven and no longer stand to receive eternal punishment in hell, but may still be liable to temporal punishment.

This punishment could be satisfied by the penitent's performing works of mercy. If the temporal punishment is not satisfied during life, it needs to be satisfied in a Catholic belief of a place in-between Heaven and Hell, called Purgatory. By an indulgence, this temporal punishment could be lessened. Under abuses of the system of indulgences, clergy benefited by selling indulgences and the pope gave official sanction in exchange for a fee. Popes are empowered to grant plenary indulgences, which provide complete satisfaction for any remaining temporal punishment due to sins, these were purchased on behalf of people believed to be in purgatory; this led to the popular saying, "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs". Theologians at the University of Paris had criticized this saying late in the 15th century. Earlier critics of indulgences included John Wycliffe, who denied that the pope had jurisdiction over Purgatory. Jan Hus and his followers had advocated a more severe system of penance, in which indulgences were not available.

Johannes von Wesel had attacked indulgences late in the 15th century. Political rulers had an interest in controlling indulgences because local economies suffered when the money for indulgences left a given territory. Rulers sought to receive a portion of the proceeds or prohibited indulgences altogether, as Duke George did in Luther's Electoral Saxony. In 1515, Pope Leo X granted a plenary indulgence intended to finance the construction of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, it would apply to any sin, including adultery and theft. All other indulgence preaching was to cease for the eight years. Indulgence preachers were given strict instructions on how the indulgence was to be preached, they were much more laudatory of the indulgence than those of earlier indulgences. Johann Tetzel was commissioned to preach and offer the indulgence in 1517, his campaign in cities near Wittenberg drew many Wittenbergers to travel to these cities and purchase them, since sales had been prohibited in Wittenberg and other Saxon cities.

Luther had experience with the indulgences connected to All Saints' Church, Wittenberg. By venerating the large collection of relics at the church, one could receive an indulgence, he had preached as early as 1514 against the abuse of indulgences and the way they cheapened grace rather than requiring true repentance. Luther became concerned in 1517 when his parishioners, returning from purchasing Tetzel's indulgences, claimed that they no longer needed to repent and change their lives in order to be forgiven of sin. After hearing what Tetzel had said about indulgences in his sermons, Luther began

Samburu people

The Samburu are a Nilotic people of north-central Kenya. The Samburu are semi-nomadic pastoralists who herd cattle but keep sheep and camels; the name they use for themselves is Lokop or Loikop, a term which may have a variety of meanings which Samburu themselves do not agree on. Many assert that it refers to them as "owners of the land" though others present a different interpretation of the term; the Samburu speak the Samburu dialect of the Maa language, a Nilo-Saharan language. There are many game parks in the area, one of the most well known is Samburu National Reserve; the Samburu is the third largest in the Maa community of Kenya and Tanzania,after the Kisonkoof Tanzania and Purko of Kenya and Tanzania. The Samburu are a gerontocracy; the power of elders is linked to the belief in their curse, underpinning their monopoly over arranging marriages and taking on further wives. This is at the expense of unmarried younger men, whose development up to the age of thirty is in a state of social suspension, prolonging their adolescent status.

The paradox of Samburu gerontocracy is that popular attention focuses on the glamour and deviant activities of these footloose bachelors, which extend to a form of gang feuding between clans, widespread suspicions of covert adultery with the wives of older men, theft of their stock. Men wear a cloth, pink or black and is wrapped around their waist in a manner similar to a Scottish Kilt, they adorn themselves with necklaces and anklets, like other sub tribes of the Maasai community. Members of the moran age grade wear their hair in long braids, which they shave off when they become elders, it may be colored using red ochre. Their bodies are sometimes decorated with ochre, as well. Women wear two pieces of blue or purple cloth, one piece wrapped around the waist, the second wrapped over the chest. Women keep their hair wear numerous necklaces and bracelets. In the past decade, traditional clothing styles have changed; some men may wear the 1980s-90s style of red tartan cloth or they may wear a dark green/blue plaid cloth around their waists called'kikoi' with shorts underneath.

Marani wear a cloth that may be pastel. Some women still wear two pieces of blue or red cloth, but it has become fashionable to wear cloths with animal or floral patterns in deep colors. Women may often wear small tank tops with their cloths, plaid skirts have become common. Traditionally Samburu relied solely on their herds, although trade with their neighbors and use of wild foods were important. Before the colonial period, cow and sheep milk was the daily staple. Oral and documentary evidence suggests that small stock were significant to the diet and economy at least from the eighteenth century forward. In the twenty-first century and small stock continue to be essential to the Samburu economy and social system. Milk is still a valued part of Samburu contemporary diet when available, may be drunk either fresh, or fermented. Meat from cattle is eaten on ceremonial occasions, or when a cow happens to die. Meat from small stock is eaten more though still not on a regular basis. Today Samburu rely on purchased agricultural products—with money acquired from livestock sales—and most maize meal is made into a porridge.

Tea is very common, taken with large quantities of sugar and much milk, is a staple of contemporary Samburu diet. Blood is both taken from living animals, collected from slaughtered ones. There are at least 13 ways that blood can be prepared, may form a whole meal; some Samburu these days have turned with varying results. The Samburu practice male and female genital mutilation. Boys get circumcised in girls before marriage. Unmutilated girls are forced to have sex if they are part of "Beading" but are not allowed to have children. Woto is a location. Woto means north in Samburu; the exact location is unknown. It has been identified as being north of Lake Turkana and has been postulated to be somewhere in southern Ethiopia; the Nandi have a tradition that the first man who practiced circumcision in Nandi is said to have been one Kipkenyo who came from a country called Do. The story goes that Kipkenyo had a number of brothers and sisters who all died when they reached puberty, so Kipkenyo decided when he had a number of children of his own to'change' them all at this age.

He therefore circumcised them, as none of his children died, the Nandi followed his example, with the result that circumcision became general. This corresponds with linguistic studies which indicate significant cultural transfer between Southern Nilotes and Eastern Cushites during a time of intensive interaction prior to the Southern Nilotic settlement in western Kenya; the Samburu believe. But God inflicts punishment if an elder curses a junior for some show of disrespect; the elder’s anger is seen as an appeal to God, it is God who decides if the curse is justified. Faced with misfortune and following some show of disrespect towards an older man, the victim should approach his senior and offer reparation in return for his blessing; this restores God's protection. It is however uncommon for an elder to curse a junior. Curses are reserved for cases of extreme

Phalloplasty

Phalloplasty is the construction or reconstruction of a penis, or the artificial modification of the penis by surgery. The term phalloplasty is occasionally used to refer to penis enlargement; the first phalloplasty done for the purposes of sexual reassignment was performed on Michael Dillon, a trans man, in 1946 by Dr. Harold Gillies, documented in Pagan Kennedy's book The First Man-Made Man; the Russian surgeon Nikolaj Bogoraz performed the first reconstruction of a total penis using rib cartilage in a reconstructed phallus made from a tubed abdominal flap in 1936. The first female to male gender reassignment procedure was performed in 1946 by Sir Harold Gillies on fellow physician Michael Dillon, his technique remained the standard one for decades. Improvements in microsurgery made more techniques available. A complete construction or reconstruction of a penis can be performed on patients who: Have congenital anomalies such as micropenis and hypospadias Have lost their penis Are trans men who desire sex reassignment surgery as part of their gender transition.

There are different techniques for phalloplasty. Construction of a new penis involves taking a tissue flap from a donor site. Extending the urethra through the length of the neophallus is another goal of phalloplasty. Surgery for cisgender males is simpler than for female-to-male transgender patients, because the urethra requires less lengthening; the urethra of a trans man has to be lengthened considerably. The lengthening of the urethra is. With all types of phalloplasty in trans men, scrotoplasty can be performed using the labia majora to form a scrotum where prosthetic testicles can be inserted. If vaginectomy, hysterectomy and/or oophorectomy have not been performed, they can be done at the same time. Unlike metoidioplasty, phalloplasty requires an implanted erectile prosthesis to achieve an erection; this is done in a separate surgery to allow time for healing. There are several types of erectile prostheses, including malleable rod-like medical devices that allow the neo-penis to either stand up or hang down.

Penile implants require a neophallus of appropriate volume in order to be a safe option. The long term success rates of implants in constructed penises are lower than the success rates of reconstruction in people born with penises. Good sensation in the reconstructed penis can help reduce the risk of the implant eroding through the skin. Earlier techniques used a bone graft as part of reconstruction. Long-term follow-up studies from Germany and Turkey of more than 10 years proved that these reconstructions maintain their stiffness without complications; the reconstructed penis cannot become flaccid again without breaking the internal bone graft. Temporary lengthening can be gained by a procedure that releases the suspensory ligament where it is attached to the pubic bone, thereby allowing the penis to be advanced toward the outside of the body; the procedure is performed through a discreet horizontal incision located in the pubic region where the pubic hair will help conceal the incision site.

However, scar formation can cause the penis to retract. Therefore, the American Urological Association "considers the division of the suspensory ligament of the penis for increasing penile length in adults to be a procedure which has not been shown to be safe or efficacious."As of November 2009, there is research in progress to synthesize corpora cavernosa in the lab on rabbits for eventual use in patients requiring penile construction surgery. Of the rabbits used in the preliminary studies, 8 of 12 had biological responses to sexual stimuli, similar to the control, four caused impregnation. An operation using the forearm as a donor site is the easiest to perform but results in a cosmetically undesirable scar on the exposed area of the arm. Arm function may be hampered. Electrolysis and/or laser hair reduction is required for a hairless neophallus. Sometimes a full-scale metoidioplasty is done a few months before the actual phalloplasty to reduce the possibility of complications after phalloplasty.

Sensation is retained through the clitoral tissue at the base of the neophallus, surgeons will attempt to connect nerves together from the clitoris or nearby. Nerves from the flap and the tissue it has been attached to may connect; this does not guarantee the ability to achieve genital orgasm after healing, as the most important task of nerve reconnection is to ensure the penis is able to sense injury, but it is rare to lose the ability to orgasm. The following explanation of this technique has many similarities to other approaches, but the construction of the glans differs; the surgery starts with the forearm marked for graft size. After the graft is taken, another graft will be used to cover the arm; the graft is dissected to expose the antebrachial cutaneous nerves. If the urethra is being constructed at the same time as the phallus, it is joined at this step. If not, the glans is shaped. Sometimes glansplasty is done in a separate surgical stage after urethral extension. A segment of vein going to the patient's groin is "borrowed" to allow easier joining of the graft with the preexisting tissues.

The vein is attached to the femoral artery. The blood supplies from the graft and the vein leading to the femoral artery are joined; the clitoral hood and ligament is cut away, the nerve bundle is isolated for the time being. While this assumes the clitoral tissue is