Niobium known as columbium, is a chemical element with the symbol Nb and atomic number 41. Niobium is a light grey and ductile transition metal. Pure niobium has a hardness similar to that of pure titanium, it has similar ductility to iron. Niobium oxidizes in the earth's atmosphere slowly, hence its application in jewelry as a hypoallergenic alternative to nickel. Niobium is found in the minerals pyrochlore and columbite, hence the former name "columbium", its name comes from Greek mythology Niobe, the daughter of Tantalus, the namesake of tantalum. The name reflects the great similarity between the two elements in their physical and chemical properties, making them difficult to distinguish; the English chemist Charles Hatchett reported a new element similar to tantalum in 1801 and named it columbium. In 1809, the English chemist William Hyde Wollaston wrongly concluded that tantalum and columbium were identical; the German chemist Heinrich Rose determined in 1846 that tantalum ores contain a second element, which he named niobium.
In 1864 and 1865, a series of scientific findings clarified that niobium and columbium were the same element, for a century both names were used interchangeably. Niobium was adopted as the name of the element in 1949, but the name columbium remains in current use in metallurgy in the United States, it was not until the early 20th century. Brazil is the leading producer of an alloy of 60 -- 70 % niobium with iron. Niobium is used in alloys, the largest part in special steel such as that used in gas pipelines. Although these alloys contain a maximum of 0.1%, the small percentage of niobium enhances the strength of the steel. The temperature stability of niobium-containing superalloys is important for its use in jet and rocket engines. Niobium is used in various superconducting materials; these superconducting alloys containing titanium and tin, are used in the superconducting magnets of MRI scanners. Other applications of niobium include welding, nuclear industries, optics and jewelry. In the last two applications, the low toxicity and iridescence produced by anodization are desired properties.
Niobium is considered a technology-critical element. Niobium was identified by English chemist Charles Hatchett in 1801, he found a new element in a mineral sample, sent to England from Connecticut, United States in 1734 by John Winthrop F. R. S. and named the mineral columbite and the new element columbium after Columbia, the poetical name for the United States. The columbium discovered by Hatchett was a mixture of the new element with tantalum. Subsequently, there was considerable confusion over the difference between columbium and the related tantalum. In 1809, English chemist William Hyde Wollaston compared the oxides derived from both columbium—columbite, with a density 5.918 g/cm3, tantalum—tantalite, with a density over 8 g/cm3, concluded that the two oxides, despite the significant difference in density, were identical. This conclusion was disputed in 1846 by German chemist Heinrich Rose, who argued that there were two different elements in the tantalite sample, named them after children of Tantalus: niobium and pelopium.
This confusion arose from the minimal observed differences between niobium. The claimed new elements pelopium and dianium were in fact identical to niobium or mixtures of niobium and tantalum; the differences between tantalum and niobium were unequivocally demonstrated in 1864 by Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand and Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville, as well as Louis J. Troost, who determined the formulas of some of the compounds in 1865 and by Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac in 1866, who all proved that there were only two elements. Articles on ilmenium continued to appear until 1871. De Marignac was the first to prepare the metal in 1864, when he reduced niobium chloride by heating it in an atmosphere of hydrogen. Although de Marignac was able to produce tantalum-free niobium on a larger scale by 1866, it was not until the early 20th century that niobium was used in incandescent lamp filaments, the first commercial application; this use became obsolete through the replacement of niobium with tungsten, which has a higher melting point.
That niobium improves the strength of steel was first discovered in the 1920s, this application remains its predominant use. In 1961, the American physicist Eugene Kunzler and coworkers at Bell Labs discovered that niobium-tin continues to exhibit superconductivity in the presence of strong electric currents and magnetic fields, making it the first material to support the high currents and fields necessary for useful high-power magnets and electrical power machinery; this discovery enabled – two decades – the production of long multi-strand cables wound into coils to create large, powerful electromagnets for rotating machinery, particle accelerators, particle detectors. Columbium was the name bestowed by Hatchett upon his discovery of the metal in 1801; the name reflected. This name remained in use in American journals—the last paper published by American Chemical Society with columbium in its title dates from 1953—while niobium was used in Europe. To end this confusion, the name niobium was chosen for element 41 at the 15th Conference of the Union of Chemistry in Amsterdam in 1949.
A year this name was adopted by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (
For other star systems with this Bayer designation, see ψ Lupi. Psi2 Lupi is a triple star system in the constellation Lupus, it is visible to the naked eye with an apparent magnitude of 4.75. Based upon an annual parallax shift of 8.97 mas as seen from Earth, it is located around 360 light years from the Sun. At that distance, the visual magnitude is diminished by an extinction factor of 0.016±0.009 due to interstellar dust. This system is a member of the Upper Centaurus-Lupus subgroup of the Scorpius–Centaurus Association; the inner pair of stars in this system form a double-lined spectroscopic binary with an orbital period of 12.26 days and an eccentricity of 0.19. The two components are described as similar in appearance, they have the spectrum of a B-type main sequence star with a stellar classification of B5 V. The luminosity has a micro-variability with a frequency of 0.94483 cycles per day and an amplitude of 0.0067 in magnitude. The third component is a magnitude 10 star at an angular separation of 0.51 arc seconds
Deborah Glass, is the current Victorian Ombudsman. A lawyer by profession, she spent her formative years in Melbourne, before taking her career overseas to Switzerland, Hong Kong, the United Kingdom. Glass was raised in Melbourne, she attended Mount Scopus Memorial College and Monash University, where she obtained her BA in 1980 and LLB in 1982. Glass practiced law in Melbourne, before relocating to Switzerland in 1985 to work for Citicorp, a US Investment Bank. In 1989 she was appointed to the Hong Kong Securities and Futures Commission, where she became Senior Director and was instrumental in raising standards in the investment management industry, she moved to London in 1988 where she became Chief Executive of the Investment Management Regulatory Organisation, which under her stewardship was subsumed into the London-based Financial Services Authority. She worked as an Independent custody visitor between 1999 and 2005. In 2001, Glass was appointed to the Police Complaints Authority, in 2004 became a Commissioner with the IPCC.
She was the Commissioner responsible, among other things, for London, for many high-profile criminal and misconduct investigations and decisions involving the police. These included decisions in relation to the police response to the News International phone hacking scandal phone-hacking affair, the death of Ian Tomlinson during the London G20 protests in 2009, the decision to launch an independent investigation into the aftermath of the Hillsborough disaster, the Plebgate affair. In 2012 Glass was awarded an Order of the British Empire for her service, she left the IPCC in March 2014, having completed a 10-year term with the organisation, which published her personal critique of the police complaints system in England and Wales. Glass returned to Australia in 2014 and was appointed by the state government as Victorian Ombudsman for a 10-year fixed term. Glass was awarded Monash University Faculty of Law's Distinguished Alumni Award in 2016; some of Glass's key investigations as Victorian Ombudsman have been: Investigation into Department of Health oversight of Mentone Gardens, a Supported Residential Service Investigation into the rehabilitation and reintegration of prisoners in Victoria Investigation into public transport fare evasion enforcement Investigation into the management of complex workers compensation claims and WorkSafe oversight Investigation into the transparency of local government decision making Investigation into the management of maintenance claims against public housing tenants Implementing OPCAT in Victoria: report and inspection of the Dame Phyllis Frost Centre Investigation into the financial support provided to kinship carers Investigation of a matter referred from the Legislative Council on 25 November 2015 Investigation into child sex offender Robert Whitehead’s involvement with Puffing Billy and other railway bodies Official Victorian Ombudsman Website About the Victorian Ombudsman Power To The People - The Age Australian Women Lawyers as Active Citizens - Deborah Glass Monash Alumni Stories - Deborah Glass